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  • 1.
    Almas, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Willingness to Compete: Family Matters2016In: Management science, ISSN 0025-1909, E-ISSN 1526-5501, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 2149-2162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of family background in explaining differences in the willingness to compete in a cognitive task. By combining data from a lab experiment conducted with a fairly representative sample of adolescents in Norway and high-quality register data on family background, we show that family background is fundamental in two important ways. First, boys from low socioeconomic status families are less willing to compete than boys from better-off families, even when controlling for confidence, performance, risk preferences, time preferences, social preferences, and psychological traits. Second, family background is crucial for understanding the large gender difference in the willingness to compete. Girls are much less willing to compete than boys among children from better-off families, whereas we do not find any gender difference in willingness to compete among children from low socioeconomic status families. Our data suggest that the main explanation of the role of family background is that the father's socioeconomic status is strongly associated with boys' willingness to compete. We do not find any association between the willingness to compete for boys or girls and the mother's socioeconomic status or other family characteristic that may potentially shape competition preferences, including parental equality and sibling rivalry.

  • 2.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Attanasio, Orazio
    Jalan, Jyotsna
    Oteiza, Francisco
    Vigneri, Marcella
    Using data differently and using different data2018In: Journal of Development Effectiveness, ISSN 1943-9342, E-ISSN 1943-9407, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 462-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of adequate measures is often an impediment to robust policy evaluation. We discuss three approaches to measurement and data usage that have the potential to improve the way we conduct impact evaluations. First, the creation of new measures, when no adequate ones are available. Second, the use of multiple measures when a single one is not appropriate. And third, the use of machine learning algorithms to evaluate and understand programme impacts. We motivate the relevance of each of the categories by providing examples where they have proved useful in the past. We discuss the challenges and risks involved in each strategy and conclude with an outline of promising directions for future work.

  • 3.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Auglaend Johnsen, Ashild
    The cost of a growth miracle - reassessing price and poverty trends in China2018In: Review of economic dynamics (Print), ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 30, p. 239-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China's economic development in recent decades has been tremendous, but also subject to debate. This paper uses Engel curves to identify price levels and real incomes that are comparable across both time and space. Based on these, new poverty trends are presented. We find that the urban and coastal areas that have experienced the fastest economic development have also seen smaller price increases than the poorer rural and inland areas. Our measures reveal that China has experienced substantial poverty reduction in a time with high economic growth, but compared to both the World Bank measures and those based on official CPI adjustments, our measures suggest a more moderate poverty reduction. Our findings imply that poverty was reduced by 40 and not 66 percent using the $1 dollar a day measure.

  • 4.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics.
    Cappelen, Alexander
    Haaland, Inger
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Rettferdig ulikhet2015In: Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, ISSN 1500-0788, E-ISSN 1500-6069, Vol. 6, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sorensen, Erik O.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    What Explains the Gender Gap in College Track Dropout? Experimental and Administrative Evidence2016In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 106, no 5, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Fairness and family background2017In: Politics, Philosophy and Economics, ISSN 1470-594X, E-ISSN 1741-3060, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect to how much weight they attach to fairness considerations. In this article, we study the role of family background in explaining these heterogeneities in fairness preferences. In particular, we examine how socioeconomic background relates to fairness views and to how people make trade-offs between fairness and self-interest. To study this, we conducted an economic experiment with a representative sample of 14- to 15-year-old and matched the experimental data to administrative data on parental income and education. The participants made two distributive choices in the experiment. The first choice was to distribute money between themselves and another participant in a situation where there was no difference in merit. The second choice was to distribute money between two other participants with unequal merits. Our main finding is that there is a systematic difference in fairness view between children from low-socioceconomic status (SES) families and the rest of the participants; more than 50 percent of the participants from low-SES families are egalitarians, whereas only about 20 percent in the rest of the sample hold this fairness view. In contrast, we find no significant difference in the weight attached to fairness between children from different socioeconomic groups.

  • 7.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. NHH, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Grewal, Mandeep
    Hvide, Marielle
    Ugurlu, Serhat
    The PPP approach revisited: A study of RMB valuation against the USD2017In: Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, E-ISSN 1873-0639, Vol. 77, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the alleged undervaluation of the Chinese renminbi against the US dollar through an application of the relative PPP hypothesis, the PPP approach. The PPP approach measures the relative misalignment of a currency by estimating the relationship between log price levels and log per capita real incomes from a cross section of countries. We estimate this relationship by using ICP 2011 and incorporating model selection tests. Our results confirm that price level-real income relationship is best approximated by a quadratic functional form. We show that, using this functional form, the PPP approach does not reveal any evidence of renminbi undervaluation as of 2011, and this result is robust to various sensitivity tests.

  • 8.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Rags and Riches: Relative Prices, Non-Homothetic Preferences, and Inequality in India2017In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 97, p. 102-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that consumption patterns change with income. Relative price changes would therefore affect rich and poor consumers differently. Yet, the standard price indices are not income-specific, and hence, they cannot account for such differences. In this paper, we study consumption inequality in India, while fully allowing for non-homotheticity. We show that the relative price changes during most of the period from 1993 to 2012 were pro-poor, in the sense that they favored the poor relative to the rich. As a result, we also find that conventional measures significantly overstate the rise in real consumption inequality during this period. The main lesson from our study is the importance of accounting for non-homotheticity when measuring inequality. The price index literature has, as of yet, paid relatively little attention to this. In our application, however, it turns out that the allowance for nonhomotheticity is quantitatively much more important than much discussed adjustments, such as those for substitution in consumption.

  • 9.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Kjelsrud, Anders
    Somanathan, Rohini
    A Behavior-Based Approach to the Estimation of Poverty in India2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 182-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of poverty in India are crucial inputs for the understanding of world poverty, yet there is much disagreement about the numbers and the legitimacy of methods used to derive them. In this paper, we propose and justify an alternative approach to identify the poor, which uses the proportion of income spent on food. Our estimates have weaker data requirements than official methods, and they compare favorably with several validation tests. Most notably, households around our state poverty lines obtain their calories from similar sources, whereas this is not true of official poverty lines. We also find that rates of self-reported hunger are higher in states that we classify as poor.

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