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  • 1.
    Armitage,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Prevedouros, Kostas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Macleod, M.
    Russell, M.H.
    Buck, R.C.
    Global-Scale Fate and Transport of Perfluorocarboxylates and Perfluorocarboxylic Acids Emitted from Direct Sources using a Spatially-Resolved Multi-Species Model.2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Armitage,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Prevedouros, Kostas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Macleod, M.
    Russell, M.H.
    Buck, R.C.
    Modelling the fate and transport of PFCAs emitted from direct sources using a global-scale chemical fate model.2007In: SETAC North America 28th Annual Meeting, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.: 11-15 November, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Armitage, J
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, M.
    Modelling the long-term fate and transport of PFO(A) emitted from direct sources using a two-dimensional global-scale model2008In: Dioxin 2008: 17-22 August, Birmingham, UK, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Armitage, J
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, M.
    Modelling the long-term fate and transport of PFO(A) emitted from direct sources using a two-dimensional global-scale model2008In: Organohalogen Compd., Vol. 70, p. 1438-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Armitage, J
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, N.J.
    Gustafsson, Ö
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cornelissen, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Saloranta, T.
    Broman, D
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Næs, K.
    Black Carbon-Inclusive Modeling Approaches for Estimating the Aquatic Fate of Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans2008In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 42, p. 3697-3703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Armitage, J
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Franco, A.
    Gomez, S.
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Modeling the Potential Influence of Particle Deposition on the Accumulation of Organic Contaminants by Submerged Aquatic Vegetation2008In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 42, p. 4052-4059Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Armitage, James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Global-Scale Fate and Transport of Perfluorooctanoate Emitted from Direct Sources2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Armitage, James
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hauck, M.
    Harbers, J.V.
    Huijbregts, M.A.J.
    Empirical evaluation of spatial and non-spatial European-scale multimedia fate models: Results and implications for chemical risk assessment.2007In: J. Environ. Monit., Vol. 9, p. 572-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Macleod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Additions and corrections to “Modeling the global fate and transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from direct sources using a multispecies mass balance model”2009Other (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Macleod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Comparative Assessment of the Global Fate and Transport Pathways of Long-chain Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs) Emitted from Direct Sources2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 5830-5836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global-scale multispecies mass balance model was used to simulate the long-term fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight to thirteen carbons (C8−C13) and their conjugate bases, the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs). The main purpose of this study was to assess the relative long-range transport (LRT) potential of each conjugate pair, collectively termed PFC(A)s, considering emissions from direct sources (i.e., manufacturing and use) only. Overall LRT potential (atmospheric + oceanic) varied as a function of chain length and depended on assumptions regarding pKa and mode of entry. Atmospheric transport makes a relatively higher contribution to overall LRT potential for PFC(A)s with longer chain length, which reflects the increasing trend in the air−water partition coefficient (KAW) of the neutral PFCA species with chain length. Model scenarios using estimated direct emissions of the C8, C9, and C11 PFC(A)s indicate that the mass fluxes to the Arctic marine environment associated with oceanic transport are in excess of mass fluxes from indirect sources (i.e., atmospheric transport of precursor substances such as fluorotelomer alcohols and subsequent degradation to PFCAs). Modeled concentrations of C8 and C9 in the abiotic environment are broadly consistent with available monitoring data in surface ocean waters. Furthermore, the modeled concentration ratios of C8 to C9 are reconcilable with the homologue pattern frequently observed in biota, assuming a positive correlation between bioaccumulation potential and chain length. Modeled concentration ratios of C11 to C10 are more difficult to reconcile with monitoring data in both source and remote regions. Our model results for C11 and C10 therefore imply that either (i) indirect sources are dominant or (ii) estimates of direct emission are not accurate for these homologues.

  • 11.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Modeling the Global Fate and Transport of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) Emitted from Direct Sources Using a Multispecies Mass Balance Model2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1134-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global-scale fate and transport processes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from direct sources were simulated using a multispecies mass balance model over the period 1950 to 2010. The main goal of this study was to assess the atmospheric and oceanic long-range transport potential of direct source emissions and the implications for the contamination of terrestrial and marine systems worldwide. Consistent with previous modeling studies, ocean transport was found to be the dominant pathway for delivering PFO(A) associated with direct sources to the Arctic marine environment, regardless of model assumptions. The modeled concentrations for surface ocean waters were insensitive to assumptions regarding physical−chemical properties and emission mode of entry and were in reasonable agreement with available monitoring data from the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, model outputs characterizing atmospheric transport potential were highly sensitive to model assumptions, especially the assumed value of the acid dissociation constant (pKa). However, the complete range of model results for scenarios with different assumptions about partitioning and emissions provide evidence that the atmospheric transport of directly emitted PFO(A) can deliver this substance to terrestrial environments distant from sources. Additional studies in remote or isolated terrestrial systems may provide further insight into the scale of contamination actually attributable to direct sources.

  • 12.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 12, p. 3784-3792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  • 13.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Schenker, Urs
    Scheringer, Martin
    Martin, Jonathan W
    Macleod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Modeling the Global Fate and Transport of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Precursor Compounds in Relation to Temporal Trends in Wildlife Exposure.2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 24, p. 9274-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global-scale fate and transport model was applied to investigate the historic and future trends in ambient concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and volatile perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based precursor compounds in the environment. First, a global emission inventory for PFOS and its precursor compounds was estimated for the period 1957-2010. We used this inventory as input to a global-scale contaminant fate model and compared modeled concentrations with field data. The main focus of the simulations was to examine how modeled concentrations of PFOS and volatile precursor compounds respond to the major production phase-out that occurred in 2000-2002. Modeled concentrations of PFOS in surface ocean waters are generally within a factor of 5 of field data and are dominated by direct emissions of this substance. In contrast, modeled concentrations of the precursor compounds considered in this study are lower than measured concentrations both before and after the production phase-out. Modeled surface ocean water concentrations of PFOS in source regions decline slowly in response to the production phase-out while concentrations in remote regions continue to increase until 2030. In contrast, modeled concentrations of precursor compounds in both the atmosphere and surface ocean water compartment in all regions respond rapidly to the production phase-out (i.e., decline quickly to much lower levels). With respect to wildlife biomonitoring data, since precursor compounds are bioavailable and degrade to PFOS in vivo, it is at least plausible that declining trends in PFOS body burdens observed in some marine organisms are attributable to this exposure pathway. The continued increases in PFOS body burdens observed in marine organisms inhabiting other regions may reflect exposure primarily to PFOS itself, present in the environment due to production and use of this compound as well as degradation of precursor compounds.

  • 14. Hauck, M.
    et al.
    Huijbregts, M.A.J.
    Armitage, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ragas, A.M.J.
    van de Meent, D.
    Model and input uncertainty in multi-media fate modeling: Benzo[α]pyrene concentrations in Europe2008In: Chemosphere, Vol. 72, p. 959-967Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Hauck, M.
    et al.
    Huijbregts, M.A.J.
    Harbers, J.V.
    Armitage,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Pistocchi, A.
    Uncertainty And Spatial Variability in European Multi-Media Fate Models.2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Nfon, Erick
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Armitage, James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Influence of submerged aquatic vegetation on the fate and food web transfer of pesticides in small freshwater ecosystems2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic combined fate and food web model was developed to investigate the influence of macrophytes (submerged aquatic vegetation) on the fate and food web transfer of pesticides of varying chemical properties in small-scale ecosystems such as ponds, streams, ditches or mesocosms. The model results indicate that aquatic macrophytes have a significant effect on the fate and food web transfer of highly hydrophobic compounds with log KOW ≥ 5. Modelled peak concentrations in biota were highest for the scenarios assuming the lowest macrophytes biomass density. The distribution and food web transfer of compounds with log KOW ≤ 4, which is a more representative hydrophobicity of the majority of current-use pesticides, are not affected by the inclusion of aquatic macrophytes in the pond environment. The increased importance of macrophytes for the highly hydrophobic compounds is a result of the dominance of particle deposition in the mass transfer of organic compounds from water to macrophytes. It is recommended that the mechanistic model developed here be used as a tool for interpreting laboratory, mesocosm and field measurements as well as a possible higher-tier regulatory tool, especially for assessing the aquatic behaviour of pesticides with high KOW values.

  • 17. Saloranta, T.M.
    et al.
    Armitage, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haario, H.
    Næs, K.
    Cousins, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barton, D.N.
    Modeling the Effects and Uncertainties of Contaminated Sediment Remediation Scenarios in a Norwegian Fjord by Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation2008In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 42, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 17 of 17
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