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  • 1. Börjeson, Love
    et al.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Accomplish change or causing hesitance – Developing practices in professional service firms2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scholarly proclaimed truce between professionals and managers in professional service firms (PSFs) is presently being threatened by changes in the business environment, calling for coordination superordinate to the single professions. The issue of managing professionals in PSFs consequently needs to be re-addressed. We do so by using correspondence analysis to explore the interrelatedness between change initiatives and responses to these changes, in an interview-based case study. Our results suggests that managers can successfully change management related practices without particular consideration of the professionals in the firm, but also that professionals can successfully change professional practices in an unassuming and “practice-like” fashion: with actions rather than with words. Managers who wish to change professional practices, however, need to negotiate the content, scope and purpose of the change initiative with the professionals in the firm.

  • 2. Choi, Soki
    et al.
    Holmberg, Ingalill
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Brommels, Mats
    Managing clinical integration: a comparative study in a merged university hospital2012In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 486-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper explores critical factors that may obstruct or advance integration efforts initiated by the clinical management following a hospital merger. The aim is to increase our understanding of why clinical integration succeeds or fails.

    Design/methodology/approach - We compare two cases of integration efforts following the Karolinska University Hospital merger in Sweden. Each case represents two merged departments of the same specialty from each hospital site. We conducted 53 interviews with individuals representing various staff categories and collected documents to check data consistency.

    Findings - The study identifies three critical factors that seem to be instrumental for the process and outcome of integration efforts – clinical management’s 1) interpretation of the mandate, 2) design of the management constellation and 3) approach to integration. Obstructive factors are: a sole focus on the formal assignment from the top; individual leadership; and the use of a classic, planned, top-down management approach. Supportive factors are: paying attention to multiple stakeholders; shared leadership; and the use of an emergent, bottom-up management approach within planned boundaries. These findings are basically consistent with the literature’s prescriptions for managing professional organisations.

    Practical implications - Managers need to understand that public healthcare organisations are based on multiple logics that need to be handled in a balanced way if clinical integration is to be achieved – especially the tension between managerialism and professionalism.

    Originality/value - By focusing on the merger consequences for clinical units, this paper addresses an important gap in the healthcare merger literature.

  • 3.
    Choi, Soki
    et al.
    Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holmberg, Ingalill
    Center for Advanced Studies in Leadership, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Löwtedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Brommels, Mats
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki,.
    Executive Management in Radical Change – The Case of Karolinska University Hospital Merger2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the merger of two Swedish university hospitals, this paper examines top management's work in implementing radical change initiatives. Our case confirms the limitations of the classic top-down approach to radical change in professional organizations. We also identify an important paradox: contrary to contemporary change literature prescription, initial managerial success seems to impair the change process further down the organization. A key finding is that when mergers are used as tools to effect radical change in politically ambiguous environment, management appears to be limited to initiate change and to take the role of the scapegoat due to inherent factors in the change process. By elucidating management's difficult role vis-à-vis multiple stakeholders, this paper contributes to one aspect of managerial agency discourse that is rarely discussed in detail.

  • 4.
    Demir, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Bricolage and the practice of managing human capital in PSFs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hellgren, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Tankens företag: kognitiva kartor och meningsskapande processer i organisationer1997Book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hellgren, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Puttonen, L
    Helsinki School of Economics.
    Tienari, Janne
    Aalto university.
    Vaara, Eero
    Svenska Handelshögskolan, Helsingfors.
    Werr, Andreas
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    How issues become (Re)constructed in media: Discursive practices in the AstraZeneca merger2002In: Brittish Journal of Management, ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 123-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we put forward a novel way of exploring difference and contradiction in merging organizations. We examine how the media (re)constructs meanings in a major cross-border merger. Based on an analysis of press coverage, we attempt to specify and illustrate how particular issues are (re)constructed in media texts through interpretations of ‘winning’ and ‘losing’. We also show how specific discourses are drawn on in this (re)construction. In the merger studied, discourse based on economic and financial rationale dominated the media coverage. Discourse promoting nationalistic sentiments, however, provided an alternative discursive frame to the dominant rationalistic discourse. We argue that the two basic discourses are enacted in three analytically distinct discursive practices in the media: factualizing, rationalizing and emotionalizing. We suggest that the ability of different actors such as top managers to make use of different discursive strategies and resources in promoting their ‘versions of reality’ in the media (or public discussion) is a crucial avenue for research in this area.

  • 7.
    Hellgren, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Werr, Andreas
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    The Reproduction of Efficiecy Theory: The Construction of the AstraZeneca Merger in the Public Discourse2011In: International Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 1833-3850, E-ISSN 1833-8119, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers have become a generally accepted solution to a broad set of managerial problems in practice. However, research on mergers and acquisitions provides a rather sceptical view as to the success of mergers in solving business problems. The current paper aims at investigating the public discourse on mergers and acquisitions and its relation to the scientific discourse. The public discourse is studied by an analysis of Swedish media reports on the Astra Zeneca merger. More specifically we study the actors given voice in the discourse, the temporal evolution of the discourse and the arguments voiced. We conclude that the discourse is dominated by journalists, managers and financial analysts who all generate arguments based on a rather narrow “efficiency theoretical” basis. This is in conflict with current insights in research on mergers and acquisitions that has proposed more valid and complex models for understanding mergers. The reasons and consequences of this discrepancy between the public and the scientific discourses are discussed.

  • 8. Hoffren-Larsson, Riitta
    et al.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine
    Falkenberg, Torkel
    Caring as an essential component in Rosen Method Bodywork - Clients' experiences of interpersonal interaction from a nursing theoretical perspective2013In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 561-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Users of complementary (CAM) therapies frequently report satisfaction although scientific support for the efficacy of many therapies is lacking. This study investigates a relatively unexplored CAM therapy; Rosen Method Bodywork (RMB) from a new perspective. The treatment includes gentle physical touching of tense muscles as well as - the interpersonal interaction. The aim was to explore if caring is a part of the interpersonal interaction in RMB treatments by analyzing clients' experiences from a nursing theoretical framework. Methods: The study design is exploratory and qualitative. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews with eleven RMB clients with positive and negative experiences from the treatments. The interviews were content analyzed using the theoretical stages in a nursing theory to build the structure for categorizing the data. Results: Treatments where study participants declared satisfaction included supportive caring aspects. In these cases, trusted interpersonal relations and a secure environment were established, where the participants felt accepted regardless of their problems. The interpersonal interaction seems to contribute to participants' increased awareness of their own capacities and motivation to independently develop new ways to manage health-related problems. In contrast, participants who were dissatisfied with RMB described opposite experiences. This seems to result in termination of the therapy or a change of therapist. Conclusions: The results indicate that caring is an essential contextual component in RMB treatments. In future research, not only for RMB, but for similar CAM therapies, more attention should be paid to caring as an important part of the interpersonal interaction and the therapeutic experience. This article belongs to the Special Issue: 'IG000020'.

  • 9. Holmstrand, Lars
    et al.
    Härnsten, Gunilla
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    The research circle approach: a democratic form for collaborative research in organizations2008In: Handbook of collaborative management research / [ed] A. B. (Rami) Shani, Susan Albers Mohman, William A. Pasmore, Bengt Stymne, Niclas Adler, Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2008, p. 183-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research circle approach (RCA) is an example of collaborative research based on two explicit values: the belief in the power of knowledge and the need for democracy in the workplace. The RCA builds on a tradition of vocational education and has its roots in the modernization of Sweden. Four examples of quite different change efforts are used to present how research circle work is conducted and the kind of practical as well as scientific knowledge that is developed from working with this approach.

  • 10. Larsson, Pär
    et al.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Ledning av förändring - att utveckla organisationskompetens2011In: Ledning av företag och förvaltningar / [ed] Rolf Lind & Anders Ivarsson Westerberg, SNS , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Larsson, Pär
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Strategier och förändringsmyter: ett organiseringsperspektiv på skolutveckling och lärares arbete2014 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Larsson, Pär
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Shani, A.B. (Rami)
    California Polytechnic State University.
    IT and the Learning Organization: Exploring Myths of Change2001In: Organization Development Journal, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 73-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Contingencies or cognition?: Two paths for research on organization and technology1985In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 1, p. 207-225-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Forskning och livskvalitet2011In: Ringar på vattnet: En vänbok till Torbjörn Stjernberg / [ed] Hamberg Lagereström, Lavén, Remneland Wikhamn & Walter, Göteborg: Bokförlaget Bas , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Managing entrepreneurial culture in professional service firms2009In: Organising Work for Innovation and Growth: Experiences and Efforts in Ten Companies / [ed] Marianne Döös & Lena Wilhelmson, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Organizing frameworks in emerging organizations: A cognitive approach to the analysis of change1993In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 501-526-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Predjudices and Wishfull Thinking about Computer Aided Design1988In: New technology, work and employment, ISSN 0268-1072, E-ISSN 1468-005X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Skolledning: Scener från den organiserande vardagen2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Structures and processes in administrative change: A reply to Brunsson's reform and change discourse1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 143-150-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central debate in organizational theory concerns factors which bring about change. Nils Brunsson argues that reform can be regarded as part of organizational stability and routine rather than of change. One effective way of stopping reforms is to try to implement them, he writes. In this reply a framework of administrative change is presented and used in questioning Brunsson's conclusions. The main criticism concerns the role which an organization's members are given in organizational change, and the unspoken assumption that they always act cynically.

    Author Keywords: Reform; administrative change; organizing; actors; adaptation

  • 20.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Thank God it's Friday2009In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    The SALTSA Group. The SALTSA Project on Work Organisation and School Work-life: how do schools as organisations facilitate professional development and well-being?  2003In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 2, p. 594-603Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Ejenäs, M
    When Astra and Zeneca Became AstraZeneca: How a merger can influence a trademark2002In: Identity / [ed] Holger,L. & Holmberg, I, Stockholm: Nationalmuseum & Raster Förlag , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Hellgren, B
    Tienari, J
    Vaara, E
    Werr, A
    Management Consultants as Agents of Homogenization: Consulting Roles and Processes in Corporate Mergers and Acquisitions2004In: Creative Consulting: Innovative Perspectives on Management Consulting / [ed] Anthony F. Bouno, Greenwich: Information Age Publishing , 2004, p. 99-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hellgren, BoLinköpings universitet.
    Management in the thought-full enterprise: European ideas on organizing2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Larsson, Per
    Strategier och förändringsmyter - ett organisationsperspektiv på skolutveckling och lärares arbete2010Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Larsson, PärHandelshögskolan i Stockholm.Karsten, SjoerdUniversity of Amsterdam.Van Dick, RolfJ W Goete-Universität Frankfurt.
    From intensified work to professional development: a journey through European schools2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Schilling, Annika
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Tomicic, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Werr, Andreas
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Managing differences in post-merger integration: The case of a professional service firm. Nordiske OrganisasjonsStudier. Vol. 5:11-36 (7)2003In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Schriber, Svante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Framgångsrik svensk industri2012In: Den hållbara svenska modellen: innovationskraft, förnyelse och effektivitet / [ed] Lars Magnusson, Jan Ottosson, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2012, p. 27-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Stjernberg, Torbjörn
    Handelshögskolan i Göteborg.
    Producing management knowledge: research as practice2006Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Stymne, Bengt
    Handelshögskolan i stockholm.
    Scener ur ett företag: organisationsteori för kunskapssamhället2002Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Sundström, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Stability and Change in the Organization of Product Development - The History of AB Svenska Fläktfabriken2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Werr, Andreas
    The collaborative management researcher2016In: Academic writing and dialogue: Reflections on the work of Janne Tienari / [ed] Susan Meriläinen, Eero Vaara, Helsinki: Aalto University , 2016, p. 48-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Pratima, Verma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Mohapatra, Siddharth
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Ethics Training in the Indian IT Sector: Formal, Informal or Both?2016In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 133, no 1, p. 73-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethics training—an important means to foster ethical decision-making in organisations—is carried out formally as well as informally. There are mixed findings as regards the effectiveness of formal versus informal ethics training. This study is one of its first kinds in which we have investigated the effectiveness of ethics training as it is carried out in the Indian IT sector. We have collected the views of Indian IT industry professionals concerning ethics training (N = 266), and employed positivist (regression analysis and hierarchical linear modeling) and interpretive research (content analysis). We first have argued that the importance of the perception towards ethics has bearings not only on the individual ideologies but also on the organisational ethical values. In doing so, first we have conceptualised a theoretical framework: Perception of Ethics Training in Employees and Organisations (PETINEO). Second, we have studied the correlations between various components of this model. Third, we, under the rubric of PETINEO, examined the effectiveness of ethics training programmes for the Indian IT companies. Fourth, we have elaborated upon the results of our study. Our results suggest that the combination of both formal and informal means to undertake ethics training has superior impact on ethical decision-making in the Indian IT industry as compared to the use of any one of them in isolation.

  • 34.
    Schriber, S
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business, Management & Organisation.
    Untangling the Tangible-Intangible: Dynamic Capabilities in Product development Management2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Schriber, Svante
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Managing Asset Orchestration: A Processual Approach to Adapting to Dynamic Environments2018In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 90, p. 307-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organizational ability to adapt to dynamic environments through asset orchestration is at the core of dynamic capabilities research. However, the theory remains vague regarding how firm assets are orchestrated, and the present study addresses this gap. We develop an asset-level framework distinguishing four modes with which dynamic capabilities influence assets and apply it on longitudinal, in-depth qualitative case data. Revealing managerial considerations regarding how assets are orchestrated over time, we propose the terms sequencing and balancing to denote how similar and different orchestration modes, respectively, are combined in the processes. We relate these concepts to managerial coordination and to achieving timely and appropriate organizational response to environmental dynamism. Avenues for future research and prescriptions to practitioners are suggested.

  • 36.
    Schriber, Svante
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Tangible resources and the development of organizational capabilities2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capabilities theory concerned with how firms develop organizational capabilities to improve firm competitiveness prioritizes intangible resources as antecedents of capabilities. This theory takes organizational capabilities to consist of routines that evolve over time by being enacted in their organizational contexts. Extant theory has largely left tangible resources as antecedents unstudied, thereby neglecting potentially important insight into how capabilities develop. This paper uses an explorative approach and qualitative data from product development in two world-leading Nordic firms to study tangible antecedents of organizational capabilities development. Our findings contribute to research by expanding the scope of antecedents to organizational capabilities, with implications for explaining the competitiveness of firms.

  • 37.
    Stymne, Bengt
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Fleenor, Patrick
    University of Washington Business School.
    A Model for Relation Technology, Organization and Employment Level.1986In: New technology, work and employment, ISSN 0268-1072, E-ISSN 1468-005X, Vol. 1, p. 113-126-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Werr, Andreas
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Löwstedt, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Blomberg, Jesper
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Gaining External Knowledge: boundaries in managers' knowledge relations2009In: Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1367-3270, E-ISSN 1758-7484, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 448-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate interorganizational knowledge exchange from the perspective of the individual manager/professional. The paper aims to study the kinds of relationships managers/professionals in SMEs are involved in and the way in which they construct boundaries within and around these interorganizational relationships enabling and hindering knowledge acquisition.Design/methodology/approachThe paper is based on 31 interviews with managers and professionals in seven SMEs. Interviews focused on the interorganizational relationships they viewed as important sources of knowledge for themselves and their organizations.FindingsThe study shows that managers/professionals gain vital knowledge from far more interorganizational relationships than those formally designed for knowledge acquisition. The most important sources of knowledge were relationships with suppliers and customers. The study also identifies five boundary dimensions – interests, interpretive frameworks, trust, private/organizational and priority – which respondents use in constructing boundaries within and around the relationships. These boundary dimensions represent important conditions for knowledge acquisition through the relationship.Research limitations/implicationsThe five boundary dimensions are generated based on a sample of SMEs in Sweden. They must thus be regarded as provisional and need to be validated in further research including larger organizations in different cultural contexts. Future studies should also focus on the dynamics of the boundaries and their interrelations as relationships evolve.Originality/valueThis paper adds to research on interorganizational knowledge acquisition by taking an individual level perspective and identifying boundary dimensions through which the relationships and their knowledge flows are shaped.

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