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  • 1.
    Audusseau, Helene
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Implications of a temperature increase for host plant range: predictions for a butterfly2013Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, nr 9, s. 3021-3029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between temperature, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a temperature increase as such. However, larval performance on each host plant and temperature treatment was affected by rearing season. Even though larvae performed better at the higher temperature regardless of the time of the rearing, relative differences between host plants changed with the season. For larvae reared late in the season, performance was always better on the herbaceous plant than on the woody plants. In this species, it is likely that a prolonged warming will lead to a shift from univoltinism to bivoltinism. The demonstrated interaction between host plant suitability and season means that such a shift is likely to lead to a shift in selective regime, favoring specialization on the herbaceous host. Based on our result, we suggest that host range evolution in response to temperature increase would in this species be highly contingent on whether the population undergoes a predicted shift from one to two generations. We discuss the effect of global warming on species associations and the outcome of asynchrony in rates of phenological change.

  • 2.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Effect of climate and land use on niche utilization and distribution of nettle-feeding  butterflies2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mänsklig påverkan på klimat och markanvändning har orsakat en dramatisk förlust av biologisk mångfald. Effekten av dessa förändringar på lokal och regional nivå är dock komplex, och kräver integrativa strategier för att kunna förstå och förutsäga förändringar, på individ-, art- och samhällsnivå. Experimentella studier har utforskat arters plastiska och evolutionära respons till främst abiotiska förändringar, och observationsdata har använts för att modellera skiften i fenologi och utbredning som en konsekvens av klimatförändringar. Trots detta är det fortfarande mycket kvar att förstå för att kunna förutsäga hur miljöförändringar ska påverka arters respons på olika rumsliga och tidsliga skalor. Denna avhandling undersöker i vilken utsträckning arters specifika livshistoria och artinteraktioner kan förklara deras ekologiska och evolutionära respons på miljöförändringar.

    För att angripa detta har jag fokuserat på ett samhälle av fjärilar i Sverige (Vanessa cardui, Polygonia c-album, Aglais urticae, Aglais io, Araschnia levana) som alla lever på brännässla (Urtica dioica). Den tillgängliga kunskapen om dessa arters biologi samt deras korta livscykler gör det möjligt att undersöka deras svar på förändringar över korta tidsskalor, vilket gör dem till ett lämpligt studiesystem. Huvudslutsatsen från denna avhandling är att för att beskriva hur en art svarar på en förändring måste man ta hänsyn till variation i livshistorieegenskaper och artinteraktioner. Till exempel har den ökade användningen av kemiska gödningsmedel förändrat näringstillgången även i naturliga ekosystem, vilket gynnar växtarter som är kapabla att växa under höga näringsnivåer, som brännässla. Variation i växternas näringsinnehåll kommer i sin tur att påverka herbivorerna som äter av dem, och artikel II visar att skillnader mellan fjärilsarter i hur de svarar på variation i näringstillgång till stor del beror på specialiseringsgrad och voltinism (antal generationer per år). Livshistorieegenskaper avgör således hur arter kommer att svara på förändringar i klimat och markanvändning, men sådana miljöförändringar påverkar i sin tur också evolution av livshistorieegenskaperna (artikel I & III). Slutligen, förändringar i utbredning som ett resultat av klimatförändring kommer även att påverka den lokala sammansättningen av interagerande arter (resurser, predatorer, konkurrenter). Ett exempel på detta är hur den relativt nyliga koloniseringen av södra Sverige av A. levana har förändrat nischerna hos de inhemska arterna A. urticae och A. io (artikel IV).

  • 3.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Paris-Est Créteil University, France.
    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Why stay in a bad relationship? The effect of local host phenology on a generalist butterfly feeding on a low-ranked host2016Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 16, artikel-id 144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In plant-feeding insects, the evolutionary retention of polyphagy remains puzzling. A better understanding of the relationship between these organisms and changes in the metabolome of their host plants is likely to suggest functional links between them, and may provide insights into how polyphagy is maintained. Results: We investigated the phenological change of Cynoglossum officinale, and how a generalist butterfly species, Vanessa cardui, responded to this change. We used untargeted metabolite profiling to map plant seasonal changes in both primary and secondary metabolites. We compared these data to differences in larval performance on vegetative plants early and late in the season. We also performed two oviposition preference experiments to test females' ability to choose between plant developmental stages (vegetative and reproductive) early and late in the season. We found clear seasonal changes in plant primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with larval performance. The seasonal change in plant metabolome reflected changes in both nutrition and toxicity and resulted in zero survival in the late period. However, large differences among families in larval ability to feed on C. officinale suggest that there is genetic variation for performance on this host. Moreover, females accepted all plants for oviposition, and were not able to discriminate between plant developmental stages, in spite of the observed overall differences in metabolite profile potentially associated with differences in suitability as larval food. Conclusions: In V. cardui, migratory behavior, and thus larval feeding times, are not synchronized with plant phenology at the reproductive site. This lack of synchronization, coupled with the observed lack of discriminatory oviposition, obviously has potential fitness costs. However, this opportunistic behavior may as well function as a source of potential host plant evolution, promoting for example the acceptance of new plants.

  • 4.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Kolb, Gundula
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Plant Fertilization Interacts with Life History: Variation in Stoichiometry and Performance in Nettle-Feeding Butterflies2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0124616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io) to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in Aglais urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year). We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  • 5.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Paris-Est Créteil University, France.
    Le Vaillant, Maryline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Bengt
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Schmucki, Reto
    Species range expansion constrains the ecological niches of resident butterflies2017Ingår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 28-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Changes in community composition resulting from environmental changes modify biotic interactions and affect the distribution and density of local populations. Such changes are currently occurring in nettle-feeding butterflies in Sweden where Araschnia levana has recently expanded its range northward and is now likely to interact with resident species (Aglais urticae and Aglais io). Butterfly occurrence data collected over years and across regions enabled us to investigate how a recent range expansion of A. levana may have affected the environmental niche of resident species.

    Location: We focused on two regions of Sweden (Skane and Norrstrom) where A. levana has and has not established and two time periods (2001-2006 and 2009-2012) during its establishment in Skane.

    Methods: We performed two distinct analyses in each region using the PCA-env and the framework described in Broennimann etal. (2012). First, we described the main sources of variation in the environment. Second, in each time period and region, we characterized the realized niches of our focal species across topographic and land use gradients. Third, we quantified overlaps and differences in realized niches between and within species over time.

    Results: In Skane, A. levana has stabilized its distribution over time, while the distribution of the native species has shifted. These shifts depicted a consistent pattern of avoiding overlap between the native species and the environmental space occupied by A. levana, and it was stronger for A. urticae than for A. io. In both regions, we also found evidence of niche partitioning between native species.

    Main conclusions: Interspecific interactions are likely to affect local species distributions. It appears that the ongoing establishment of A. levana has modified local biotic interactions and induced shifts in resident species distributions. Among the mechanisms that can explain such patterns of niche partitioning, parasitoid-driven apparent competition may play an important role in this community.

  • 6.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Univ. Paris Est Creteil, Sorbonne Université, France; UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, UK.
    Vandenbulcke, Franck
    Dume, Cassandre
    Deschins, Valentin
    Pauwels, Maxime
    Gigon, Agnès
    Bagard, Matthieu
    Dupont, Lise
    Impacts of metallic trace elements on an earthworm community in an urban wasteland: Emphasis on the bioaccumulation and genetic characteristics in Lumbricus castaneus2020Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 718, artikel-id 137259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic trace elements (MTEs) soil pollution has become a worldwide concern, particularly regarding its impact on earthworms. Earthworms, which constitute the dominant taxon of soil macrofauna in temperate regions and are crucial ecosystem engineers, are in direct contact with MTEs. The impacts of MTE exposure on earthworms, however, vary by species, with some able to cope with high levels of contamination. We combined different approaches to study the effects of MTEs at different levels of biological organisation of an earthworm community, in a contaminated urban wasteland. Our work is based on field collection of soil and earthworm samples, with a total of 891 adult earthworms from 8 species collected, over 87 quadrats across the study plot. We found that MTE concentrations are highly structured at the plot scale and that some elements, such as Pb, Zn, and Cu, are highly correlated. Comparing species assemblage to MTE concentrations, we found that the juvenile and adult abundances, and community composition, were significantly affected by pollution. Along the pollution gradient, as species richness decreased, Lumbricus castaneus became more dominant. We thus investigated the physiological response of this species to a set of specific elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) and studied the impacts of MTE concentrations at the plot scale on its population genetic. These analyses revealed that L. castaneus is able to bioaccumulate high quantities of Cd and Zn, but not of Cu and Pb. The population genetic analysis, based on the genotyping of 175 individuals using 8 microsatellite markers, provided no evidence of the role of the heterogeneity in MTE concentrations as a barrier to gene flow. The multidisciplinary approach we used enabled us to reveal the comparatively high tolerance of L. castaneus to MTE concentrations, suggesting that this is a promising model to study the molecular bases of MTE tolerance.

  • 7.
    Nylin, Sören
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Söderlind, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Sperling, Felix A. H.
    Vestiges of an ancestral host plant: preference and performance in the butterfly Polygonia faunus and its sister species P. c-album2015Ingår i: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 307-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In the study of the evolution of insect-host plant interactions, important information is provided by host ranking correspondences among female preference, offspring preference, and offspring performance. Here, we contrast such patterns in two polyphagous sister species in the butterfly family Nymphalidae, the Nearctic Polygonia faunus, and the Palearctic P. c-album. 2. These two species have similar host ranges, but according to the literature P. faunus does not use the ancestral host plant clade-the urticalean rosids'. Comparisons of the species can thus test the effects of a change in insect-plant associations over a long time scale. Cage experiments confirmed that P. faunus females avoid laying eggs on Urtica dioica (the preferred host of P. c-album), instead preferring Salix, Betula, and Ribes.3. However, newly hatched larvae of both species readily accept and grow well on U. dioica, supporting the general theory that evolutionary changes in host range are initiated through shifts in female host preferences, whereas larvae are more conservative and also can retain the capacity to perform well on ancestral hosts over long time spans.4. Similar rankings of host plants among female preference, offspring preference, and offspring performance were observed in P. c-album but not in P. faunus. This is probably a result of vestiges of larval adaptations to the lost ancestral host taxon in the latter species. 5. Female and larval preferences seem to be largely free to evolve independently, and consequently larval preferences warrant more attention.

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