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  • 1. Albertini, Marco
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy.
    Moving back to “mamma”? Divorce, intergenerational coresidence, and latent family solidarity in Sweden2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most obvious consequences of divorce is the moving out of one or both ex‐partners from the formerly common household. Here we focus on a particular postdivorce residential move, the return to the parental home in Sweden, where intergenerational coresidence is uncommon. We ask whether family dissolution increases the likelihood of intergenerational coresidence among separated/divorced individuals who have at least 1 child below age 18. Furthermore, we ask whether the strength of the effect depends on socio‐economic and geographical factors. Our analysis of 670,777 individuals from Swedish population register data shows that even if living with parents is, in absolute terms, not a common intergenerational support strategy, its likelihood increases considerably after a family dissolution. This event increases the probability of living with one's parents especially among men, those with low incomes, and those who live close to their parent(s). We discuss the implications of our findings for the literature on patterns of intergenerational support across Europe.

  • 2.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Könsskillnader i karriärer. Utveckling för kvinnor och män födda från 1925 till 19812014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The direct and indirect effects of social background on occupational positions in Sweden: new evidence on old questions2016In: Education, occupation and social origin: a comparative analysis of the transmission of socio‐economic inequalities / [ed] Ballarino, G, and Bernardi, F., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 182-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at Sweden, long extolled as an egalitarian society with low economic inequalities and high levels of equality of opportunity (e.g., Björklund and Jäntti 2011). Our research questions follow those of the broader project. First, we ask whether direct class background effects are found in Sweden. The second question concerns whether the effects of social background have changed over time. Third, we ask whether direct class background effects are weaker among persons with a tertiary education. Fourth, we are interested in whether class-of-origin effects are stronger or weaker at labour market entry, when employers have less information on potential workers and vice versa, than at later career stages. Finally, we analyse whether direct social origin effects vary by gender. In section 12.2, we discuss the Swedish context and its relevant institutions and characteristics. Then in section 12.3 we review the previous studies pertaining to our research questions. Thereafter, in section 12.4, we present our data. In section 12.5 we present our findings, while section 12.6 provides a discussion.

  • 4. Boertien, Diederik
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Why does women's education stabilize marriages? The role of marital attraction and barriers to divorce2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 38, p. 1241-1276, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Despite widespread attention paid to the negative correlation between female education and divorce, we lack an explanation for it. In this study we use social exchange theory to assess two broad groups of explanations. According to the 'marital attraction' explanation, educated women's marriages have higher marital quality and marital satisfaction. According to the 'barriers to divorce' explanation, educated women's marriages include factors that raise the cost of divorcing. Many previous studies have referred to variants of the former explanation, whereas the latter has been less prominent. Our objective is to investigate the explanatory power of these two explanations.

    METHODS

    We use discrete-time event history models to document the educational gradient of divorce from first marriages using the British Household Panel Survey (N = 1,263) for the years 1996-2009. We subsequently perform a mediation analysis to explain the educational gradient in divorce and a path analysis to distinguish which factors shape marital attraction and barriers to divorce.

    RESULTS

    Female education is positively related to marital stability, but this association is only partly explained by educational differences in marital satisfaction and variables that shape attractions. Variables interpreted as affecting barriers to divorce, such as home ownership and having divorced parents, provide an at least equally important explanation of the educational gradient in divorce.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This paper shows that the negative female educational gradient of divorce is shaped not only by educational differences in marital attraction, but also by differences in barriers to divorce.

  • 5. Brons, M. D. (Anne)
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Education and Family Dissolution: A Cross-National and Cohort Comparison2018In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 426-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first study to systematically analyze whether the association between parental education and family dissolution varies cross-nationally and over time. The authors use meta-analytic tools to study cross-national variation between 17 countries with data from the Generations and Gender Study and Harmonized Histories. The association shows considerable cross-national variation, but is positive in most countries. The association between parental education and family dissolution has become less positive or even negative in six countries. The findings show that the association between parental education and family dissolution is generally positive or nil, even if the association between own education and family dissolution is in many countries increasingly negative. The authors find suggestive evidence that the association is related to the crude divorce rate, but not to the generosity of the welfare state in these countries. The implications of these findings for understanding the stratification in family dissolution are discussed.

  • 6.
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Educational Institutions as Partner MarketsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze how school size and composition affect partnership formation in universities and in major programs within universities. Schools are commonly regarded important settings for partnership formation and matching in schools is an important explanation to educational homogamy. Yet we know little about which structural and compositional features of schools promote or dampen partnership formation. We analyze the probability of partnership formation in schools, namely the probability for a member of index cohort to have a partner with whom one overlapped in school with. Building on theories of marriage markets, we analyze the effects of school size, their sex ratios, and the age and ethnic compositions of universities on the likelihood of partnership formation. We use data from Swedish population registers for a cohort born in 1970. Our data includes the entire cohort and identifies the universities, and other students in them, which the cohort members attended. 

  • 7. Cooke, Lynn Prince
    et al.
    Erola, Jani
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hewitt, Belinda
    Jolovaara, Marika
    Kan, Man-Yee
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Mencarini, Letizia
    Mignot, Jean-Francois
    Mortelmans, Dimitri
    Poortman, Anne-Rigt
    Schmitt, Christian
    Trappe, Heike
    Labor and Love: Wives' Employment and Divorce Risk in its Socio-Political Context2013In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 482-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize how social policy affects marital stability vis-à-vis macro and micro effects of wives' employment on divorce risk in 11 Western countries. Correlations among 1990s aggregate data on marriage, divorce, and wives' employment rates, along with attitudinal and social policy information, seem to support specialization hypotheses that divorce rates are higher where more wives are employed and where policies support that employment. This is an ecological fallacy, however, because of the nature of the changes in specific countries. At the micro level, we harmonize national longitudinal data on the most recent       cohort of wives marrying for the first time and find that the stabilizing effects of a gendered division of labor have ebbed.  In the United States with its lack of policy support, a wife's employment still significantly increases the risk of divorce. A wife's employment has no significant effect on divorce risk in Australia, Flanders, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In Finland, Norway, and Sweden, wives' employment predicts a significantly lower risk of divorce when compared with wives who are out of the labor force. The results indicate that greater policy support for equality reduces and may even reverse the relative divorce risk associated with a wife's employment.

  • 8.
    Dahlin, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: Does country level gender equality matter?2013In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 98, p. 24-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis.

  • 9. Erman, Jeylan
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Separation and School Performance Among Children of Immigrant Mothers in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 267-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration and family change are two demographic processes that have changed the face of European societies and are associated with inequalities in child outcomes. Yet there is little research outside the USA on whether the effects of family dynamics on children's life chances vary by immigrant background. We asked whether the effect of parental separation on educational achievement varies between immigrant backgrounds (ancestries) in Sweden. We used Swedish population register data on two birth cohorts (born in 1995 and 1996) of Swedish-born children and analyzed parental separation penalties on grade sums and non-passing grades (measured at ninth grade) across ten ancestry groups, defined by the mother's country of birth. We found that the parental separation effects vary across ancestries, being weakest among children with Chilean-born mothers and strongest among children with mothers born in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In general, the effects were weaker in groups in which parental separation was a more common experience.

  • 10. Erola, Jani
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    More careful or less marriageable? Parental divorce, spouse selection, and entry into marriage2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 1323-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population registers to study the effects of parental divorce on entry into marriage with spouses who have different educational qualifications (both absolute and relative to one's own education), using conditional multinomial logistic regression models. The results show that Finnish children of divorce have lower rates of marriage than those from intact families. In particular, children of divorce have a lower likelihood of marrying spouses with secondary education or more, and especially low rates of marrying someone with a tertiary degree. The latter gap is smaller among those with tertiary education, as a result of the higher rates of homogamous marriage among the children of divorce with high education. Our findings suggest that children of divorce carry with them traits and behaviors that make them less marriageable candidates in the marriage market. We discuss the possible implications of these findings.

  • 11.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Intergenerational transmission of divorce: the swedish trend2014Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    D5.2. Cohort trends in effects of family dynamics on children’s life chances2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Halldén, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vertical and horizontal segregation at labor market entry in Sweden: Birth cohorts 1925-852015In: Gender, Education, and Employment. An International Comparison of School-To-Work Transitions / [ed] Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Jan Skopek, Moris Triventi, Sandra Buchholz, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 184-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Turku, Finland.
    Birth order effects on educational attainment and educational transitions in West Germany2014In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 166-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using sibling data from the German Life History Study and fixed-effects models, I find that birth order has a strong negative effect on educational attainment in West Germany—being born later translates to less education. The strength of the birth order effect is comparable to those of many commonly used family background indicators. This finding contrasts many sceptical accounts of birth order found in the sociological and psychological literatures. The results of this study also show the sensitivity of birth order estimates to model specification, pointing to a likely cause for conflicting results in the previous literature. Birth order effects are weaker for females and in larger families, but do not vary according to families’ socioeconomic characteristics. The effects are likewise strong at transition from compulsory school to Gymnasium, but not significant on the transition from Gymnasium to university. Overall, the results do not support theories emphasizing the dilution of socioeconomic resources, nor do they support theories on age-crossovers in birth order effects at around age 11. However, the dilution of other family resources such as parental time and attention is a possible candidate. The weaker birth order effects among females can reflect the traditionally gender unequal returns to education, in which intellectual and school performance advantages to lower birth order do not translate into better educational attainment among German women. Overall, these findings underline the importance of birth order in shaping socioeconomic achievement and, more generally, of the factors that affect the experiences and inequalities of children growing up in the same family.

  • 15.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Children and Dual Worklessness in Europe:  A Comparison of Nine Countries2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents’ labour market status is a strong determinant of children’seconomic well-being, and children living in jobless households are particularlyvulnerable. However, previous research has not focused on the association betweenchildren and household worklessness. In this paper, I used ECHP data from nineEuropean countries to analyse the effects of the number and age of children on theprobability that neither partner of a couple works. Results from random-effectsregressions show that children increase the risk of dual worklessness in five of thecountries. The effects were particularly strong in the United Kingdom and Ireland,and more generally, stronger in countries with little institutional support for workingmothers, low levels of employment protection, and unexpectedly, where benefitswere less likely to be means-tested. The risk of dual joblessness diminished with theage of the youngest child in Belgium, Finland, France and the United Kingdom andmore generally, slower in countries with a strict employment protection regimeand a high level of means-testing of social benefits. Having children can thus affectthe labour market position of households, and influence their economic well-being. However, these effects can be shaped by the social policy and labour market solutions countries adopt

  • 16.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Divorce2015In: Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: an Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource / [ed] Robert A.Scott, Stephen M. Kosslyn, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Härkönen, Juho
    JFK School of Government, Harvard University, USA.
    Divorce Risk Factors Across Finnish Marriage Cohorts, 1954-19892005In: Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, ISSN 0506-3590, Vol. 41, p. 151-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether there has been a change in the effects of three divorce risk factors, female educational attainment, cohabitation, and parity. Several theoretical reasons suggest such a change, but the existing evidence gives mixed results. First marriages of Finnish women married between 1954 and 1989 are analysed using data from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS), collected in 1989 and 1990. The results from the discrete-time event history models show that the effect of having children on marital stability has changed: the impact of having two children has become less evident, while the effect of having three children or more has increased. These trends hold after controlling for young children and premarital children. Some explanations for this shift are discussed.

  • 18.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Divorce: trends, patterns, causes, and consequences2014In: The Wiley-Blackwell companion to the sociology of families / [ed] Judith Treas, Jacqueline Scott, Martin Richards, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 303-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hyvinvointivaltio yhteiskunnallisena instituutiona2004In: Sosiologisia karttalehtiä: uudistettu laitos / [ed] Ismo Kantola, Keijo Koskinen, Pekka Räsänen, Tammerfors: Vastapaino, 2004, 3, p. 159-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kausaalinen päättely sosiologiassa2004In: Kiistoja ja dilemmoja–sosiologian kiistakysymykset / [ed] Pekka Räsänen & Ismo Kantola, Åbo: Kirja-Aurora , 2004, p. 55-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Labour Force Dynamics and the Obesity Gap in Female Unemployment in Finland2008In: Research on Finnish Society, Vol. 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sosiaalinen periytyvyys ja sosiaalinen liikkuvuus2010In: Luokaton Suomi?: yhteiskuntaluokat 2000-luvun Suomessa / [ed] Erola, J., Helsingfors: Gaudeamus , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bernardi, Fabrizio
    Boertien, Diederik
    Family Dynamics and Child Outcomes: An Overview of Research and Open Questions2017In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that children who do not live with both biological parents fare somewhat worse on a variety of outcomes than those who do. In this article, which is the introduction to the Special Issue on Family dynamics and children's well-being and life chances in Europe, we refine this picture by identifying variation in this conclusion depending on the family transitions and subpopulations studied. We start by discussing the general evidence accumulated for parental separation and ask whether the same picture emerges from research on other family transitions and structures. Subsequently, we review studies that have aimed to deal with endogeneity and discuss whether issues of causality challenge the general picture of family transitions lowering child well-being. Finally, we discuss whether previous evidence finds effects of family transitions on child outcomes to differ between children from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, and across countries and time-periods studied. Each of the subsequent articles in this Special Issue contributes to these issues. Two articles provide evidence on how several less often studied family forms relate to child outcomes in the European context. Two other articles in this Special Issue contribute by resolving several key questions in research on variation in the consequences of parental separation by socioeconomic and immigrant background, two areas of research that have produced conflicting results so far.

  • 24.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Occupational Attainment and Career Progression in Sweden2011In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 451-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze occupational attainment and career progression over the life course for Swedish men and women, born in 1925–1974. Careers progress (measured as improvements in occupational prestige) fast during the first 5–10 years in the labour market, and flatten out afterwards (approximately between 30–40 years of age). This is in line with the occupational status maturation hypothesis. Both class origin and educational attainment affect occupational attainment. The effects of educational attainment vary more over the career, but depend on the educational attainment level in question. Successive cohorts of women gain higher occupational prestige, and continue to gain in occupational prestige longer across their careers. We also find that cohorts that entered the labour market in times of economic downturns and restructuring (the oil crisis years and the early 1990s) had more difficulties in establishing their careers. Returns to education generally increase across cohorts, while class background differences decrease, as has been reported in earlier research.

  • 25.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    Stability and Change in the Educational Gradient of Divorce: A Comparison of Seventeen Countries2006In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of papers, William J. Goode argued that the relationship between modernization and the class composition of divorce is inverse. Starting from his hypothesis, we examine the relationship between female education and the risk of divorce over time in 17 countries. We expect that the relationship differs across countries and across time, so that women with higher education have a higher risk of divorce in countries and at times when the social and economic costs of divorce are high, and that there is no relationship or a negative relationship where these costs are lower. Using discrete-time event-history techniques on data on first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS), we find that women with higher education had a higher risk of divorce in France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Spain. We do not find a relationship between education and divorce in Estonia, Finland, West-Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Sweden, and Switzerland, nor, depending on the model specification, in Flanders and Norway. In Austria, Lithuania, and the United States, the educational gradient of divorce is negative. Furthermore, as  predicted by our hypotheses, the educational gradient becomes increasingly negative in Flanders, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, and the United States. We explore this variation across time and countries in more detail with multilevel models and direct measures on the legal, social, and economic environment of the countries. We find that the de-institutionalization of marriage and unconventional family practices are associated with a negative educational gradient of divorce, while welfare state expenditure is associated with a more positive gradient.

  • 26.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    European University Institute.
    Stability and Change in the Educational Gradient of Divorce: A Comparison of Seventeen Countries2006In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of papers, William J. Goode argued that the relationship between modernization and the class composition of divorce is inverse. Starting from his hypothesis, we examine the relationship between female education and the risk of divorce over time in 17 countries. We expect that the relationship differs across countries and across time, so that women with higher education have a higher risk of divorce in countries and at times when the social and economic costs of divorce are high, and that there is no relationship or a negative relationship where these costs are lower. Using discrete-time event-history techniques on data on first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS), we find that women with higher education had a higher risk of divorce in France, Greece, Italy, Poland, and Spain. We do not find a relationship between education and divorce in Estonia, Finland, West-Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Sweden, and Switzerland, nor, depending on the model specification, in Flanders and Norway. In Austria, Lithuania, and the United States, the educational gradient of divorce is negative. Furthermore, as predicted by our hypotheses, the educational gradient becomes increasingly negative in Flanders, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, and the United States. We explore this variation across time and countries in more detail with multilevel models and direct measures on the legal, social, and economic environment of the countries. We find that the de-institutionalization of marriage and unconventional family practices are associated with a negative educational gradient of divorce, while welfare state expenditure is associated with a more positive gradient.

  • 27.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Dronkers, Jaap
    The Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce in Cross-National Perspective: Results from the Fertility and Families Surveys2008In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 273-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six countries. This variation is negatively associated with the proportion of women in each cohort who experienced the divorce of their parents and with the national level of women's participation in the labour force during childhood. We conclude that differences in the contexts in which children of divorce learn marital and interpersonal behaviour affect the strength of the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  • 28.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kaymakcalan, Hande
    Mäki, Pirjo
    Taanila, Anja
    Prenatal Health, Educational Attainment, and Intergenerational Inequality: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study2012In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 525-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kosonen, Pekka
    Kotitaloudet ja työmarkkinat Euroopan unionissa – eroavatko hyvinvointiregiimit toisistaan?2003In: Sosiologia, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Manzoni, Anna
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gender inequalities in occupational prestige across the working life: An analysis of the careers of West Germans and Swedes born from the 1920s to the 1970s2016In: Advances in life course research, ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 29, no SI, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using retrospective occupational biography data from West Germany and Sweden we analyze gender inequalities in occupational careers in three birth cohorts (1920s to early 1940s, mid-1940s to early 1960s, and mid-1960s to late 1970s). We ask whether gender inequalities are generated at labour market entry, whether career progression and parenthood weaken or strengthen such gender inequalities, and how they differ across cohorts in the two countries. With data from the German Life History Study and the Swedish Level of Living Surveys, we used growth curve analysis to model career developments in occupational prestige. We find less change in occupational prestige across careers in Germany than in Sweden. In both countries a clear female disadvantage in occupational prestige in the oldest cohort has turned into a female advantage in the youngest cohort. This is only partially explained by changes in educational attainment levels. We also find a substantial motherhood penalty in careers in both countries, which has shifted to a fatherhood premium in Sweden over time.

  • 31.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Räsänen, Pekka
    Liikalihavuus, työttömyys ja ansiotulot2008In: työelämän tutkimus, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Räsänen, Pekka
    Näsi, Matti
    Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings2011In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 23-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8) of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors), than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  • 33. Lagergren, Jesper
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Talbäck, Mats
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Feychting, Maria
    Ljung, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Marital status, education, and income in relation to the risk of esophaegal and gastric cancer by histological type and site2016In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Marital status, income, and education might influence the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, but the literature is limited. A large study addressing subtypes of these tumors was used to clarify these associations.

    METHODS

    A nationwide, Swedish population–based cohort study from 1991 to 2010 included individuals who were 50 years old or older. Data on exposures, covariates, and outcomes were obtained from well-maintained registers. Four esophagogastric tumor subtypes were analyzed in combination and separately: esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cardia adenocarcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders.

    RESULTS

    Among 4,734,227 participants (60,634,007 person-years), 24,095 developed esophageal or gastric cancer. In comparison with individuals in a long marriage, increased IRRs were found among participants who were in a shorter marriage or were never married, remarried, divorced, or widowed. These associations were indicated for each tumor subtype but were generally stronger for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Higher education and income were associated with decreased IRRs in a seemingly dose-response manner and similarly for each subtype. In comparison with the completion of only primary school, higher tertiary education rendered an IRR of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60-0.69) for men and an IRR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.75) for women. Comparing participants in the highest and lowest income brackets (highest 20% vs lowest 20%) revealed an IRR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70-0.79) for men and an IRR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for women.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Divorce, widowhood, living alone, low educational attainment, and low income increase the risk of each subtype of esophageal and gastric cancer. These associations require attention when high-risk individuals are being identified.

  • 34. Manzoni, Anna
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mayer, Karl Ulrich
    Moving on?: a growth-curve analysis of occupational attainment and career progression patterns in West Germany2014In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 1285-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use multilevel growth-curve analysis to model occupational stratification across West German careers for cohorts born between 1919 and 1971. We argue that a life-course approach gives a more appropriate perspective into social stratification by focusing on the permanence of inequalities across human lives. With data from the German Life History Study (GLHS), our primary interest is in the amount and timing of career progression and the ways in which educational attainment, class background, and cohort context shape them. We confirm previous findings of limited career progression and permanence in occupational inequality. Thus, career mobility can correct for initial disadvantages only to a limited degree. We also confirm the strong role played by the standardized and stratified German educational system, which channels workers into specific occupations with strict boundaries. We find a substantial gross effect of class background, which is strongly mediated by educational attainment for women but not for men. We do not find any general indications of a trend in change across cohorts, although there are some weak indications that men who entered the labor market in the problematic 1970s had weaker career growth. We conclude by discussing the advantages of a life-course approach to occupational stratification and the possibilities of growth-curve analysis to answer pertinent questions in research on careers and occupational mobility.

  • 35. Van der Heijden, Franciëlla
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Are Parents with Shared Residence Happier ? Children’s Post-divorce Residence Arrangements and Parents’ Life Satisfaction2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether shared residence parents experience higher life satisfaction than sole and non-resident parents, and whether frequent visitation is similarly related to parents’ life satisfaction as shared residence. Regression analyses on data from 4,175 recently divorced parents show that shared residence parents report higher life satisfaction than other, particularly non-resident, parents, but that this relationship can largely be explained by benefits and opportunity costs of parenthood. Shared residence fathers enjoy a better relationship with their child and their ex-partner and are more engaged in leisure activities than nonresident fathers. Shared residence mothers are more involved in leisure activities, employment, and romantic relationships than sole resident mothers. These differences contribute to the shared residence parents’ higher life satisfaction. Frequent interaction between the non-resident father and the child could partly, but not completely, substitute for shared residence, increasing both non-resident fathers’ and sole mothers’ life satisfaction.

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