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  • 1.
    Langkjaer, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Konflikt och samförstånd i kampen om ordet: Säkerhetspolisens övervakning av svensk arbetarrörelse 1885-1918.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Langkjaer, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    "Skrif ni edra tecken": Polisövervakning av arbetarrörelsens möten i Stockholm 1885-19182009In: Arbetarhistoria, ISSN 02817446, no 132, p. 26-30Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Police surveillance of Labor Movement meetings in Stockholm, 1885-1918

    At the turn of the last century, the Swedish government perceived the Labor Movement as a threat to society. Many laws were passed to diminish this threat. It was left to the police to uphold these laws, and in 1885 the local Stockholm Criminal Investigation Department started to observe political meetings, mainly organized by social democrats. Between 1885 and 1918 at least 1 921 meetings were put under surveillance. However, very few people were convicted for crimes in connection to these meetings.

    The problem for the police was that there wasn’t much to do about the Labor Movement, as it mostly kept itself within the juridical frames that were put up by the government. The surveillance, which at first had been an attempt to suppress the socialistic agitation by gathering evidence to enable prosecution, soon turned into routine work. Police reports were written the same way year after year, attempts to change what was reported failed, and unessential details were cited endlessly. Once the surveillance had started, it developed on its own terms, and became a bureaucratic apparatus.

  • 3.
    Langkjaer, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Övervakning för rikets säkerhet: Svensk säkerhetspolisiär övervakning av utländska personer och inhemsk politisk aktivitet, 1885–19222011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 19th century the European states experienced a new kind of threat to their existence. The military threats from other countries were now accompanied by civilian threats that inspired mass protest, terrorism and other menaces to the established order. In Sweden, these threats were mainly seen as connected to the rising labor movement and to a growing number of foreign citizens.

    The aim of the dissertation is to examine surveillance for national security carried out by the Stockholm Criminal Investigation Department and its Police Bureau between 1885 and 1922. Apart from examining what specific surveillance methods that were used, the dissertation gives an answer to the question why the surveillance was carried out, and why it was carried out the way it was. It also discusses how differences and similarities between the surveillance in Sweden and other countries can be explained and how the surveillance between 1885 and 1922 relates to the corresponding activities during the latter part of the 20th century.

    The main conclusions are that there was a lack of formal rules regulating the surveillance, and that it therefore was based on the following of routines. The bureaucratization process that characterized the period influenced the surveillance, which came to be performed as a bureaucratic machine, characterized by a tendency of expansion. This meant that the surveillance activities were constantly expanded and became more and more extensive. The expansion is connected to the surveillance phenomenon, which could be said to have an unlimited scope. Furthermore, it is suggested that this specific historic legacy has affected the development of Swedish security police activity during the second half of the 20th century.

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