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  • 1.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Water pressure and increases in food & bioenergy demand implications of economic growth and options for decoupling2007In: Scenarios on economic growth and resource demand: background report to the Swedish Environmental Advisory Council memorandum 2007:1, Swedish Environmental Advisory Council, Stockholm , 2007, p. 55-151Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Noel, Stasey
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Valuing soft components in agricultural water management interventions in meso-scale watersheds: a review and synthesis2011In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2) is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM) goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM) interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

  • 3.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK .
    Tharme, Rebecca E.
    Herrero, Mario
    Drivers and Challenges for Food Security2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the global scale, humanity is increasingly facing rapid changes, and sometimes shocks, that are affecting the security of our food systems and the agroecosystems that are the ultimate sources of food. To plan and prepare for resilient food production and food security in a sustainable and efficient way, we are challenged to better understand the conditions and likely responses of these diverse agroecosystems under various drivers of change and scenarios of future trends. Among the many direct drivers and indirect pressures that exist or are emerging, the discussion in this chapter focuses on the main themes of drivers of demographic changes, globalization of economic and governance systems (including markets), and climate change. The current state of health of water and land resources, and of ecosystems and their services, are considered alongside these drivers, as these are critical determinants of the pathways with sufficient potential to move food-producing systems towards more sustainable production. Hence, addressing the opportunities, synergies and constraints of multiple drivers will be critical for policy advice to build resilient food systems in the future.

  • 4. Boelee, Eline
    et al.
    Scherr, Sara J.
    Pert, Petina L.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK .
    Finlayson, Max
    Descheemaeker, Katrien
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Fleiner, Renate
    Nguyen-Khoa, Sophie
    Barchiesi, Stefano
    Bunting, Stuart W.
    Tharme, Rebecca E.
    Khaka, Elizabeth
    Coates, David
    Solowey, Elaine M.
    Lloyd, Gareth J.
    Molden, David
    Cook, Simon
    Management of Water and Agroecosystems in Landscapes for Sustainable Food Security2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 156-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various food and financial crises have increased the pressure on natural resources while expanding on alternative ways of considering agroecosystems as potential long-term providers of ecosystem services if managed in a sustainable and equitable way. Through the study of interrelations between ecosystems, water and food security, this book has aimed to increase the understanding and knowledge of these interactions for better planning and decision making processes at various levels. This chapter concludes Managing Water and Agroecosystems for Food Security. It discusses the main findings of the preceding chapters, from analyses of drivers of sustainable food security, via agroecosystems with their ecosystem services and challenges for water use and scarcity, to specific challenges for environments such as drylands and wetlands. Using a comprehensive landscape approach, recommendations on water productivity, agroecosystem services and integrated water management are brought together succinctly. In addition, knowledge gaps and issues for further research have been identified that may support further implementation of the agroecological approach in many landscapes around the world.

  • 5. Coates, David
    et al.
    Pert, Petina L.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK.
    Muthuri, Catherine
    Nguyen-Khoa, Sophie
    Boelee, Eline
    Jarvis, Devra I.
    Water-related Ecosystem Services and Food Security2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 29-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystem setting of both agriculture and water provides a conceptual framework for managing the needs of agriculture for water and the impacts of water upon agriculture. Water underpins all benefits (ecosystem services) that ecosystems provide, including all agricultural production. The availability of water, in terms of both its quantity and quality, is also influenced heavily by ecosystem functioning. Understanding this relationship of water, ecosystems and their services with agriculture is at the heart of understanding, and therefore managing, water and food security. There are opportunities to move beyond seeing the agriculture-ecosystem-water interface as one of conflict and trade-offs, towards simultaneously achieving both increases in sustainable food production and improvements in the delivery of other ecosystem benefits by agriculture through more widespread adoption of ecosystem-based solutions. These concepts and approaches are explained briefly here as an introduction to understanding the interlinkages between ecosystem services, water and food security in subsequent chapters of the book.

  • 6.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dryspell frequency and trends over time in semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa: Implictions for smallholder farmersManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale farmers in semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are vulnerable to dryspells, a primary reason for agricultural droughts. We used large-scale publicly available datasets to analyze frequency and trends over time in dryspells of critical length for farmers. 54 rainfall stations across the croplands of semi-arid and dry sub-humid SSA were included. Results show that stations with long-term seasonal rainfall averages below 600 mm experience critical dryspells in more than 60% of their seasons, whereas the corresponding figure for stations with averages above 600 mm is 40% or less. Almost every season is affected by dryspells for stations below 400 mm. Further, dryspell seasons are often affected by multiple dryspells. Most stations do not show any trends of changing dryspell frequency. Among the 21 stations that do exhibit changes over time, 19 have been subjected to an increasing trend, and only 2 to a decreasing trend. For six stations the increase is statistically significant. We conclude that frequent dryspell seasons with multiple dryspells, is a reality of rainfed farming systems, especially in semi-arid SSA. Efforts to increase productivity in these systems must include strategies to manage dryspells to be effective. The publicly available data contains large gaps that restrict the analysis. This is highly problematic, particularly given the fundamental importance of rainfall dynamics for livelihoods in the poorest regions of the world.

  • 7.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Makurira, Hodson
    University of Zimbabwe.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Tumbo, Siza
    Sokoine University of Agriuclture.
    Yield and soil system changes from conservation tillage in dryland farming: A case study from North Eastern Tanzania2011In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 98, no 11, p. 1687-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield levels in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa are generally low. Water shortage in the root zone during critical crop development stages is a fundamental constraining factor. While there is ample evidence to show that conservation tillage can promote soil health, it has recently been suggested that the main benefit in semi-arid farming systems may in fact be an in situ water harvesting effect. In this paper we present the result from an on-farm conservation tillage experiment (combining ripping with mulch and manure application) that was carried out in northeastern Tanzania from 2005 to 2008, testing this hypothesis. Special attention was given to the effects on the water retention properties of the soil. The tested conservation treatment only had a clear yield increasing effect during one of the six experimental seasons (maize grain yields increased by 41%, and biomass by 65%), and this was a season that received exceptional amounts of rainfall (549 mm). While the other seasons provided mixed results, there seemed to be an increasing yield gap between the conservation tillage treatment and the control towards the end of the experiment. Regarding soil system changes, small but significant effects on chemical and microbiological properties, but not on physical properties, were observed. This raises questions about the suggested water harvesting effect and its potential to contribute to stabilized yield levels under semi-arid conditions. We conclude that, at least in a shorter time perspective, the tested type of conservation tillage seems to boost productivity during already good seasons, rather than stabilize harvests during poor rainfall seasons. Highlighting the challenges involved in upgrading these farming systems, we discuss the potential contribution of conservation tillage towards improved water availability in the crop root zone in a longer-term perspective.

  • 8. Garg, Kaushal K.
    et al.
    Wani, Suhas P.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Up-scaling potential impacts on water flows from agricultural water interventions: opportunities and trade-offs in the Osman Sagar catchment, Musi sub-basin, India2013In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 27, no 26, p. 3905-3921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural water management (AWM) has been shown to improve and secure yields in the tropics and has been suggested as an important way to combat poverty in the region. In this paper, we describe potential impacts on upstream and downstream flows of extensive AWM interventions, using the watershed development programme of the Osman Sagar catchment of Musi sub-basin, Andhra Pradesh semi-arid India, as an example. Various AWM interventions are compared with a non-intervention state and the current state of the study area, using 31 years of data by application of the calibrated and validated ARCSWAT 2005 (Version 2.1.4a) modelling tool. Different AWM interventions contribute to improved livelihoods of upstream smallholder farmers by increasing soil moisture availability and groundwater recharge, which can subsequently be used for irrigation. The result is higher crop production and hence larger incomes. Moreover, lower flow intensities and sediment losses reduced by 30-50%, reducing the risk of flooding and sediment accumulation in the Osman Sagar drinking water reservoir. On the other hand, AWM interventions are predicted to result in reduced total water inflows to the Osman Sagar reservoir from 11% of the total annual rainfall (754mm) recorded at present, to 8% if AWM interventions were implemented at large scale throughout the catchment. A cost-benefit analysis of AWM interventions showed that the highest net economic returns were achieved at intermediate intervention levels (only in-situ AWM).

  • 9.
    Keys, Patrick
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm Environment Institute, York, UK.
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Releasing the Pressure: Water Resource Efficiencies and Gains for Ecosystem Services2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the need to balance short-term water productivity gains, particularly in agriculture, with water flows’ long-term role in maintaining sustainable landscape ecosystem services and supporting human well-being. 

    Water is under increasing pressure for supporting both various functions in society whilst sustaining healthy ecosystem services in landscapes, and there is a growing need to consider the productivity of how water can be used for multiple benefits.  Water productivity is a concept used to assess water use and resource efficiency. However, due to the multiple uses of water by humans and ecosystems, it is not evident that one measure of efficiency can capture the multifaceted and multi-sectoral benefits that water provides. It is important to consider water productivity in terms of the trade-offs between managed agricultural ecosystem services and the surrounding landscape ecosystem services, and think of resource efficiency in those terms.This report outlines 10 key messages on the nexus of water productivity, water flows in landscapes and ecosystem services, and illustrates them with case studies. It is geared to practitioners in the areas of planning and management of agriculture, planning of land-use, forestry, biofuels, and water, and natural resource management. The goal is to encourage practitioners to begin exploring what types of ecosystem services gains and trade-offs exist in their local context, such as watersheds, landscapes, countries, or basins, and how they may be linked to the allocation of water.

  • 10. Lloyd, Gareth J.
    et al.
    Korsgaard, Louise
    Tharme, Rebecca E.
    Boelee, Eline
    Clement, Floriane
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK.
    Eriyagama, Nishadi
    Water Management for Ecosystem Health and Food Production2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 142-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrated, efficient, equitable and sustainable management of water resources is of vital importance for securing ecosystem health and services to people, not least of which is food production. The challenges related to increasing water scarcity and ecosystem degradation, and the added complexities of climate change, highlight the need for countries to carefully manage their surface water and groundwater resources. Built upon the principles of economic efficiency, equity and environmental sustainability, integrated water resources management (IWRM) can be shaped by local needs to maximize allocative efficiency and better manage water for people, food, nature and industry. However, the flexibility of the approach means that it is interpreted and applied in ways that prioritize and address immediate challenges created by demographic, economic and social drivers, often at the expense of environmental sustainability - and hence also of long-term food security. The need to more explicitly include ecosystems in water management practices and safeguard long-term food security can be addressed partly by refining the notion of 'water for food' in IWRM as 'water for agroecosystems'. This would also serve to eliminate much of the current dichotomy between 'water for food' and 'water for nature', and deliver a more balanced approach to ecosystem services that explicitly considers the value and benefits to people of a healthy resource base. The adoption of an ecosystem services approach to IWRM, and incorporation of environmental flows as a key element, can contribute to long-term food security and ecosystem health by ensuring more efficient and effective management of water for agroecosystems, natural systems and all its other uses.

  • 11. Pert, Petina L.
    et al.
    Boelee, Eline
    Jarvis, Devra I.
    Coates, David
    Bindraban, Prem
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK .
    Tharme, Rebecca E.
    Herrero, Mario
    Challenges to Agroecosystem Management2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 42-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As growth in population, gross domestic product (GDP) and consumption continues, further demands are placed on land, water and other resources. The resulting degradation can threaten the food security of poor people in fragile environments, particularly those whose livelihoods rely largely on agricultural activities. The concept of diversified or multifunctional agroecosystems is a relatively recent response to the decline in the quality of the natural resource base. Today, the question of agricultural production has evolved from a purely technical issue to a more complex one characterized by social, cultural, political and economic dimensions. Multifunctional agroecosystems carry out a variety of ecosystem services, such as the regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and sociocultural services, as well as meeting consumers' needs for food. In turn, these systems also rely on ecosystem services provided by adjacent natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. However, poor management practices in agroecosystems can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. This chapter discusses the challenges to agroecosystem management, and how adopting a diversified approach will enable farmers to farm longer and more sustainably in an environment of greater uncertainty, in the face of climate change.

  • 12.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Water productivity in rainfed systems: Overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs2007In: Irrigation science, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 299-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Barron, Jennie
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Managing water in rainfed agriculture2007In: Water for Food, Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Earthscan, London , 2007, p. 317-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Heinke, Jens
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Water resilience for human prosperity2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's human population now constitutes the largest driving force of changes to the biosphere. Emerging water challenges require new ideas for governance and management of water resources in the context of rapid global change. This book presents a new approach to water resources, addressing global sustainability and focusing on socio-ecological resilience to changes. Topics covered include the risks of unexpected change, human impacts and dependence on global water, the prospects for feeding the world's population by 2050, and a pathway for the future. The book's innovative and integrated approach links green and blue freshwater with terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem functions and use. It also links changes arising from land-use alteration with the impacts of those changes on social-ecological systems and ecosystem services. This is an important, state-of-the-art resource for academic researchers and water resource professionals, and a key reference for graduate students studying water resource governance and management.

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