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  • 1. O'Rourke, Bernadette
    et al.
    Soler, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Darquennes, Jeroen
    New speakers and language policy2018In: The Oxford Handbook of Language Policy and Planning / [ed] James W. Tollefson, Miguel Pérez-Milans, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Soler, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    El cas català des d’una perspectiva nord-europea: marcs ideològics i legislació lingüística2018In: El català, llengua mitjana d’Europa: Multilingüisme, globalització i sostenibilitat lingüística / [ed] Albert Bastardas i Boada, Emili Boix-Fuster, Rosa M. Torrens, Barcelona: Octaedro, 2018, p. 61-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Soler, Josep
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    The anonymity of Catalan and the authenticity of Estonian: two paths for the development of medium-sized languages2013In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 153-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered ‘medium-sized’ languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way that the ‘medium-sized’ languages have been resituated in the public sphere, regaining some institutional recognition. In turn, this has caused the formerly dominating languages to be resituated too, where a high degree of contact between the two linguistic communities exists. Finally, in the globalization era, ideologies about (minoritized) languages may shift from identity-based values toward more pragmatic and instrumental ones. This article presents ethnographically collected data from both Tallinn and Barcelona (2008–2009), providing a reading of the Catalan case and evolution as seen through the Estonian experience. The study examines language-ideological constructs underlying the discourses of the linguistic groups in contact, how they affect and are affected by the context, how they interact with and co-modify each other and ultimately, how can they affect the process by which a ‘medium-sized’ language may be adopted by ‘new speakers' and acquires a stable position at the level of its public functions.

  • 4.
    Soler, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Kuteeva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    University language policies in Estonia and Sweden: Exploring the interplay between English and national languages in higher education2018In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As universities seek to become more international, their need to engage with a wider range of languages, particularly English, seems more prominent. At the same time, universities are also regarded by many stakeholders as key institutions to preserve a given national language and culture. This apparent tension makes universities a fruitful ground to explore relevant issues of language policymaking. This paper analyses language policies in higher education in two northern European countries, Sweden and Estonia. Applying qualitative content analytical tools, we tackle the following questions: (1) what major themes emerge from the analysis of institutional language policy documents in Estonia and Sweden? and (2) how is English perceived in relation to other languages? Our analysis shows that, despite their different historical and sociopolitical trajectories, universities in the two countries tend to adopt similar stances vis-à-vis their language policy developments. There also exist, however, different nuances in approaching the language question, which we interpret as being the result of the particular cultural backgrounds of each country.

  • 5.
    Soler, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Jürna, Merike
    Doing language policy: Teasing out the tensions for trans-national scholars in Estonian and Danish higher education2017In: Language Policy Beyond the State / [ed] Maarja Siiner, Kadri Koreinik, Kara D. Brown, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, p. 45-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Soler, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Vihman, Virve-Anneli
    Language ideology and language planning in Estonian higher education: nationalising and globalising discourses2018In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 22-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, interest in the study of language policy issues in the context of universities has grown considerably. One reason for this is the coexistence of two apparently contradictory discourses, centring around nationalising and globalising orientations. Universities are seen by many as the key institutions for safeguarding the sustainability of national languages, while in order to operate on a global scale, an increasing use of foreign languages (particularly English) is necessary in those same institutions. In our paper, we explore the tensions and ambiguities provoked by this scenario in the context of Estonian higher education (HE), focusing on the University of Tartu. More specifically, we look at how different stakeholders orient themselves towards the language question at the university: university officials, members of the university (staff and students), and members of society outside the university. Using discourse analytical tools, we map the ideological constructs with which these different stakeholders take a stance towards the two dominating discourses. In our analysis, we show that these different groups re-create and shape both the nationalising and the globalising discourses currently present in the field of HE by strategically mobilising a set of semiotic resources available to them.

  • 7.
    Soler, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Zabrodskaja, Anastassia
    New spaces of new speaker profiles: Exploring language ideologies in transnational multilingual families2017In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 547-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at Spanish-Estonian speaking families and their language ideologies in relation to language use in the family setting-how parents decide to use languages among themselves and with their children. Family members choose different languages for different purposes when they talk to one another. In our study, parents draw on their knowledge of the 'one parent-one language' strategy but also translanguage for different reasons, constructing new patterns of bilingual modes. In the article, we examine parents' attitudes towards language maintenance, transmission, and use with their children. We incorporate the lens of 'new speaker' research to analyse the empirical data collected in Tallinn households among Spanish-Estonian speaking families so as to contribute to a better understanding of family language policy, planning, and management, highlighting how macro-level sociolinguistic expectations and norms might be elaborated on the micro level in everyday social interactions.

  • 8.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Alexandre Duchêne, Melissa Moyer and Celia Roberts (eds), Language, Migration and Social Inequalities: A Critical Sociolinguistic Perspective on Institutions and Work2015In: Discourse & Society, ISSN 0957-9265, E-ISSN 1460-3624, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 782-784Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Book note: Language Diversity in the USA, by Kim Potowsky (ed.)2012In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 412-413Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Tartu, Estonia; Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Book reiview: Muerte y vitalidad de las lenguas indígenas y las presiones sobre sus hablantes, by Roland Terborg and Laura García Landa (eds.).2013In: Treballs de sociolingüística catalana, ISSN 0211-0784, E-ISSN 2013-9136, no 23, p. 487-492Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Tallinn University, Estonia; University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Book review: Survival and Development of Language Communities. Prospects and Challenges, by F. Xavier Vila (ed.)2013In: Treballs de sociolingüística catalana, ISSN 0211-0784, E-ISSN 2013-9136, Vol. 23, p. 481-486Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Complexity perspectives on linguistic landscapes: A scalar analysis2016In: Linguistic Landscape, ISSN 2214-9953, E-ISSN 2214-9961, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic landscape studies (LLS) have become popular tools to investigate multilingual settings; yet they often lack theoretical elaboration. This paper tries to contribute to filling this gap by combining the postulates of complexity theory with the concept of ‘scale’. Taking Tallinn as a case study, I conceptualise scales as nodes of complexity, dynamically produced and reproduced by the inter-connection of different agents in interaction. The results show a significant degree of language heterogeneity in Tallinn’s LL, but one that adopts different forms in different places, something that indexes the diverse types of mobility in those settings. What appears as multilingual messiness becomes logically coherent when we look at how different semiotic resources are mobilized to co-construct different scalar frameworks. In conclusion, it is argued that a scalar analysis informed by a complexity perspective can be beneficially exploited for theoretical and methodological purposes in LLS.

  • 13.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Democratic Policies for Language Revitalisation: The Case of Catalan, by Miquel Strubell and Emili Boix-Fuster (eds.)2013In: Catalan Review, ISSN 0213-5949, Vol. 27, p. 205-207Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Els reptes de les llengües mitjanes a Catalunya i Estònia en l'era glocal. Una perspectiva comparada de les ideologies lingüístiques dels seus parlants2012In: Revista de Llengua i Dret, ISSN 0212-5056, E-ISSN 2013-1453, no 57, p. 207-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ca]

    Aquest article examina la relació i el contacte entre «llengües mitjanes» i «llengües internacionals» a Catalunya i Estònia des d'un punt de vista comparat en l'era glocal. Prenent com a punt de partida de la comparació les similituds dels dos casos en els respectius contextos històric, polític i sociodemogràfic, s'analitza com els canvis en aquests camps poden haver afectat la percepció del context sociolingüístic de cada grup de parlants i les «ideologies lingüístiques» (Woolard, 1998) mitjançant les quals els individus atorguen autoritat a les seves llengües. A partir de dades recollides per mitjà d'un treball de camp eminentment qualitatiu (observació participativa, entrevistes en profunditat i grups de discussió) a Tallin i a Barcelona, s'aconsegueix detectar el ventall de posicions que poden ocupar els parlants en cada teixit social i la manera com defineixen la seva «perspectiva situada» (Blommaert, 2005), unes posicions a voltes generadores de tensió, a voltes més positives en relació amb la valoració del multilingüisme.

  • 15.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Emerging ELF as an intercultural resource: language attitudes and ideologies2014In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 243-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the possibility of English becoming a lingua franca in Estonia. It builds on Laitin's (1996) observations regarding the fact that English would become the country's language of inter-group communication among Estonian and Russian speakers. By providing ethnographically collected data and discussing it from the paradigm of language ideologies, the present article clarifies some of Laitin's original observations. While it appears that English has not become a lingua franca in Estonia, this possibility works in given circumstances, even if just sporadically, in order to help solving possible communicative obstacles. It is therefore argued that ELF is actually an extra resource, a tool that speakers can make use of if needed.

  • 16.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as an Academic Lingua Franca in Estonia: students’ attitudes and ideologies2015In: Attitudes towards English in Europe: English in Europe, volume 1 / [ed] Andrew Robert Linn, Neil Bermel, Gibson Ferguson, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 213-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English in the language ecology of Europe2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 53-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    La valoración del español entre estudiantes hispanohablantes universitarios del sur de California: Globalización e ideologías lingüísticas sobre el multilingüismo2015In: Lengua española, contacto lingüístico y globalización / [ed] Roland Terborg, Amado Alarcón, Lourdes Neri, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2015, p. 389-416Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language policy in Estonian higher education: internationalisation and the tension over English2015In: English-medium instruction in European higher education: English in Europe, volume 3 / [ed] Slobodanka Dimova, Anna Kristina Hultgren, Christian Jensen, Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter offers an analysis of Higher Education policy documents in Estonia, with a focus on language and sociolinguistic matters. Although the dominance of English as an international language in the fields of science and academic research has been amply documented in recent years, Estonia appears to be still under-studied in this matter. However, because of historical reasons it provides a context that may yield interesting insights into the question under study. In barely two decades, the country has moved from a Communist regime to a neoliberal economy, from being a Soviet republic to recovering independence and then joining other supra-national units (the EU and NATO). By conducting a content analysis of key Higher Education policy documents, the paper shows some key tensions and contradictions arising from them in relation to the position of different languages in the domain of Higher Education. I conclude that in the analysed context, an ill-defined notion of English may cause us to poorly grasp who in fact benefits from such policies, and this, indeed, has to be a key and very central issue in language policy design and research, since it can potentially have important consequences for all involved.

  • 20.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Tallinn University, Estonia; University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Review of English and Development2014In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 25, article id 2301Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Review of English as an Academic Lingua Franca2013In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 24, article id 3240Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of English in Nordic Universities2015In: The Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 26, article id 4373Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Tallinn University, Estonia; University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Review of Mapping the Dubbing Scene2012In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 23, article id 5030Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Tallinn, a multilingual city in the era of globalization: the challenges facing Estonian as a medium-sized language2015In: Urban diversities and language policies in medium-sized linguistic communities / [ed] Emili Boix-Fuster, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2015, p. 85-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with the greatest challenges currently facing the Estonian language in Tallinn in this era of globalisation. It starts by reviewing the macro-sociolinguistic figures that most clearly illustrate these challenges and then presents data gathered from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with native speakers conducted at a language school in the city centre in 2008–2009. It examines these data through the prism of the language ideologies framework (Woolard, 1998), and, in particular, the conceptual divide between the ideological constructs ‘authenticity’ and ‘anonymity’ (Gal & Woolard, 2001; Woolard, 2008), arguing that these can help us understand the main challenges facing Estonian today.

    In line with other contributions to this volume, this paper also argues that these challenges are felt not only by speakers of the language under discussion here but by speakers of many of the so-called ‘medium-sized’ languages of independent nation-states. As one of these languages, Estonian enjoys some self-assurance and protection but its small number of speakers regularly needs to use another language to communicate in broader contexts and today that language tends to be English. The shift in Estonia from the one-time hegemony of Russian to the present, when English has become the language for international purposes, highlights one of the most common dilemmas faced by medium-sized languages. In Estonia, this is accentuated by the undeniable presence of a community whose L1 is Russian.

  • 25.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    University language policies and language choice among Ph.D. graduates in Estonia: the (unbalanced) interplay between English and Estonian2014In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 33, no 3-4, p. 413-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been analyzed along these lines. The author suggests looking at Ph.D. dissertations as a site of tension between the need to effectively incorporate English as an academic language and the need to maintain Estonian as the national language. The article views this question in the context of some relevant language policy documents and other macro indicators. It then focuses on the number of Ph.D. dissertations defended at four main public universities in the last few years and the languages they have been written in. It appears that, although the language policy documents seem to correctly capture this tension between English and Estonian, the language most commonly used when writing dissertations is overwhelmingly English, with only the humanities providing some counterbalance to that trend. The current situation is different from that of past decades, when English was absent from Estonia’s scientific production and Estonian was significantly employed in that context, alongside Russian. In the discussion section, some lines for further inquiry are presented, together with a proposal for integrating complexity theory in such analyses.

  • 26.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    University of Tartu, Estonia; Tallinn University, Estonia.
    “És com saber informàtica”: les ideologies lingüístiques legitimadores del català i l’estonià en l’era de la globalització. [‘It’s like knowing computer science’: legitimating language ideologies of Catalan and Estonian in the globalization era]2013In: Treballs de sociolingüística catalana, ISSN 0211-0784, E-ISSN 2013-9136, no 23, p. 427-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ca]

    Aquest article examina les ideologies lingüístiques mitjançant les quals es vehicula el valor del català i l’estonià en l’era de la globalització. Aportant dades recollides a través d’entrevistes enprofunditat i grups de discussió a Barcelona i a Tallinn, analitzarem com, en el món contemporani, la visió de les llengües com a béns amb un valor instrumental més que no pas identitari pren força entre els qui parlen aquestes llengües mitjanes com a L2 en els contextos descrits. En paral·lel a les opinions d’aquests parlants, també observarem com catalanoparlants i estonianoparlants d’origen atorguen valor i legitimitat a les seves L1 respectivament. L’article es conclou amb unes reflexions de l’autor al voltant del poder d’atracció de nous parlants per part de les llengües mitjanes comparades en el marc de l’estudi.

  • 27.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gallego-Balsà, Lídia
    The internationalisation of higher education in two different contexts: Catalan and Estonian sociolinguistic perspectives2016In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, ISSN 0790-8318, E-ISSN 1747-7573, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 40-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and Ideological Orders and the production of Bilingual Subjects. In A. Jaffe (Ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic perspectives (pp. 119–145). New York, NY: Oxford University Press] and attitudes towards the different languages present in their immediate contexts. In particular, we compare the University of Tartu (Estonia) with the University of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain), analysing several key parameters. The purpose of the comparison is to contrast, from a sociolinguistic point of view, the higher education setting of two medium-sized language contexts in Europe [Vila, F. X., & Bretxa, V. (Eds.). (2015). Language policy in higher education. The case of medium-sized languages. Bristol: Multilingual Matters] with different demolinguistic and language political features. The results show that both institutions adopt a similar stance in connection to their respective national language (a protectionist attitude), but they take different approaches towards the other societal language and English. We read these differences in light of the broader historical and socio-political backgrounds, which we suggest are reflected in the microcosm of the universities here analysed.

  • 28.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gallego-Balsà, Lídia
    Corona, Víctor
    Language and education issues in global Catalonia. Questions and debates across scales of time and space2016In: Language, Culture and Curriculum, ISSN 0790-8318, E-ISSN 1747-7573, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Saarinen, Taina
    Kibbermann, Kerttu
    Multilayered perspectives on language policy in higher education: Finland, Estonia, and Latvia in comparison2017In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses language policies in higher education (HE) in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, as well as the European Union (EU). We take a multilayered approach to language policies in order to illuminate the intertwined nature of local, national, and international language policies in HE. We are particularly interested in the construction of national language(s) and the language(s) of internationalisation in our case countries. Finland, Estonia, and Latvia share common features as relatively small non-Anglophone countries in the Baltic region, while simultaneously having somewhat differing political and cultural histories. The results of our discursive analysis indicate that while the three countries have relatively different national language policies, regarding, for example, the position of the national language(s), the institutional policies are more similar in the three cases. For universities, the positioning of English as the de facto language of internationalisation turns the ideology of language choice in HE into a practical rather than political question. However, at the state level, the promotion of English runs contrary to national policies. The EU HE language policy seems to acknowledge the institutional level’s practical demands of English as de facto language of internationalisation rather than follow its own formal language policy of official languages.

  • 30. Woolard, Kathryn
    et al.
    Ribot-Bencomo, Aida
    Soler-Carbonell, Josep
    Tallin University, Estonia; University of Tartu, Estonia.
    What’s so funny now? The strength of weak pronouns in Catalonia2013In: Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, ISSN 1548-1395, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 127-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    John Gumperz's foundational analyses of linguistic convergence and of code-switching in bilingual and multilingual settings continue to influence work in interactional sociolinguistics, where these phenomena are seen as systematic mobilizations of the bilingual repertoire to cue interlocutors to the ongoing construction of situated meaning. However, the utility of Gumperz's approach is not restricted to interactional, micro-social questions. As Gumperz's own earliest work showed, varying patterns of code-switching and of linguistic convergence can reveal significant macro-social differences in communities across space as well as changes within a community across time. In earlier work, I have used code-switching and convergence as tracers to help gauge sociopolitical change in Catalonia across several decades, particularly by examining the changing patterns of mixed-language practices that make people laugh. In this article, I analyze new Catalan mass-media data (2006–2013) in order to assess the evolution of the serio-comic situation of Catalan three decades after I first investigated it as a student of Gumperz at the moment of the return to Catalan political autonomy.

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