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  • 1. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Söderström, B.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet [Bus drivers' working hours and the relationship to fatigue]2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Esmaeilikia, Mahsa
    et al.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Grzebieta, Raphael
    Olivier, Jake
    Bicycle helmets and risky behaviour: A systematic review2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 299-310Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing argument against bicycle helmet use is the risk compensation hypothesis, i.e., increased feelings of safety caused by wearing a helmet results in cyclists exhibiting more risky behaviour. However, past studies have found helmet wearing is not associated with risky behaviour, e.g., committing a traffic violation was positively associated with a lower frequency of helmet use. There is a lack of consensus in the research literature regarding bicycle helmet use and the risk compensation hypothesis, although this gap in knowledge was identified in the early 2000s. This is the first study to carry out a systematic review of the literature to assess whether helmet wearing is associated with risky behaviour. Two study authors systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature using five research databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX, SCOPUS, and WEB OF SCIENCE) and identified 141 unique articles and four articles from other sources. Twenty-three articles met inclusion criteria and their findings were summarised. Eighteen studies found no supportive evidence helmet use was positively associated with risky behaviour, while three studies provided mixed findings, i.e., results for and against the hypothesis. For many of these studies, bicycle helmet wearing was associated with safer cycling behaviour. Only two studies conducted from the same research lab provided evidence to support the risk compensation hypothesis. In sum, this systematic review found little to no support for the hypothesis bicycle helmet use is associated with engaging in risky behaviour.

  • 3.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Anund, A.
    Bus drivers’ working hours and their effects on sleep and fatigue2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no S1, p. 286-287, article id P905Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lasselin, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magne, E
    Beau, C
    Ledaguenel, P
    Sandra, D
    Aubert, A
    Layé, S
    Capuron, L
    Visceral adipose inflammation in obesity: relationship with circulating inflammation and bariatric surgery outcomes2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Lajunen, Timo
    Public-private partnership in traffic safety research and injury prevention2015In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 364-365Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Radun, Jenni
    Helgesson, Gert
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Company employees as experimental participants in traffic safety research: Prevalence and implications2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors’ opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011–2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers’ general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal’s guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011–2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors’ affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants’ autonomy.

  • 7. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Driver fatigue and the law from the perspective of police officers and prosecutors2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though police officers and prosecutors play a key role in traffic law application, little is known about their experiences, attitudes, and opinions regarding the complex issue of driver fatigue and the law. This paper is based on an extensive online survey collected from traffic (N = 129) and local (N = 100) police officers and prosecutors (N = 96) in the context of Finnish traffic law, which forbids driving while fatigued in an article relating to a driver’s fitness to drive. While encountering fatigued drivers is very common for police officers, only a small proportion has received training about how to recognize and deal with fatigued drivers. Driving while extremely fatigued is considered rather or extremely negligent behavior by almost all respondents. Although agreement between these three groups exists regarding several issues, they disagree about whether the current law is specific enough, and whether experts might be valuable in court when discussing the possible contribution of fatigue to the cause of a crash. We discuss the application of the law and opinions about the current law formulation, experience and education, as well as general awareness and attitudes, taking into consideration the different nature of police and prosecutor work.

  • 8.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Rajalin, Sirpa
    Radun, Jenni E.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Lajunen, Timo
    Alcohol Ignition Interlocks in All New Vehicles: A Broader Perspective2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 335-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To discuss the implications of widespread implementation of alcohol ignition interlocks.

    Method: We base our discussion on data from Finland including crash statistics and surveys collected from criminal justice professionals and general driving population.

    Results: Alcohol ignition interlocks are an effective preventive measure against drunk driving when installed in the vehicles of convicted drunk drivers. However, once they are removed from the vehicles, drivers typically return to their habit of drinking and driving. Furthermore, for a number of reasons, the proportion of convicted drunk drivers that install an interlock in their vehicles is quite small. Therefore, many stakeholders believe that the solution to the drunk driving problem will come when interlocks become standard equipment in all new vehicles. However, drunk driving is a complex sociopsychological problem, and technology can rarely offer a solution to such complex problems. Consequently, many aspects of such interventions might be difficult to identify and include in cost-benefit analysis.

    Conclusion: We express caution about requiring an interlock as standard equipment in all new vehicles.

  • 9.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Olivier, Jake
    Bicycle helmet law does not deter cyclists in Finland2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 1087-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycle helmet legislation (BHL) in Finland went into effect in January 2003 and applies to cyclists of all ages. There are no mechanisms to fine cyclists riding without a helmet; however, helmet wearing rates are 64% in Helsinki and 42% across Finland. Our aim was to discuss possible effects of BHL on cycling in Finland. We used data from the 1998/1999, 2004/2005 and 2010/2011 Finnish National Travel Surveys. Data across three surveys suggest cycling has declined from before to after BHL. In a 2004/2005 survey, however, only 0.063% (95% CI: 0.02-0.10%) of responders identified helmet use as their most important obstacle to cycling. It is unlikely BHL is a causal factor in the downward trend in Finnish cycling. Lack of cycling infrastructure and concerns for safety are much more common reasons given.

  • 10.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Olivier, Jake
    Tervo, Timo
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Focus on professional drivers using in-depth crash data2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 575-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Road traffic suicides typically involve a passenger car driver crashing his or her vehicle into a heavy vehicle, because death is almost certain due to the large mass difference between these vehicles. For the same reason, heavy-vehicle drivers typically suffer minor injuries, if any, and have thus received little attention in the research literature. In this study, we focused on heavy-vehicle drivers who were involved as the second party in road suicides in Finland.

    Methods: We analyzed 138 road suicides (2011-2016) involving a passenger car crashing into a heavy vehicle. We used in-depth road crash investigation data from the Finnish Crash Data Institute.

    Results: The results showed that all but 2 crashes were head-on collisions. Almost 30% of truck drivers were injured, but only a few suffered serious injuries. More than a quarter reported sick leave following their crash. Injury insurance compensation to heavy-vehicle drivers was just above euro9,000 on average. Material damage to heavy vehicles was significant, with average insurance compensation paid being euro70,500. Three out of 4 truck drivers reported that drivers committing suicide acted abruptly and left them little opportunity for preventive action.

    Conclusions: Suicides by crashing into heavy vehicles can have an impact on drivers' well-being; however, it is difficult to see how heavy-vehicle drivers could avoid a suicide attempt involving their vehicle.

  • 11.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, J.
    Kaistinen, J.
    Olivier, J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Endangering yourself to save another: A real life ethical dilemma2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 64, p. 318-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike hypothetical trolley problem studies and an ongoing ethical dilemma with autonomous vehicles, road users can face similar ethical dilemmas in real life. Swerving a heavy vehicle towards the road-side in order to avoid a head-on crash with a much lighter passenger car is often the only option available which could save lives. However, running off-road increases the probability of a roll-over and endangers the life of the heavy vehicle driver. We have created an experimental survey study in which heavy vehicle drivers randomly received one of two possible scenarios. We found that respondents were more likely to report they would ditch their vehicle in order to save the hypothetical driver who fell asleep than to save the driver who deliberately diverted their car towards the participant's heavy vehicle. Additionally, the higher the empathy score, the higher the probability of ditching a vehicle. Implications for autonomous vehicle programming are discussed. 

  • 12.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Esmaeilikia, Mahsa
    Lajunen, Timo
    Risk compensation and bicycle helmets: A false conclusion and uncritical citations2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 548-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers and many anti-helmet advocates often state that when cyclists wear a helmet they feel safer and take more risks. This hypothesis-risk compensation - if true, would reduce, annul or even reverse the assumed benefits of helmets in reducing head injuries. Consequently, this hypothesis is often used to oppose mandatory helmet laws. In this article, we illustrate how one of the few studies that attempted to experimentally test the hypothesis in relation to bicycle helmets arrives at a false conclusion. As a result it is often cited as evidence of risk compensation. Given the lack of experimental studies in this research area, the impact of a single study in shaping the opinions of the general public and of policy makers can be significant.

  • 13.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Olivier, Jake
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Professional drivers' views2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 826-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Every profession has its own safety and health risks. In addition to the risk of being involved in a normal road crash, professional heavy vehicle drivers are at risk of becoming victims of people attempting suicide by crashing into their vehicles. Road suicides are not that rare, at least not in Finland, where they represent about 12% of all fatal road crashes. The purpose of this study was to survey professional heavy vehicle drivers about their experiences, views and opinions regarding road suicides.

    Methods: The sample included heavy vehicle drivers (N = 863) randomly recruited from a transport workers' union.

    Results: About 18% of the respondents reported a suspected suicide attempt of a motor vehicle driver crashing into their vehicle, with 15% of these (i.e.2.8% of the whole sample) also reporting a resulting crash. More than half of the respondents reported personally knowing another professional driver who had experienced a crash caused by a suicidal driver. Almost 80% of the drivers reported being afraid that someone would attempt suicide by crashing into their vehicle; however, thinking about such a possibility produces a level of anxiety in less than half of all respondents. Most respondents agreed about the challenges of avoiding a crash if somebody deliberately drives their car towards their vehicle.

    Conclusion: Heavy vehicle drivers perceive road suicides as an occupational risk in their profession. We discuss possible preventive measures against suicide attempts by crashing into a heavy vehicle.

  • 14.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while sleepy2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 32, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk factors and risk groups. Survey data were collected from a representative sample of active Finnish drivers (N = 1121). One-fifth of the drivers (19.5%) reported having fallen asleep at the wheel during their driving career, with 15.9% reporting having been close to falling asleep or having difficulty staying awake when driving during the previous twelve months. Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were found to be associated with both types of sleepiness-related driving instances, while sleep quality was associated only with the latter. Compared to women, men more often reported falling asleep at the wheel; the differences were somewhat smaller with respect to fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months. The reported discrepancy in sleepiness-related instances (high prevalence of fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months and lower proportion of actually falling asleep) identifies young men (⩜25 years) as one of the main target groups for safety campaigns. Approximately three-quarters of drivers who had fallen asleep while driving reported taking action against falling asleep before it actually happened. Furthermore, almost all drivers who had fallen asleep while driving offered at least one logical reason that could have contributed to their falling asleep. These data indicate some degree of awareness about driving while sleepy and of the potential pre-trip factors that could lead to sleepiness while driving, and supports the notion that falling asleep at the wheel does not come as a (complete) surprise to the driver.

  • 15.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Wahde, M
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Benderius, O
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Driving while fatigued in slippery road conditions - a neglected issue2014In: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September, 2014, Tallin, Estonia, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Watling, Hanna
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Olivier, Jake
    Women judging: Is a young male drunk driver perceived as more negligent than a young female drunk driver?2018In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 675-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It is well established that young men are the riskiest group of all drivers, and men in general more often drive under the influence of alcohol. However, potentially oversimplified representations such as a young male problem and drunk driving as a male problem can influence action and reinforce existing attitudes by selectively directing attention to stereotypically consistent behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of possible bias toward young male drivers in the context of drunk driving.Methods: We have created a scenario study investigating whether the sex of an imaginary young drunk driver would be associated with a different perceived negligence (ranging from 0=not negligent at all to 10=extremely negligent) among our participants. These participants were a representative sample of Finnish female driver's license holders. The data for the study were gathered as part of a larger survey study on women's drinking and driving culture.Results: Perceptions of how negligent a person was depended on the age of the respondents such that the older the respondent, the higher the perceived negligence. Perceived negligence was similar for male and female drivers in the scenario; however, there was an interaction effect between driver sex and the age of respondents. The youngest (20-29 years) and 2 oldest (50-69 years) groups of our respondents found the young woman to be more negligent, whereas the opposite occurred for the other 2 groups.Conclusions: The results of our imaginary scenario study of a representative sample of Finnish female driver's license holders do not support a hypothesis that there would be a negative bias toward young male drivers in the context of drunk driving behavior.

  • 17. Summala, Heikki
    et al.
    Rajalin, Sirpa
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Risky driving and recorded driving offences: A 24-year follow-up study2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 73, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permanent individual differences in driver behavior and accident risk have long been under active debate. Cognitive and personality factors have correlated with risky driving indicators in cross-sectional studies, and prospective cohort studies are now increasingly revealing early antecedents of risky behavior and injury mortality in adult age, with connections to stable personality traits. However, long-term stability in driver behavior or accident involvement has not been documented in a general driver population.This study reports 24-year follow-up data from a study that compared the recorded offenses between 134 drivers stopped by the police because of sustained risky driving and 121 control drivers stopped at the same locations at the same time in 1987 (Rajalin, 1994. Accid. Anal. Prev., 26, 555-562). Data were compiled from national driver records and accident statistics for the same drivers again 24 years later, and their yearly mileage and speed behavior was requested in a mail survey. The results showed that the two groups of drivers sampled on one trip a quarter of a century ago still differ from each other. The offenders still have more entries in their driver record, also when adjusted for age and mileage (OR=1.59, CI=1.03-2.46), they still report in the survey that they drive faster and overtake other cars more often. The results show that individual differences in driver behavior persist for decades, perhaps for life. However, in this on-road sample, the effect seems to be moderated by occupation which also presumably explains the lower mortality among the offenders during this 24-year follow-up.

  • 18.
    Watling, Christopher N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Armstrong, Kerry A.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Examining signs of driver sleepiness, usage of sleepiness countermeasures and the associations with sleepy driving behaviours and individual factors2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 85, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impairing effect from sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The ability of a sleepy driver to perceive their level of sleepiness is an important consideration for road safety as well as the type of sleepiness countermeasure used by drivers as some sleepiness countermeasures are more effective than others. The aims of the current study were to determine the extent that the signs of driver sleepiness were associated with sleepy driving behaviours, as well as determining which individual factors (demographic, work, driving, and sleep-related factors) were associated with using a roadside or in-vehicle sleepiness countermeasure. A sample of 1518 Australian drivers from the Australian State of New South Wales and the neighbouring Australian Capital Territory took part in the study. The participants' experiences with the signs of sleepiness were reasonably extensive. A number of the early signs of sleepiness (e.g., yawning, frequent eye blinks) were related with continuing to drive while sleepy, with the more advanced signs of sleepiness (e.g., difficulty keeping eyes open, dreamlike state of consciousness) associated with having a sleep-related close call. The individual factors associated with using a roadside sleepiness countermeasure included age (being older), education (tertiary level), difficulties getting to sleep, not continuing to drive while sleepy, and having experienced many signs of sleepiness. The results suggest that these participants have a reasonable awareness and experience with the signs of driver sleepiness. Factors related to previous experiences with sleepiness were associated with implementing a roadside countermeasure. Nonetheless, the high proportions of drivers performing sleepy driving behaviours suggest that concerted efforts are needed with road safety campaigns regarding the dangers of driving while sleepy.

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