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  • 1.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att få vad man förtjänar: Rättviseupplevelser i samband med individuell lönesättning.2005In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 93-107Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har individuell lön haft ett påtagligt genombrott inom den offentliga sektorn sedan början av 1990-talet. Den grundläggande tanken är att individuell lön ska leda till ökad arbetsprestation, men för att detta lönesystem ska fungera som styrmedel måste de anställda acceptera kriterierna för fördelningen av lönemedel och uppleva att lönesättningen sker på ett rättvist sätt. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka faktorer som kan bidra till individers upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen. Sammanfattningsvis tyder resultatet på att det är arbetsklimat (t ex återkoppling på arbetsresultat) och lönefaktorer (t ex kännedom om lönekriterier och jämställdhet i lönefrågor) som har störst betydelse. Däremot tycks bakgrundsfaktorer och personlighet vara av marginell betydelse för individers upplevelser av lönerättvisa.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceptions of justice in connection with individualized pay setting2007In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 431-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individualized pay is typically assumed to enhance employee work motivation, but a precondition for such beneficial effects is that employees perceive the pay-setting process to be fair. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the nature, determinants and consequences of pay justice. Questionnaire data, obtained from a Swedish nationally representative sample of nurses, provided support for distinguishing between distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice. The results also showed that perceptions of pay justice were predicted by both work climate variables and factors related to the pay-setting procedure, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Although pay justice had only marginal effects on employee work attitudes and behaviour when demographics, work climate and pay-related factors had been taken into account, justice was found to be an important goal in itself, given that a prerequisite for the success of any pay system is that it is perceived as fair.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector2005In: Change and quality in human service work: dedicated to the work of André Büssing / [ed] Christian Korunka & Peter Hoffmann, Munich: Rainer Hampp Verlag, 2005, 1, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work climate has gone through immense changes during the recent decades, due to industrial reformation, economic recessions, technical advancements, and an increased global competition (Howard, 1995). The so-called New Public Management movement has inspired many European countries and has among other things led to changes in the way that wages are distributed (Pfeffer, 1997; Wikman, 2001). Wage distribution systems partly based on individual performance are increasingly taking over traditional wage distribution systems in many organizations in Europe (OECD, 1995). Employers appear to have great expectations that individualized performance-based wages will bring about higher employee motivation and performance etc (Lawler, 1991). The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector and try to identify some of the factors behind their attitudes. Questionnaire data show that employees with the most positive attitudes towards individualized pay already had part of their salary based on performance. A person’s attitude towards individualized pay also seems to be positively related to perceived workload and mental health complaints. Older employees and employees with longer tenure reported the most negative attitudes towards individualized performance based wages. This study contributes to a better understanding of some of the factors underlying attitudes towards individually based wages among human service employees.

  • 4.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torbiörn, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbets- och organisationspsykologi: Individ och organisation i samspel2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken anlägger ett brett perspektiv på individen i arbetslivet som spänner över både arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Författarna tar upp de ramar som modernt arbetsliv skapar och hur individen rör sig innanför dessa. De beskriver arbetets roll i livet, samspelet på arbetsplatsen och vilken betydelse det kan ha för individen. Likaså behandlas fenomen som organisationsförändringar, ledarskap och motivation. Författarna har en gedigen erfarenhet av undervisning och forskning inom ämnet vilket gör boken både pedagogiskt upplagd och uppdaterad inom de senaste rönen. Boken är skriven för studerande i psykologi och beteendevetenskapliga utbildningar samt i företagsekonomi med organisationsinriktning. Boken är även lämplig för HR-specialister, chefer och andra med intresse av hur samspelet mellan individ och organisation bidrar till att skapa hållbara arbetsvillkor och effektiva organisationer.

  • 5.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 6.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Department of Education.
    The relationship between self-efficacy and employability.2006In: The 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Several researchers have emphasized that the labour market is being restructured and characterized by more frequently occurring organizational changes. In this sense, it has also been maintained that employability is a gradually more important asset for individuals in contemporary working life. It has been argued that the modern way of job security should be seen in the light of employability, the so called employability security, where security comes from the feeling of being able to get a new job rather than from the feeling of maintaining the current employment position.

    Employability is defined as an individual’s perception of his or her possibilities of getting new employment. Feeling employable thus reflects the perception of having great possibilities to get a new job, if necessary. In earlier research employability has been described as a concept depending on individual assets as well as contextual prerequisites. For instance, Fugate, Kinicki and Ashforth (2004) argued that employability is comprised of three distinct dimensions, one motivational component, one component reflecting adaptability and a third component formed by the human and social capital. Berntson, Sverke and Marklund (in press), on the other hand, argued that employability also shall be seen in the light of the context of the individual. Thus, national economic situation as well as local labour markets are important predictors of an individual’s employability.

    Although the concept of employability has been argued to be dependent on individual assets, few or no studies have been made to investigate if employability is something else than a dispositional characteristic such as efficacy beliefs. It is important to know if employability shall be viewed as a dispositional factor or if it shall be seen as something apart from dispositional traits when it comes to reinforcing employability. The first aim of the present study is to investigate if employability is a concept distinct from self-efficacy. It is however also of importance to investigate if employability gives rise to efficacy beliefs or if it is feelings of efficacy that influence the levels of employability. A second aim, therefore, is to investigate if self-efficacy affects employability or the other way around.

    Questionnaire data is being used comprising white-collar workers in a Swedish organization. The results of the initial confirmatory factor analysis (on Wave 1 data) indicate that employability is distinct from self-efficacy. Longitudinal data are being collected with the specific aim of performing a cross-lagged analysis. However, the cross-sectional data imply that the two concepts are positively correlated, indicating that individuals experiencing high levels of self-efficacy also report higher levels of employability.

  • 7. De Cuyper, Nele
    et al.
    De Witte, Hans
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North West University, South Africa.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Felt Job Insecurity and Union Membership: the Case of Temporary Workers2014In: Drustvena istrazivanja: Journal for General Social Issues, ISSN 1330-0288, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 577-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relationship between felt jobinsecurity and union membership accounting for potential differencesbetween temporary and permanent workers. Consistentwith the idea that felt job insecurity leads workers to seek socialprotection from the unions, and with earlier studies, we hypothesizea positive relationship between felt job insecurity and unionmembership (Hypothesis 1). Furthermore, we argue that thisrelationship may be stronger among temporary compared withpermanent workers (Hypothesis 2): insecure temporary workersare in a situation of 'double vulnerability', hence they have strongmotives for unionization. Hypotheses are tested in a cross--sectional sample of 560 Flemish (Dutch-speaking part ofBelgium) workers. Our results were as follows: the relationshipbetween felt job insecurity and union membership was not significant.The interaction term between contract type and felt jobinsecurity was significantly related to union membership: the relationship between felt job insecurity and union membership waspositive among temporary workers, but not among permanentworkers. This pattern of results may inspire unions to target futurerecruitment strategies on temporary workers. A route for futureresearch could be to test our hypotheses also longitudinally.

  • 8. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Handaja, Yasmin
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being: A Test in Belgian banks2010In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, E-ISSN 1558-0911, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 40-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on the relationship between job insecurity and well-being have focused on the effects of employees’ overall concerns about the continued existence of the job as such (quantitative job insecurity). Comparatively little research has examined perceived threats to valued job features (qualitative job insecurity). The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relative strength of associations of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity with job-related (job satisfaction and burnout) and general (psychological distress and psychosomatic complaints) well-being, and health-related behavior (absence and medical consultation). Controlling for socio-demographics, negative affectivity and job characteristics, these relationships were tested in a sample of 7,146 Belgian employees from the banking sector. The results suggest that both quantitative and qualitative job insecurity are important stressors.

  • 9. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    Goslinga, Sjoerd
    Chirumbolo, Antonio
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baanonzekerheid als schending van het psychologisch contract bij vakbondsleden: Gevolgen voor vakbondsattitudes en opzegintentie in België en Nederland. / Job insecurity as violation of the psychological contract among trade union members: consequences on attitudes towards unions and the intention to resign membership in Belgium and the Netherlands.2005In: Gedrag en Organisatie, ISSN 0921-5077, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the consequences of job insecurity among union members are explored. Having established that most employees have instrumental motives for joining a union, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that job insecurity among union members correlates with a lower level of perceived union support, lower satisfaction with the union, reduced (affective) commitment towards the union, and a higher intention to resign union membership. These hypotheses were tested in Belgium and the Netherlands. Evidence was found to support the assumed association between job insecurity and a reduction in perceived union support. In Belgium, job insecurity was also associated with reduced union satisfaction and intention to resign membership. In neither country job insecurity was associated with union commitment. These results partly support the hypothesis that union members experience job insecurity as a violation of their psychological contract with the union.

  • 10. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Van Ruysseveldt, Joris
    Goslinga, Sjoerd
    Chirumbolo, Antonio
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job Insecurity, Union Support and Intentions to Resign Membership: A Psychological Contract Perspective2008In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses psychological contract theory to explore the consequences of job insecurity among union members. We hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union support and a higher intention to resign union membership. We also test whether the relationship between job insecurity and membership turnover is mediated by (a lack of) perceived union support. In Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands, an association is found between job insecurity and a reduction in perceived union support, and between job insecurity and the intention to resign membership; this association is also fully mediated by (a lack of) perceived union support. None of these hypotheses are corroborated in Sweden. We discuss implications of these findings for future research and for unions in Europe.

  • 11.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordgren Selar, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Pay justice attention! A systematic literature review of antecedents and consquences of pay justice2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1149-1149, article id 562Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Employee perceptions of pay as fair have been suggested to be important for motivation and performance. This circumstance, together with an increase in pay-systems where annual pay raises in part are based on employees’ performance, has directed attention to the justice of pay. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe research focusing on (1) what contributes to perceptions of pay justice and (2) the potential consequences of pay justice.

    Methodology: Literature search in large databases were performed. Major search terms were “pay justice” and” pay-related justice”, supplemented with searches of concepts that emerged as important such as “performance evaluation” and “feedback”. Priority was given to studies published in the year 2000 and later.

    Results: In terms of predictors, performance assessments, knowledge of pay-setting criteria, feedback, performance appraisal and the supervisor´s ability to fulfil the requirements as pay-setters, were important for employee perceptions of pay justice. Consequences of pay justice were less studied but a positive relation with pay satisfaction was reported.

    Limitations: The literature search was done on pay justice specifically. This means that studies focusing on organizational justice were generally not included, even if such studies could include pay.

    Research/Practical Implications: The results provide insights regarding how different aspects of the pay-setting process relate to pay justice and indicate that less is known about the consequences of pay justice.

    Originality/Value: Although several reviews and meta-analyses concerning organizational justice in general exists, to our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on pay justice specifically.

  • 12.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordgren Selar, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Anställdas syn på lön, motivation och prestation: En undersökning av lönesättning i privat sektor2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lönesättningen i privat sektor sker med olika grad av koppling till den individuellaprestationen. Vissa avtal ger inget eller endast begränsat utrymme för verksamhets- ochindividnära lönesättning. I andra avtal ges stort utrymme, som i varierande gradanvänds av företagen för att koppla samman lön och arbetsresultat. Generellt setthar tjänstemännens avtal betydligt större utrymme för verksamhets- och individnäralönesättning än de avtal som LO-förbunden träffar.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är att undersöka hur anställda i privat sektor, såväl tjänstemän som arbetare, upplever lönesättningen samt att bidra till ökad kunskap om lönens och lönesättningens betydelse för motivation och prestation i arbetet. Någon motsvarande studie av lönesättningen inom privat sektor har inte tidigare gjorts i Sverige. I rapporten beskrivs de anställdas erfarenheter av och uppfattningarom hur deras lön sätts. Här undersöks också hur lön och lönesättning hänger sammanmed motivation och prestation i arbetet. Även andra faktorer – såsom legitimitet ilönesättningen (det vill säga upplevelsen av om lönen sätts på ett sätt som upplevsrättvist), arbetsklimat och personlighet – undersöks i relation till motivation ochprestation.Rapportens resultat baseras på en enkätundersökning som genomfördesår 2016 bland ett nationellt representativt urval av anställda i åldern 20–65 år som arbetade inom fem sektorer: bygg och installation, handel och besöksnäring, industri, service och tjänster samt transport.

    Undersökningen visar att färre än hälften hade haft lönesamtal under det senaste året. Av de som hade haft lönesamtal var det ungefär en tredjedel som inte hade förstått hur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats. Ungefär 40 procent av samtliga svarande angavatt de inte kände till vilka kriterier deras lön baseras på. Av de som kände till lönekriteriernavar det cirka två tredjedelar som ansåg att lönekriterierna följdes. Resultatenvisar att det fanns en stor variation mellan sektorerna när det gäller erfarenheter avoch uppfattningar om hur lönesättningen går till.

    De flesta ansåg att det fanns skillnader i arbetsprestation mellan anställda med likvärdigaarbetsuppgifter och att skillnader i prestation borde ge skillnad i lön. Närmare60 procent trodde att individuell lönesättning kunde gynna den egna löneutvecklingen.En sådan positiv förväntan var vanligare bland personer med högre lön och bland män.Däremot var det omkring 40 procent som ansåg att löneskillnader mellan anställdamed likvärdig befattning kunde påverka verksamheten i en negativ riktning, medanomkring 40 procent ansåg att sådana skillnader var bra för verksamheten och20 procent inte hade någon åsikt i frågan.

    Anställda som upplevde att den egna lönen i stor eller ganska stor utsträckning varbaserad på deras arbetsutförande var mer nöjda med sin lön än de som inte upplevdeatt lönen var kopplad till prestation. Kvinnor hade en lägre lönetillfredsställelse änmän och rapporterade även generellt något lägre upplevd grad av jämställdhet i lönesättningenän män, oavsett sektor. Graden av legitimitet i lönesättningen (mätt med fyra dimensioner av lönerättvisa) var överlag måttlig till god, men varierade mellan sektorerna. Nivåerna i upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen var generellt sett högre bland anställda som tyckte att lönekriterierna följdes, som hade haft lönesamtal, som förstodhur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats och som fick högre grad av återkopplingpå hur de utförde sitt arbete. Chefer rapporterade en högre grad av lönerättvisa jämfört med anställda utan chefsansvar.

    Undersökningen visar att lönen som sådan tycks ha viss betydelse för arbetsmotivationoch arbetsprestation. När hänsyn togs till andra faktorer visade sig olika upplevelser avhur lönesättningen går till, såsom förtroende för chefens bedömning och upplevelser avrättvisa, vara viktigare än lönen i sig. Arbetsklimat, i termer av sådant som autonomii arbetet och tydliga mål, var det område som hade störst betydelse för både motivationoch prestation. Personlighet hade betydelse för arbetsprestationen, men var inte särskiltbetydelsefullt för arbetsmotivationen.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns behov av att arbeta med hur lönesättningen gårtill inom privat sektor om avsikten är att använda lönesättningen för att motivera ochöka de anställdas prestation i arbetet. Även om lönenivån som sådan har viss betydelseför de anställdas arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation, har upplevelser av hur lönesättningen genomförs, legitimitet i lönesättningen och arbetsklimatet större betydelse. Chefer kan beskrivas som bärare av lönesystemet och har ett ansvar för att skapatransparens avseende hur lönekriterier används och hur anställdas arbetsutförande bedöms, liksom för att forma de anställdas arbetsklimat.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar undersökningen att när lönesättningen fungerar på ett sätt som de anställda upplever som legitimt finns det förutsättningar för att lön och lönesättning kan bidra till ökad motivation och prestation – och därmed även till verksamhetens utveckling. Resultaten antyder att det är viktigt att integrera lönesättningen med andra åtgärder – såsom att främja arbetsklimatet – för att förbättraverksamheten. Lön och lönesättning utgör ett verktyg bland flera i utvecklingen avmedarbetare och företag.

  • 13. Goslinga, Sjoerd
    et al.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chirumbolo, Antonio
    De Witte, Hans
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Union Support in Coping With Job Insecurity: A Study Among Union Members from Three European Countries2005In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job insecurity on job satisfaction nor its effect on wellbeing. However, in two countries a moderating effect of union support on relation between the job insecurity and organisational commitment was found.

  • 14.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work environment and safety climate: what factors are important for the employee’s experience of safety climate and safety compliance?2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] Guido Hertel, Carmen Binnewies, Stefan Krumm, Heinz Holling, Martin Kleinmann, Münster: Münstersche Informations‐ und Archivsystem multimedialer Inhalte (miami), 2013, p. 594-594Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade’s safety issues and theoretical concepts such as safety culture, safety climate and safety management have become more important in organizations as well as in working life in general. This trend has also affected the health care sector where theories on safety culture and climate, safety management and safety behavior now are considered vital ingredients in the health care organizations. The question is, how and in what way do the perceived working environment relate to safety attitudes and behaviors such as safety climate and safety compliance? Therefore, this study focuses on work environment issues (e.g., work load, team climate, autonomy and leadership) and their impact on employee safety climate perceptions, safety compliance and safety behavior. I addition this study also test for the relative importance of demographics, and occupation (status) for the attitudinal and behavior related safety outcomes. The study uses questionnaire data from a ward belonging to an emergency hospitals operating in the rural area in Sweden. Data are currently being collected and will be analyzed using structure equation modeling in order to test for a model linking work environment perceptions to safety outcomes. The results will be described and discussed in terms of theoretical implications relating to the linkage between work environment and safety behavior as well as in terms of practical implications for policy-makers and hospital managers. The paper highlights the importance of taking the work environment (work load, team climate and leadership characteristics’) in to account in order to create a safety culture that both patients and employee’s are benefiting from.

  • 15.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäst arbetsklimat på sjukhus som bolagiserats eller privatiserats.2006In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 26-27, no 103, p. 2040-2044Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In an attempt to make hospitals more cost effective and improving the quality of medical care, privatization of Swedish hospitals have become more frequent during the past decade. There is a need for knowledge about psychological effects of privatization on health care personnel. We investigated physicians’ perception of their work environment in three hospitals with different forms of ownership — from traditional public administration to for-profit private stock company. The results point towards certain advantages of privatized hospitals. Physicians at the privatized hospital included in the study perceived their work environment in some respects as more positive than did the physicians at the non-privatized hospitals.

  • 16.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Does Pay for Performance Increase Employee Motivation and Performance? Results from a Longitudinal Study in a Swedish Industrial Company2018In: Book of proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard & L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 329-329, article id O161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The private sector in Sweden as well as other industrial countries is rapidly moving towards more performance-oriented pay systems in order to increase employees’ work motivation. In the research literature there has been a long lasting debate on whether pay for performance increases or decreases motivation, especially in relation to intrinsic motivation (the crowding-out effect), and scholars are still debating the effects of pay-for-performance systems on employee motivation and performance. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of how pay relates to employee motivation and performance within the context of a pay-for-performance system. More specifically, drawing on self-determination theory (SDT) and goal setting theory this study investigates how psychological needs (autonomy and feedback), goal setting (goal clarity), pay level and performance-based pay raise (assessed at Time 1) relate to subsequent motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) as well as self-rated and supervisor-rated performance (assessed at Time 2), after controlling for demographic factors (age and sex). Questionnaire data was collected in 2015 and 2016 among all employees in a private Swedish industrial company (N=512, response rate approximately 40 percent). This was supplemented with register data on monthly pay level and individual pay raise along with performance ratings from their pay-setting managers. The findings indicate that pay for performance may have a positive impact on employee motivation and performance but that psychological need satisfaction and goal-setting seem to be crucial for both motivation and job performance. The study gives an input to the pay-motivation-performance puzzle with implications for managers and organisations.

  • 17.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Money money money must be motivating and enhance performance? Results from a longitudinal study in a Swedish industrial company2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1258-1258, article id 827Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The private sector in Sweden is rapidly moving towards more performance-oriented pay systems in order to increase employees’ work motivation. In the research literature there has been a long lasting debate on whether pay for performance increases or decreases motivation, especially in relation to intrinsic motivation (the crowding-out effect), and scholars are still debating the effects of pay-for-performance systems on employee motivation and performance. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of how pay relates to employee motivation and performance within the context of a pay-for-performance system. More specifically, drawing on self determination theory (SDT) and goal setting theory this study investigates how psychological needs (autonomy and feedback), goal setting (goal clarity), pay level and performance-based pay raise (assessed at Time 1) relate to subsequent motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) as well as self-rated and supervisor-rated performance (assessed at Time 2), after controlling for demographic factors (age and sex). Questionnaire data was collected in 2015 and 2016 among all employees in a private Swedish industrial company (N=512, response rate approximately 40 percent). This was supplemented with register data on monthly pay level and individual pay raise along with performance ratings from their pay-setting managers. The findings indicate that pay for performance may have a positive impact on employee motivation and performance but that psychological need satisfaction and goal-setting also seems to be crucial for motivation and job performance. The study gives an input to the pay-motivation-performance puzzle with implications for managers and organizations.

  • 18.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuell lönesättning, med en tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön, har blivit ett allt vanligare inslag i verksamheter. Ett grundläggande antagande som ligger bakom denna utveckling är att lön och löneutveckling är motiverande för individen och därmed bidrar till bra arbetsprestationer och god verksamhetsutveckling. Ett annat grundantagande är att lön och lönesystem kan dra till sig individer som är attraktiva för organisationen samt att lönesystemet ger organisationen möjligheter att premiera och därmed behålla de individer som bidrar till verksamheten.

  • 19.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företags- och medarbetarnära lönebildning blir allt vanligare. Den utvecklingen baseras på antaganden om att lön och löneutveckling bidrar till ökad motivation och goda arbetsprestationer, och att den gör det lättare för arbetsgivare att rekrytera och behålla attraktiva medarbetare. En tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön antas alltså  bidra till att verksamheten utvecklas. Samtidigt är lön en av flera olika faktorer som kan bidra till ökad motivation hos medarbetare och det finns andra faktorer än lön som kan ha större betydelse för motivationen. En förutsättning för att lön ska fungera som en motivationsfaktor är att lönesättningen upplevs som legitim och rättvis. Men för att nå dit behövs det kunskap om de psykologiska mekanismerna som ligger bakom upplevelser av legitimitet, liksom om hur lön och lönesättning hänger samman med motivation och prestation i arbetet.

  • 20.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial risk assessment and prevention in Sweden2013In: International Yearbook on Psychosocial Risk Prevention and Quality of Life at Work / [ed] J.M. Peirò & C. Molina, Secretary of Labour Health and Environment UGT-CEC , 2013, p. 171-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern working life involves higher demands on individual responsibility, blurrier lines between work and private life, increasing flexibility as regards the scheduling of work hours including a high variability from week-to-week or day-today, temporary employment contracts and job insecurity, and unstable organizational conditions. This development has raised concerns regarding job-related stress in Sweden, as well as in other countries, and underscored the need to create sustainable psychosocial work conditions for economic competitiveness and occupational health and safety. This chapter aims to provide an overview of psychosocial risk factors characterizing the contemporary Swedish working life, to describe the institutional frameworks that regulate work environment issues, and to describe how various actors work to prevent psychosocial risk factors. The following section outlines work environment trends and the Swedish system in terms of legislation, various actors on the labor market and so on. Drawing on this, we highlight four sets of psychosocial risk factors (flexible work, working hours, new demands at work, and organizational restructuring) before describing activities related to prevention, health promotion at work and healthy work practices.

  • 21.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Richter, Anne
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Meta-Analysis on Job Insecurity and its Outcomes: An Extension of Previous Knowledge2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Job insecurity has been recognized as a predominant work stressor in work environment research for the past thirty years. Thus far, two meta-analyses have been published on the consequences of job insecurity for individual and organizational outcomes. However, these meta-analyses were published in 2002 and 2008 and contain only a few broad outcomes. Since then, the amount of published job insecurity studies have increased substantially, investigating a wider range of outcomes. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to extend previous knowledge by investigating the effects of job insecurity on a broader spectrum of outcomes than the previous meta-analyses have done.

    Design/Methodology: Literature searches with the search terms “job insecurity”, “job uncertainty”, “job security”, and “job security satisfaction” in relevant databases during the time period 1980─2016 resulted in 523 peer-reviewed papers published. The outcome variables were divided in to three thematic categories: work related attitudes and behaviors, mental and physical health, and life outside work.

    Results: The results suggest that job insecurity has a substantial and negative impact on the wide range of outcomes included.

    Limitations: The study cannot address the question of direction (causality) of the relationships presented and did not control for potential confounding variables.

    Research/Practical implications: Job insecurity is demonstrated to have strong, negative effects on organizational performance and individual health and well-being as well as for life outside work.

    Originality/Value: Adding to previous knowledge, this study both broadens and deepens the understanding of the negative consequences associated with job insecurity.

  • 22.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    There’s more to the picture than meets the eye: A comparison of downsizing survivors with changed and unchanged job content.2005In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational downsizing, in the form of permanent layoffs and offers of early retirement, has become a frequently used strategy. Previous research has identified work attitudes and well-being of survivors as critical for obtaining the anticipated beneficial outcomes, but knowledge is limited regarding the effects of downsizing on different types of survivors. Drawing upon theories on organizational attachment and well-being, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of downsizing on employee attitudes and well-being by comparing survivors who had their work situation changed as a function of the downsizing process with survivors whose situation remained unaffected. Longitudinal questionnaire data were obtained during the course of downsizing. The results show that survivors with a changed work situation reported higher levels of role stress, less favorable job attitudes and more health complaints as compared to survivors who did not have their work situation changed. These findings are important in order to better understand and counteract negative reactions following organizational downsizing.

  • 23.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A validation of a two-dimensional job insecurity scale in South Africa and Sweden2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of job insecurity has received growing recognition in connection with increased unemployment and the use of large workforce reductions to improve organizational effectiveness and competitive ability. Given this, job insecurity has emerged as an important stressor in modern working life, and perceptions of job insecurity have consequently been found to correlate negatively with job and organizational attitudes as well as mental and physical health complaints. Research has traditionally focused on threats of imminent job loss, but several researchers and commentators have argued for a broadening of the concept to also include threats of deteriorated employment conditions.

    Even if measures of the construct are available, measurement properties in terms of reliability, factor structure, and predictive validity are far from clear. The purpose of this study is to address this issue by validating a two dimensional job insecurity scale using confirmatory factor analysis. The first dimension, “quantitative job insecurity” focuses on an overall concern about losing the job as such, whereas the second dimension “qualitative job insecurity” relates to the loss of important job features such as, lack of career opportunities, decreasing salary development, and impaired working conditions. The two dimensions may also relate different to outcomes in terms of relationships as well as magnitude of the relationship. Data for the study are currently being collected in South Africa and Sweden. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis will reveal if the estimated two-dimensional measurement models holds true in both South Africa and Sweden. The results will also show if the job insecurity measure correlates satisfactorily with theoretically derived correlates. The results will stress the importance of developing valid measurement scales in order to satisfactorily estimate the relationships between job insecurity and its postulated outcomes.

  • 24.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physicians’ work climate at three hospitals under different types of ownership2005In: Change and Quality in Human Service Work: Organizational psychology and health care, München: Rainer Hampp , 2005, p. 47-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to make hospitals more cost effective and improving the quality of medical care, privatization of Swedish hospitals have become more frequent during the past decade. There is a need for knowledge about psychological effects of privatization on health care personnel. We investigated physicians' perception of their work environment in three hospitals with different forms of ownership - from traditional public administration to for-profit private stock company. The results point towards certain advantages of privatized hospitals. Physicians at the privatized hospital included in the study perceived their work environment in some respects as more positive than did the physicians at the non-privatized hospitals.

  • 25.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changing work roles: new demands and challenges2007In: The Individual in the Changing Working Life, Cambridge University Press , 2007, p. 46-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    New deamnds and challenges in salaried employees’ work situation.2006In: The 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the importance of these new potential stressors above and beyond more traditional role characteristics, for employee well-being and motivation. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relative importance of demographics, role characteristics, and work stressors related to the new working life for salaried employees’ experiences of health and motivation.

    The empirical data for this study was collected by means of a questionnaire administered salaried employees working in administrative and teaching jobs in the service-sector in Sweden. Out of a total of 1178 questionnaires 836 were returned to the research team (71%). The respondents’ mean age was 50 years (SD = 10) with an average tenure of 17 years (SD = 13), and 74 percent of the sample was female.

    Preliminary results indicate that stressors related to vaguely defined tasks and unclear work goals are important contributions to the salaried employees’ perceived health and well-being above and beyond more traditional role stressors like role overload, role ambiguity and role conflict. Similar results were also obtained for work attitudes and motivation. These results are in line with the notion that greater demands on employees to be independent and effective, along with increased autonomy, may result in a generally more demanding work situation if the work tasks and their goals are vaguely defined and blurred in terms of the output or results.

  • 27.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Turnover as a response to job insecurity: The moderating effect of employability.2006In: The Sixth Conference on Psychology and Health: Kerkrade, the Netherlands, 8-10 May, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a link between job insecurity perceptions and turnover intentions among employees. It has also been suggested that in times of turmoil and insecurity in the organization, employees who perceive themselves as employable are more prone to voluntarily leave the organization as compared to employees perceiving themselves as less employable and attractive on the labor market. Along this line it has also been proposed that the individuals most attractive on the labor market are often key-persons that the organization want to keep, and consequently, the organization may suffer if employable employees leave the organization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of job insecurity perceptions on two different types of turnover intentions, namely organizational turnover and occupational turnover. Secondly, this study aims at investigating the potential moderating role of employability on the relationship between job insecurity and the two types of turnover intention, suggesting that employees perceiving themselves as more employable will be more prone to leave the organization when experiencing job insecurity. The study is based on questionnaire data collected in an acute care hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicate that employability perceptions may play an important role in employees’ turnover intentions during organization turmoil and in connection with feelings of job insecurity.

  • 28.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van der Vliet, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The union side of downsizing: Investigating members’ union attitudes.2005In: Job insecurity and trade union participation in Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot , 2005, p. 117-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Downsizing is a topic that has received growing recognition along with the increased flexibility of the labor market, and numerous studies show strong negative reactions among the survivors. However, whereas the bulk of research suggests that downsizing may impair employees' well-being, attitudes toward the organization, and performance less is known about how employees perceive their union in the downsizing process Indeed, numerous institutions are likely to have an influence over how layoffs are being carried through - among them unions - and it could readily be assumed that employees in downsizing organizations will evaluate the role played by these different actors. For instance, employees who perceive that their union treats the members in a just and fair way and is capable of representing their interests are likely to express positive attitudes toward their union. In contrast, members' union attitudes could be expected to become more negative if the performance of the union is evaluated in a less favorable way.

  • 29.
    Häsänen, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Contrasting between high-performers’ and low-performers’ justice perceptions on effort and turnover cognitions: Can you rely on high-performers’ during plant closures?In: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, E-ISSN 1758-7778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The purpose of this study is to investigate the claim that high-performing employees lose their motivation to exert effort, and has a higher propensity to quit during the process of a closedown.

    Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was used, with one year between data collection points (T1 and T2). Data was collected using online and paper copies of the same questionnaire, with a response rate of 61% on T1 and 55% on T2. A 2 (T1 Job performance: Low vs. High) × 2 (T2 Overall justice: Low vs. High) between-subject analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed on two dependent variables (effort and turnover cognitions), while controlling for positive and negative affectivity.

    Findings: The results showed that high-performers’ who perceived low justice received lowest scores on effort, while low-performers’ perceiving low justice received next highest score on effort. Whereas, all groups who perceived high justice had lower turnover cognitions than those who perceived low justice.

    Practical implications: Using high-performers’ in key positions during a plant closure could be disappointment since the results suggest that high-performers’ could either be those who put forth most and least effort, depending on if they perceive low justice. Therefore, we suggest that it could be more productive to open up the key positions to all employees to apply and interview those who are interested.

  • 30.
    Häsänen, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Goal setting and plant closure: When bad things turn good2011In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 135-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that closedowns seem to result in increased productivity even though allproductivity targets have been abandoned. The closedown case analysed in this article is differentfrom previous research since management came to employ high goals for productivity and efficiencythroughout the entire closedown process (29 months). The article argues that individuals gradually accept the demise and detach themselves from the dying organization by adopting new careergoals which they can start pursuing after the actual closure, thus the closure becomes a subgoal.

    This study examines change in the dependent variables’ mean values, and the relationships betweengoal setting, job performance, goal commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), jobsatisfaction and job-induced tension. A longitudinal design (N = 151) based on two data points (T1:February 2006, T2: February 2007) were tapped into the annual goal setting process. The resultssupports that goal setting was effective in this specific closedown scenario.

  • 31.
    Häsänen, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The upside of organizational death: Investigating change in productivity, efficiency, performance, motivation, and psychological climate during plant closureIn: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study examined qualitative change in productivity, efficiency, as well as blue-collar and white-collar workers‟ performance, motivation, and psychological climate. The results showed that productivity and efficiency improved throughout the years (T1: Dec-05 and T2: Nov-07), indicating that there was a Closedown effect present. Repeated measures showed that there was a main effect of time in all the performance, motivation and climate variables. Both quantitative and qualitative role overload, together with job involvement, decreased over time, while all the other variables increased. There were also main effects of collar, whereas white-collar workers perceived higher job autonomy, lower levels of qualitative role overload and higher levels of managerial support. No effects of collar were found in the motivational or performance variables. Lastly, no significant interaction effects were found.

  • 32. Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Union involvement during downsizing and its relation to attitudes and distress among workers.2005In: Job insecurity and trade union participation in Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot , 2005, p. 97-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of collective coping strategies, such as union participation in management, and negotiating, as a means of alleviating negative impacts have tended to be neglected in research of downsizing effects. The aim of this study was to compare unemployed persons with those who left on early retirement, and with surviving personnel in terms of attitudes towards their company and trade union and predictors of distress. Data were collected in a large retail firm through questionnaires (n=885). Laid-off personnel had clearly the most negative attitude towards their union. Organizational commitment however, was at the same average level in all groups. Further, early retirees had a significantly lower mean level of distress than the other groups. Perceived union support had an indirect effect on distress among persons who were laid off but had found a new job, mediated by degree of satisfaction with outplacement measures. Among survivors, however, organizational commitment - alongside perceived insecurity and workload - were of greater importance.

  • 33.
    Langhammer, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Determinants of Behavioral Intentions: What tells us that practitioners really want to change hiring strategies?2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 453-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated hiring managers' intentional readiness to change hiring procedures as a function of individual determinants, such as their self-efficacy beliefs, causal attributions, and past behaviors. Hiring managers from three large organizations were recruited to participate and provide information about their current hiring processes and personal experiences. Results showed that self-efficacy beliefs had a strong negative relationship with intentional readiness to change. Managers' past behavior, in terms of use of unstructured interviews and external attributions of failure, were negatively associated with intentional readiness to change, while use of unstructured interviews and external attribution of success were positively associated with intentional readiness to change. Furthermore, the interactive effect of causal attribution and use of selection methods played a significant role in explaining intentional readiness for change. The results indicated that recruiting managers who preferred using unstructured interviews and attributed failures to external causes were less willing to change hiring practices than those who made less use of unstructured interviews and explained their failure externally. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  • 34.
    Langhammer, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nolan, Kevin
    Hofstra University, NY, USA.
    Bernhard Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hiring Managers’ Prototype Beliefs and Their Use of Employee Selection PracticesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current approaches in employee selection research suggest that understanding practitioners’ beliefs would help explain their resistance towards standardized employee selection practices. For this purpose we conducted a survey among hiring managers from the Swedish retail industry. Based on their answers we identified prototype beliefs about what it takes to be successful in employee selection and examined the relationships between these beliefs and hiring managers’ use of employee selection practices. The results indicate that the prototypical hiring manager is defined by three primary facets: professional experience, disposition, and importance of individual attributes. We also found that (a) beliefs about the importance of educational experiences are positively related to hiring managers’ use of standardized assessment methods, and (b) that hiring managers’ beliefs about the importance of disposition are positively related to their use of non-standardized assessment methods and negatively related to their use of standardized assessment methods. Moreover, individuals who frequently used standardized tests and structured interviews are significantly less likely to perceive employee selection as an ambiguous process. This study contributes to the theory of employee selection by demonstrating that hiring managers’ prototype beliefs are significantly related to their use of employee selection practices. The results also suggest that using standardized methods of assessment may improve practitioners’ ability to evaluate the effectiveness of their employee selection decisions. A practical contribution of this study is that it informs organizations about the characteristics that hiring managers believe are important for someone in their line of work to possess.

  • 35.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, New Zeeland.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    30 års forskning om anställningsotrygghet: En litteraturöversikt2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 3/4, p. 8-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anställningsotrygghet – en oro för att mot sin vilja förlora jobbet – är något som de flesta anställda idag upplever under sina yrkesliv. Den beteendevetenskapliga forskningen inom detta område har skjutit fart sedan millennieskiftet, vilket motiverar behovet av en uppdaterad litteraturöversikt. Översikten omfattar prediktorer och konsekvenser av anställningsotrygghet samt vilka faktorer som har identifierats som viktiga när det gäller att mildra anställningsotrygghetens konsekvenser.

  • 36.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Richter, Anne
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Do the Consequences of Job Insecurity Differ between Cultural and Welfare Contexts? Meta-Analytic Findings2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A rapidly growing body of literature has shown that perceptions of job insecurity are related to negative outcomes, but less is known about the relative importance of different societal contexts. It has for instance been argued that the consequences of job insecurity may be more negative in countries that have a high level of social protection, because of the social stigma of unemployment. On the other hand, the lack of unemployment insurance programs may aggravate the negative consequences. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate if work- and health-related consequences of job insecurity vary between cultural and welfare contexts.

    Design/Methodology: A literature search with the search terms “job insecurity”, “job uncertainty”, “job security”, and “job security satisfaction” in Psycinfo, Web of Science, and EBSCO produced a sample of 523 peer-reviewed papers published between 1980 and July 2016. Economic and social development, national welfare system, and tolerance for ambiguity were tested as moderators in the relationship between job insecurity and outcomes.

    Results: The results indicate that the magnitudes of effects of job insecurity differ depending on the choice of classification system.

    Limitations: The literature search was limited to published, peer-reviewed papers. This demarcation may have introduced a publication bias to the study.

    Research/Practical implications: In addition to being an important individual and organizational concern, job insecurity is also intimately linked with societal level factors.

    Originality/Value: This study contributes to an increased understanding of the importance of macro-level factors in the association between job insecurity and outcomes.

  • 37.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    How is Job Insecurity Related to Self-rated and Supervisor-rated Job Performance? A Test of Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations2018In: Book of proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard & L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 288-289, article id O110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: While previous research has shown that job insecurity is linked to job performance, the number of studies exploring this relationship is limited and the results are mixed (Cheng & Chan, 2008; Sverke et al., 2002). This duality is also reflected in theoretical frameworks. For instance, psychological contract theory implicates that job insecurity may result in lower performance (De Cuyper & De Witte, 2006; Vander Elst et al., 2016), whereas impression management theory suggests that performance may increase as a consequence of perceived job insecurity (Huang et al., 2013). Further, the type of performance ratings used in previous studies has been discussed, and the sole use of self-ratings of performance is upheld as potentially problematic (e.g. Probst et al., 2017). In response to previous criticism of studies in this field regarding self-ratings of performance, both self- and supervisor-ratings of job performance are included in this study. Lastly, there have also been calls for more longitudinal studies in job insecurity research, addressing the question of short- and long-term effects of job insecurity (Greenhalgh & Rosenblatt, 2010). Taken together, this study seeks to address the mixed results found in previous research regarding the relationship between job insecurity and job performance. More specifically, the aim is to investigate how job insecurity is related to self- and supervisor-rated performance, both cross-sectionally and over time.

    Design: The study is based on survey data collected among white-collar employees in a large industrial enterprise in Sweden. The data collection had a longitudinal design with 2 data waves. The questionnaire data will be supplemented with supervisor ratings of overall performance.

    Findings: Questionnaire data from employees have been collected, and preliminary results indicate that job insecurity can result in lower job performance. Supervisor-ratings are currently being collected.

    Research limitations: While the study adds to the literature by investigating both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of job insecurity with self-rated as well as supervisor-rated job performance, it does not unravel the nature of causal associations. In addition, the results need replication in other national and occupational contexts.

    Practical implications: The present study links job insecurity with lower performance. The results thus have important implications for organisations navigating high demands for flexibility and tight business margins. Organisations should make efforts to prevent job insecurity from emerging as a concern among employees in order to avoid reduced job performance.

    Originality: By combining a longitudinal design with self- and supervisor-ratings of task performance, this study adds to previous research in two different ways: We investigate both (1) short- and long-terms associations between job insecurity and job performance, and (2) test these associations using both self- and supervisor-ratings of job performance.

  • 38.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Challenges for pay-setting managers: A thematic analysis2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1281-1282, article id 894Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In organizations using individualized pay setting, where pay raises are based on job performance and the quality of work, managers have a central role as they execute the organizations’ pay systems. The present study aims at increasing the understanding of pay-setting managers’ beliefs and perspectives on their role in connection to pay setting.

    Design/Methodology: The study is based on seven focus group interviews with pay-setting supervisors from four different companies in the Swedish private sector. In the past few years, all four companies have implemented new pay-systems with a greater focus on employee performance. The semi-structured focus group interviews were analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis.

    Results: Data analysis is ongoing. A preliminary thematic analysis revealed several tentative themes. These concern difficulties in assessing employee performance and in ensuring that employees fully understand the pay setting process (especially the performance assessments), the importance of regular constructive feedback, need for guidance and support, and lack of resources to reward high performing individuals.

    Limitations: While focus groups with managers from four organizations provide a wealth of perspectives, individual interviews may have allowed for more in-depth insights. The results also need replication using questionnaire data to examine how wide-spread various experiences are.

    Implications: This study contributes to a better understanding of the challenges that pay-setting supervisors perceive. This knowledge could be used by organizations to facilitate the pay-setting process for managers.

    Originality: This is one of few studies focusing on pay-setting managers, who are the ones executing organizations’ pay setting systems.

  • 39.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Chefens kön och medarbetarens lön: Upplevelsen av individuell prestationsbaserad lönesättning2017In: FALF konferens 2017: Arbetslivets utmaningar i staden och på landsbygden: Abstracts, 2017, p. 21-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska lönebildningen har de senaste decennierna kommit att bli allt mer lokal och tillämpningen av individuella prestationsbaserade lönesystem ökar stadigt. Det grundläggande antagandet bland arbetsmarknadens parter är att löneökningar som baseras på arbetsutförande leder till ökad motivation och prestation hos de anställda. Evidensen gällande hur väl individuella och prestationsbaserade lönesystem lever upp till sitt grundantagande är tvetydig, men en förutsättning för att dessa lönesystem skall verka motiverande och prestationshöjande antas vara att lönesättningen upplevs som rättvis. Det är i de flesta fall den närmaste chefen som gör bedömningen av prestationen, vilket skulle kunna innebära att könsstereotyper får en inverkan vid prestationsbedömningen, och därmed löneökningen, för de anställda. Kunskapen är begränsad om vilken betydelse könet på den lönesättande chefen har för såväl anställdas upplevelser av lönesättningen som för löneutfallet. Kvinnor har generellt en lägre lön än män, även efter justering för individ- och arbetsrelaterade faktorer. Tidigare forskning har visat att skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns lön är större än skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns när det gäller bedömningar av deras arbetsprestation. De få studier som har undersökt anställdas upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningen indikerar att kvinnor upplever lönesättningen som mer rättvis än män. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur individuell och prestationsbaserad lönesättning upplevs av anställda på ett företag som 2014 introducerade ett nytt lönesystem. Genom att jämföra kvinnor och män, som har en kvinna respektive man som lönesättande chef, undersöks skillnader mellan dessa fyra grupper när det gäller (1) lönenivå och löneökning (i absolut och relativ nivå), (2) upplevelser av lönesättningen och erfarenheter av lönesystemet samt (3) bedömningar av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen. Resultatet indikerar att män generellt hade en högre lön och fick en högre lönehöjning i absolut nivå än kvinnor. Resultaten visar att män som var lönesättande chefer generellt gav en högre lön, både i absolut och relativ nivå, jämfört med kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer. Dessutom antyder resultatet att kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer tenderade att ge en högre lön till män. Trots detta rapporterade kvinnor generellt högre grad av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen, särskilt i upplevelser av tillgång tilll information samt hur proceduren för lönesättningen gått till, det fanns inga skillnader mellan grupperna när det gällde upplevelsen av distributiv rättvisa (fördelning av lömnemedel) eller mellanmänsklig rättvisa (hur man behandlats av lönesättande chef). Sammantaget bidrar denna studie till en ökad förståelse av hur lönesättningen upplevs av kvinnor och män utifrån om de har en kvinna eller man som lönesättande chef. Medan det är ett välkänt faktum att kvinnor tenderar att ha lägre lön än män, reser denna studie också en mängd nya frågor, exepelvis varför kvinnliga chefer tenderar att ge högre lön till medarbetare som är män snarare än kvinnor och varför kvinnor trots lägre lönenivåer och lönepåslag tycks uppleva lönesättningen som mer rättvis. Genom att diskutera möjligheter till hur könsstereotyper kan inverka i lönesättningen bidrar studien med insikter i vilken utsträckning såväl den lönesättandechefens som den anställdes kön har betydelse för anställdas löneutfall och upplevelse av lönesättningen. 

  • 40.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Pay no attention to my gender: Effects of gender in the pay-setting process2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is well established that women have lower pay than men, it is not known if women and men perceive the justice of a pay setting process differently or if perceptions of justice differ depending on the gender of the supervisor. The aim of this study was to investigate differences between women and men employees, who have a woman or man as pay-setting supervisor, in perceived pay-related justice as well as actual pay level and pay raise (in relative and absolute levels). Questionnaire data were collected from 841 employees in a Swedish private sector company that has implemented a new pay-for-performance system. 2 (employee’s gender) * 2 (supervisor’s gender) MANOVAs indicate that women experienced higher levels of perceived pay justice than men. There was no gender difference in relative pay increase, whereas men, on average, had a higher pay-level and absolute pay increase than women. On average, men pay-setting supervisors gave a higher pay-increase than women pay-setting supervisors. There only significant interaction effects was for pay level. The data derives from one company that has worked hard to implement a new pay-setting system. The study needs replication in other organizational contexts as well as in nationally representable samples. Implementing pay-for-performance systems has the potential to create a more gender equal pay-setting process. This is one of few studies investigating gender equity in pay-related justice and the potential effects of the pay-setting supervisors’ gender in a performance-based pay-system.

  • 41.
    Mattson, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A leadership perspective on safety communication2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 172-173Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many of today's organizations, there is a growing concern regarding workplace safety. As a result of this, there is an increase in organizational activities aimed at enhancing the employees’ safety awareness’ and eliminating organizational factors that may lead to the employees being exposed to risks.Communication is considered a vital aspect of the functioning and success of an organization, and is potentially relevant even in a workplace safety context. However, there are gaps in research regarding the ways in which a leader’s communication with his or her subordinates could affect safety at the workplace. The question in the present study is how and in what way a leader’s communication with his or her subordinates (e.g. in the form of feedback, communication of safety values, and openness in dialogues) relate to safety issues such as perceived safety and safety behaviors. Questionnaire data was collected from a ward belonging to an emergency hospital operating in a rural area in Sweden. The data will be analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results will be described and discussed in terms of theoretical implications relating to the linkage between a leader’s communication with his or her subordinates and safety, as well as in terms of practical implications for policy-makers and managers. The paper highlights the importance of taking leadership communication into account in the pursuit of increasing workplace safety.

  • 42.
    Mattson, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leader communication approaches and patient safety: an integrated model2015In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 53, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Problem: Leader communication is known to influence a number of employee behaviors. When it comes to the relationship between leader communication and safety, the evidence is more scarce and ambiguous. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether and in what way leader communication relates to safety outcomes. The study examines two leader communication approaches: leader safety priority communication and feedback to subordinates. These approaches were assumed to affect safety outcomes via different employee behaviors. Method: Questionnaire data, collected from 221 employees at two hospital wards, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results: The two examined communication approaches were both positively related to safety outcomes, although leader safety priority communication was mediated by employee compliance and feedback communication by organizational citizenship behaviors. Conclusion: The findings suggest that leader communication plays a vital role in improving organizational and patient safety and that different communication approaches seem to positively affect different but equally essential employee safety behaviors. Practical applications: The results highlights the necessity for leaders to engage in one-way communication of safety values as well as in more relational feedback communication with their subordinates in order to enhance patient safety.

  • 43.
    Mattson, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torbiörn, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of staff bonus systems on safety behaviors2014In: Human Resource Management Review, ISSN 1053-4822, E-ISSN 1873-7889, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bonus systems are a common means in trying to motivate employees to perform well. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effects of bonus systems. Some theories even suggest that such systems could cause an increase in risk-behavior. This makes further research regarding bonus systems warranted, especially when applied in high-risk organizations. This study aims to explore potential effects on safety-related behavior associated with bonus systems currently used at Swedish nuclear power plants. Fifteen semi-structured interviews with employees were performed based on an eclectically composed framework from motivational and organizational theories. Results do not indicate any negative effects on safety-related behaviors, but rather that safety behaviors may be promoted insofar as bonus rewards are linked to performance goals concerning safety. Differences in bonus system design appeared to affect behavioral outcomes. The comparative and qualitative approach of this study contributes valuable information by highlighting the types of factors that may serve to stimulate greater incentive for employees to engage in safe behavior.

  • 44.
    Mattson, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Leading for safety: A question of leadership focusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is considerable evidence that leadership influence workplace safety, but less is known about the relative importance of different leadership styles. The present study investigated the relative roles of transformational, transactional (MBEA), and safety-specific leadership styles for different safety outcomes. Data was collected through a survey responded by 269 employees at a process industry. The results showed that a safety-specific leadership style contributed the most to enhanced safety. Transformational leadership was not found to contribute to any safety outcome over and above that of a safety-specific leadership, while a monitoring and correcting transactional leadership style was associated with an increased number of injuries. Results also indicated that a separation of injuries into different degrees of severity may be beneficial for the detection of significant relationships between organizational factors and injury outcomes.

  • 45.
    Mattson Molnar, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. MTO Safety AB, Sweden.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Leading for Safety: A Question of Leadership Focus2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is considerable evidence that leadership influences workplace safety, but less is known about the relative importance of different leadership styles for safety. In addition, a leadership style characterized by an emphasis and a focus on promoting safety has rarely been investigated alongside other more general leadership styles.

    Methods: Data were collected through a survey to which 269 employees in a paper mill company responded. A regression analysis was conducted to examine the relative roles of transformational, transactional (management-by-exception active; MBEA), and safety-specific leadership for different safety behavioral outcomes (compliance behavior and safety initiative behaviors) and for minor and major injuries.

    Results: A safety-specific leadership contributed the most to the enhanced safety of the three different kinds of leadership. Transformational leadership did not contribute to any safety outcome over and above that of a safety-specific leadership, whereas a transactional leadership (MBEA) was associated with negative safety outcomes (fewer safety initiatives and increased minor injuries).

    Conclusion: The most important thing for leaders aiming at improving workplace safety is to continuously emphasize safety, both in their communication and by acting as role models. This highlights the importance for leadership training programs aiming to improve safety to actually focus on safety-promoting communication and behaviors rather than general leadership. Furthermore, an overly monitoring and controlling leadership style can be detrimental to attempts at achieving improved workplace safety.

  • 46.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The salaried employee in the modern working life: Threats and challenges.: Technical report on the sample, data collection, and measurement properties of the instruments.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report presents data collected within a project focusing on salaried employees, among whom we have witnessed profound changes both in the conditions under which work is carried out and in the reported frequencies of psychological health complaints. The aim has been to capture traditional and new demands that have previously not been the focus of empirical studies, as well as to investigate what factors related to attitudes, behavior, and well-being among salaried workers. The project has consisted in a longitudinal data collection among white-collar workers in four Swedish organizations. Documentation on the procedure, samples, and questionnaire items is presented in the present technical report, along with measurement properties and descriptive statistics at both time points for the scales used. The results indicate that the measures are for the most part satisfactory, and the report provides a solid basis for future research on the data collected in this project.

  • 47.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    De Cuyper, N.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in coping with job insecurity2008In: Work, Stress, and Health 2008: Healthy And Safe Work Through Research, Practice, and Partnerships, Washington, DC, USA, March 6-8, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility demands on organizations along with ever-changing economic conditions have made the working situation for employees less stable and more unpredictable. Perceptions of job insecurity have been more frequently reported and researched. Such perceived threats to one’s employment have been shown to give rise to stress experiences and have been linked to several different negative outcomes, such as strain reactions, dissatisfaction with the job, and turnover intention. Less is known about how job insecurity relates to different coping behaviors. In order to understand how individuals dealing with job insecurity react, the present study investigates to what extent the experience is related to different coping strategies. In light of research on possible gender differences in coping behaviors, the present study also takes gender into account, and tests whether men and women respond with different coping behaviors to job insecurity.

    There is consensus regarding the negative impact of job insecurity, however, the reactions to this stressor are not the same for all individuals. Given that coping strategies have been found to mitigate negative reactions to various other work stressors, it is plausible that reactions to job insecurity also are affected by the type of coping behaviors utilized. The present study investigates the moderating effect of coping on the relation between job insecurity and its outcomes. Also, previous research has indicated that there are some gender differences in the reactions to job insecurity, and it is plausible that such gender differences may be attributed to different coping strategies. Consequently, the present study also aims to test whether coping moderates the relation between job insecurity and its outcomes differently among men as compared to women.

    The research questions were investigated in a sample of Swedish employees, working in the service sector in administrative jobs, participating in larger longitudinal questionnaire study concerning employee attitudes and well-being in the context of the changing nature of working life. At Time 1, 1443 persons received the questionnaire, and 1051 usable questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 72%. At Time 2, 1393 questionnaires were sent out, 868 were returned for a response rate of 62%. Of those who participated at Time 1, 73% chose to participate at Time 2.

    To test whether job insecurity was more strongly related to certain coping behaviors than others, regression analyses were conducted. The three types of coping behavior analyzed were change oriented coping, avoidance coping, and coping by devaluating the importance of the situation. The cross-sectional analyses indicated that job insecurity was moderately related to all three types of coping in the cross-sectional analysis, while there were no relations over time. However, when analyzed for gender differences, preliminary results suggest that job insecurity was unrelated to coping strategies among women, both within measurement point and over time, while among men there was an association between job insecurity at Time 1 and both change and avoidance coping at Time 1, as well as change coping at Time 2.

    To test whether the effect of job insecurity on outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and mental and physical health was moderated by different coping behaviors moderated multiple regression analyses were carried out. The cross-sectional results indicate that the relation between job insecurity and mental health was moderated by avoidance coping in the entire sample. For women, higher levels of devaluation were associated with lowered job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and mental health when job insecurity was high. Avoidance coping, on the other hand, appeared to mitigate the negative relation between job insecurity and organizational commitment and mental health.

    For men, change coping was associated with lower organizational commitment among those reporting high job insecurity, whereas devaluation appeared to mitigate the negative relation between job insecurity and mental and physical health.

    The preliminary longitudinal analyses revealed main effects of job insecurity over time, both for men and women. Change coping was a significant predictor of subsequent organizational commitment among men and women, and mental health among women. None of the interaction effects tested in the cross-sectional analyses was significant over time.

    The results suggest that job insecurity is associated with different coping strategies among women as compared to men, and that different coping strategies influence the relation between job insecurity and its outcomes quite differently, and also, that these differences become more pronounced when gender is taken into account. These preliminary results primarily shed light the relation between job insecurity, coping, and the outcomes within one time point, as a time lag of one year between measurements may be too long to uncover mitigating effects of coping over time. Nevertheless, the results point to the importance of coping strategies in dealing with job insecurity and may be useful in the implementation of appropriate assistance programs for employees experiencing job insecurity.

  • 48.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    The individual in the changing working life2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working life has been the subject of great change in recent years, with contemporary conditions generally providing increased opportunities and autonomy for individuals. But these benefits can coincide with greater demands and responsibilities, increasing the pressure to work outside of traditional working hours and so creating conflict between work and family life. This book contributes towards our understanding of contemporary working life, considering how recent changes have affected the work climates, attitudes, and well-being of individuals. Combining traditional theoretical frameworks with innovative new research, it discusses both the positive and negative effects contemporary working life has on organizations and employees. International experts in the fields of work and organizational psychology present strategies to prevent negative working conditions and help individuals achieve a healthy work–life balance.

  • 49.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    The Individual in the Changing Working Life: Introduction2007In: The Individual in the Changing Working Life, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , 2007, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pienaar, J
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Depression and work stressors: gender differences in stress experiences.2006In: The Sixth International Conference on Occupational Stress & Health: Miami, March 2-4, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The general category of factors labeled job stress has been associated with a number of negative outcomes, such as health complaints, as well as negative attitudes and behaviors. The exact nature of the particular stressors may vary in different studies, but individuals who are exposed to different stressors generally report lower well-being and symptoms of ill-health and depression.

    Depression has been reported as a consequence of job stress in several studies, and there are indications of reverse causation, in that depression has been found to influence perceptions of work stressors, thus actually exacerbating the experience of negative conditions at work. Moreover, levels of depression have been found to be higher among women, and women tend to be more likely to experience depressive episodes. Fewer studies have tested whether the link between job stressors and depression is stronger among women as compared to men. Based on this, the present study investigates the relationship between work stressors and depression, and potential gender differences in this relationship, as well as testing the direction of the relationship, using a longitudinal design. In order to investigate the whether the strengths of the relationships between work stressors and depression vary between women and men by a multiple group comparison using structural equation modeling.

    Wave 1 of the data collection was completed during February 2005. Questionnaires were sent out to the home addresses of all employees at an accounting firm with branches all over Sweden, and 250 filled out and returned their questionnaires for a response rate of 86%. Women comprised 50% of the sample, and the mean age was 42 years (SD=10). Wave 2 data will be collected in January 2006.

    The preliminary results indicate that work stressors predict depression similarly among women as compared to men, implying that explanatory models for depression hold for both groups, at least when pertaining to work stressors. The results also indicate that work stressors explain a larger proportion of the variance in depression than indicated by previous research. The results indicate that depression may be partly prevented by improving the work situation. When expanded with tests for reverse causality and control for initial values, the study will be able to shed light on gender differences in the development of depressive symptoms over time as well, and have implications for helping individuals cope with depression at work.

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