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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Gashawa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zhang, Lechen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Students perceptions of programming in primary school2019In: WiPSCE'19: Proceedings of the 14th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 1-5, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since autumn 2018, teachers throughout Sweden are obliged to relate to programming in one way or another in the teaching, especially in the subject of mathematics and technology education. Although teachers should formally work with programming teaching from the autumn of 2018, programming has been taught in primary school for several years. While there is some research on younger students, most of the research has almost exclusively focused on didactic approaches and strategies used by teachers, educational values and practices that accompany programming teaching, and views of teachers regarding programming teaching. What is still missing is research that highlights how younger students experience these new practices and how they primarily perceive programming in traditional school subjects, such as mathematics. Thus, this paper reports on a thematic analysis of younger students' (n=44) perceptions of programming; students who have been introduced to and been taught programming in mathematics in grade 5.

  • 2.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mukama, Evode
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Measuring Learner Satisfaction with Formative e-Assessment Strategies2019In: International Journal: Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The student experience with different aspects of online instructional settings has been the focus of educational practitioners and researchers in many studies. However, concerning technology-enabled formative assessment, little is known about student satisfaction regarding different possible formative e-assessment strategies the students are involved in. Using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, a web-based survey was developed to examine students’ satisfaction with the formative e-assessment strategies within an enriched virtual blended course. The results show that, in general, the students were satisfied with the quality of their engagement and the quality of feedback across all the formative e-assessment activities offered. The results also show that the student satisfaction varied between and within the formative e-assessment strategies. However, the gap between the student satisfaction mean ratings across all formative e-assessment strategies was marginal and could not help researchers decide upon which formative e-assessment strategy that stood out as the most preferred one. Learner satisfaction with different formative e-assessment strategies was positively correlated to each other at various levels but no relationship was found between students’ scores on the final course exam and learner satisfaction with formative e-assessment strategies. In the end, the study recommends a sustained and integrated use of the all three formative e-assessment strategies (online knowledge survey, online student-generated questions and peer-responses, and electronic reflective journals) in the context of hybrid courses. Further studies that would widen, diversify both the scope and the research instruments to investigate learner satisfaction with formative e-assessment strategies were also suggested.

  • 3.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Disengagement, engagement and digital skills in technology-enhanced learning2019In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the digitalisation of education increasing, the relationship between student engagement in Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL) and digital skills has remained largely unexplored. There is a strong consensus that engagement is necessary for students to succeed in school. We hypothesised that students reporting high and low levels of general engagement display differences in terms of their engagement in TEL, and that students’ digital skills correlate with their engagement in and disengagement in TEL, which in turn is related to their learning outcomes. We used statistical tests to explore the relationship between the students’ (N = 410) general engagement and engagement in TEL, and investigated how digital skills were related to engagement and disengagement in TEL. We found significant correlations between students’ digital skills and engagement in TEL, showing that the possession of high levels of digital skill is related to engagement in TEL. Interestingly, digital skills were not related to disengagement. This suggests that students reporting both high and low levels of digital skills disengage to some extent when learning with technologies. We also identified variables reflecting both engagement and disengagement in TEL that predict student performance as measured via final grades, implying that in order to understand and support students who learn with technologies, a broader understanding of the factors influencing engagement and disengagement is key.

  • 4.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Engagement, disengagement and performance when learning with technologies in upper secondary school2020In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 149, article id 103783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students need to engage in order to learn. As digitalisation changes the conditions for learning, it is essential to consider how student engagement might be affected. This study explores the relationship between students' level of engagement in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and academic outcomes. More specifically, we developed and validated an instrument LET (Learner–Technology–Engagement) using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and distributed this to second and third year upper secondary school students. We then matched student responses (n = 410) with their school grades. Using a bivariate correlation test, a one-way ANOVA test, and a post hoc test, we analysed the associations between low-, average-, and high-performance students and their reported engagement and disengagement when learning with technologies. The analysis reveals that high-performance students find it easier to concentrate when working with learning technologies than do average and low performers. We also found significant correlations between low grades and reported time spent on social media and streaming media for other purposes than learning (e.g., YouTube). There were also significant correlations between a decrease in students’ performance and the occurrence of unauthorised multi-tasking via learning technologies while in class: the lower the grades, the more frequently students reported using digital technologies to escape when lessons were boring. Conclusively: high-performance students seem to develop strategies to use digital technologies in supportive and productive ways. Thus, in order for schools to use digital technologies to ensure that disadvantaged students do not remain disadvantaged when learning with technologies and to not replicate problems in analogue classroom interactions, insights how different performance groups engage and disengage in TEL is critical for learning.

  • 5.
    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Taking an instrumental genesis lens: New insights into collaborative mobile learning2018In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that in order to gain a deeper understanding of collaborative mobile learning in schools, it is important to know not only how mobile devices affect collaborative learning but also how collaborative learning emerges and is mediated by these devices. We develop our argument by applying the instrumental genesis theory and the collective instrumented activities and situations model for the analysis of learners' collaborative learning in the tablet-mediated classroom. This analysis is grounded in data collected in four elementary Swedish schools (ie, from fourth to eighth grade). From the data, we considered the learners' conversation in English as a foreign language, inquiry-based learning in the natural sciences classroom and game-based learning in the arithmetic classroom. On the one hand, the scrutiny of these specific activities led us to distinguish the pragmatic, epistemic, and reflexive instrumental mediations that have already been theorized in the instrumental genesis theory. On the other hand, they helped us to identify two additional ones, which we call emotional and spatial. Based on these findings, we claim that collaboration in the tablet-mediated classroom is a complex activity that emerges from a variety of instrumental mediations that configure contemporary collaborative mobile learning.

  • 6.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    One Tablet, Multiple Epistemic Instruments in the Everyday Classroom2017In: Data Driven Approaches in Digital Education: Proceedings / [ed] Élise Lavoué, Hendrik Drachsler, Katrien Verbert, Julien Broisin, Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Springer, 2017, p. 379-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grounded in the analyses of 23 semi-structured interviews and 31 field notes from classroom observations, this study scrutinizes the relationships that teachers and learners entertain with/through the tablet in their process of technology appropriation in the classroom. The results reveal that, on the one hand, the learners elaborate a variety of instruments from their interactions with the tablet and, on the other hand, that the teachers’ appropriation plays a central role in configuring a creative, critical and participatory pedagogy in the contemporary classroom.

  • 7.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Tablets in the CSCL Classroom: A Lens on Teachers’ Instrumental Geneses2017In: Making a Difference: Prioritizing Equity and Access in CSCL: 12th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 2017, Volume 2 / [ed] Brian K. Smith, Marcela Borge, Emma Mercier, Kyu Yon Lim, International Society of the Learning Sciences, 2017, p. 837-838Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most educational research on tablets in schools seeks to find out whether children learn more efficiently with or without such devices. This study differs from such research as it instead investigates how tablets take part in the everyday CSCL classroom? Grounded in the instrumental genesis theory, this study focuses on the multifarious relationships between teacher-tablets-learner(s) to inform the processes of tablet appropriation in the classroom. Analysis of the instrumental processes observed reveals that learners on the one hand develop usage schemes that challenge those developed by the teachers. Teachers on the other hand are forced to review their competence, rethinking power-relationships vis-à-vis learners and have to reflect/design a creative, critical and participatory pedagogical practice that is aligned with learners’ utilization schemes and the instruments they bring to our contemporary classrooms.

  • 8. Chibas, Åsa
    et al.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zhang, Lechen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Christer
    Didactical strategies and challenges when teaching programming in pre-school2018In: EDULEARN18: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 3345-3350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries around the world have introduced programming curriculum at K-9 level. For a number of years, a lot of studies have surfaced demonstrating enactments of programming education, for instance through the use of visual programming languages as Scratch in different contexts. However, these studies have had a dominating focus on students of age 7 and older and there are few studies reporting on implementation of programming activities for younger children at preschool. This gap is addressed by this study that focus exclusively on learning of programming in a preschool class of six year olds. We have followed one teacher during six months conducting both classroom observations and interviews. In this paper we report on the didactical methods the teacher used when teaching programming through unplugged (analogue) means, with BlueBot robots, and through Scratch Jr. We end the paper by a discussion reflecting on challenges and lessons learned in relation to introducing programming for young children.

  • 9.
    Eliasson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Linnaeus University.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mobile Devices as Support Rather than Distraction for Mobile Learners: Evaluating Guidelines for Design2011In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article questions the design of mobile learning activities that lead students to spend time focusing on the mobile devices at the expense of interacting with other students or exploring the environment. This problem is approached from an interaction design perspective, designing and analysing geometry-learning activities. The authors present six guidelines for designing mobile learning activities, where mobile devices support rather than distract students from contents and contexts relevant to the learning goals. The guidelines are developed through video analysis of groups of middle school students doing learning activities outdoors and evaluated using the task model. The guidelines suggest that students (1) assume roles based on a different functionality of each device, (2) use devices as contextual tools, that the activities, (3) include physical interaction with the environment, (4) let teachers assume roles, (5) encourage face-to-face communication, and (6) introduce students to the mobile devices.

  • 10.
    Eliasson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Evaluating Interaction with Mobile Devices in Mobile Inquiry-Based Learning2012In: WMUTE '12 Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education, Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 92-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate to what extent students are interacting with mobile devices in one of four ways intended in the design of a mobile learning activity. Video data from one class of fifth grade students were analyzed using a model of four different types of interaction. The evaluation shows that the students interacted with the devices in the ways intended in design 64% of the time. The contribution is an approach for translating learning goals to interaction design goals in mobile learning research. We conclude that this approach can be of value in designing and evaluating interaction with mobile devices for an entire mobile learning activity.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Design Heuristics for Balancing Visual Focus on Devices in Formal Mobile Learning Activities2010In:  , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hansson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Talantsev, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lindgren, Tony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Open government ideologies in post-soviet countries2016In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 244-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research in research areas like e-government, e-participation and open government assumes a democratic norm. The open government (OG) concept is commonly based on a general liberal and deliberative ideology emphasising transparency, access, participation and collaboration, but were also innovation and accountability are promoted. In this paper, we outline a terminology and suggest a method for how to investigate the concept more systematically in different policy documents, with a special emphasis on post-soviet countries. The result shows that the main focus in this regions OG policy documents is on freedom of information and accountability, and to a lesser extent on collaboration, while other aspects, such as diversity and innovation, are more rarely mentioned, if at all.

  • 13.
    Hedberg, Hillevi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Systematic Review of Learning Trough Mobile Augmented Reality2018In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of 2000, researchers started to see the potential of using Augmented Reality (AR) in educational and foresaw that further research within the field. Since then, AR research have taken many different approaches. This is also true for AR in relation to pedagogical purposes. This study is to investigate what has been studied within the AR field related to mobile augmented reality. It attempts to make systematic review of how learning and pedagogical aspects have been approached in the articles. In recent years, mobile augmented reality has become increasingly interesting due to the mobile devices small form factors and their ability to let the students move around freely while learning. The aim of this study is to make a systematic review of pedagogical uses of mobile augmented reality. Based on a review of previous literature of mobile AR systems for pedagogical purposes, published between 2000-2017, make it possible to see in which direction mobile AR systems for education are heading and how future mobile AR systems should be designed to best fit the needs of future students so they can more effectively improve their learning.

  • 14.
    Lindgren, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An Open Government Index: from Democracy to Efficiency to Innovation2014In: DSV writers hut 2014: proceedings, Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research in research areas like E-government, E-participation and Open government assume a democratic norm. The concept of Open government, recently promoted by, e.g., The Obama administration and the European Commission is to a large extent based on a general liberal and deliberative ideology emphasizing transparency, participation and collaboration. The concept has also become of interest for states like China and Singapore. In this position paper we outline how to study the concept under different political discourses and suggest an Open government index that can be used to analyze the concept of open government under various settings.

  • 15.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A socio-cultural model for orchestrating mobile learning activities2019In: International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, ISSN 1753-5255, E-ISSN 1753-5263, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning outdoors with mobile devices is associated with distinct challenges and constraints that needs to be taken into account when orchestrating formal mobile learning activities. In order to design pedagogically meaningful activities, we need to consider students scaffolding needs and have an understanding of the aspects that should be orchestrated for meeting those needs. This paper proposes an orchestration model for formal mobile learning activities across contexts that take such scaffolding needs into account. The model has been interactively developed based on empirical research conducted in three case-studies and have theoretical basis in sociocultural perspectives on learning, particularly resting on the concept of scaffolding and on the learning design sequence model of Selander. The model takes the orchestration of six scaffolding aspects into account, namely: the social (collaborative) aspects, the teachers, the technology, the physical context, the learning processes and tasks, and the modes and representations.

  • 16.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A theoretical grounding of learning mathematics in authentic real-world contexts supported by mobile technology2012In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning / [ed] Inmaculada Arnedillo Sánchez and Pedro Isaías, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems associated with de-contextualized learning are prominently accentuated in abstract and strongly formalized educational subjects such as mathematics. As means to overcome these problems, the research domain of mathematics education has repeatedly called for situated, embodied and multimodal ways of learning. Interestingly, with the emergence of mobile learning, and through the affordances of mobile technology, opportunities are offered to extend the education of mathematics to authentic contexts for these kinds of learning practices. In this paper we give an account of theories on situated learning/cognition, multimodality, and embodied learning, and present four empirical studies on mobile mathematical learning characterized according to these theories. The paper contributes with a theoretical grounding for mobile mathematical learning.

  • 17.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Digital kompetens i informationssamhället2018In: Att bli lärare / [ed] Eva Insulander, Staffan Selander, Liber, 2018, p. 254-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Editorial of the First Issue of the International Journal of Learning Analytics and Artificial Intelligence for Education2019In: International journal of learning analytics and artificial intelligence for education, ISSN 2706-7564, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this editorial, the first issue of the International Journal of Learning Analytics and Artificial Intelligence for Education is presented. The Journal of Learning Analytics and Artificial Intelligence for Education is a peerreviewed, open access journal that aim to disseminate highest quality research in the field. The journal aims to increase knowledge and understanding of ways in which learning analytics and artificial intelligence can support and enhance education. The editorial presents the scope and fields of interest for the journal, and an overview of the articles published in the first issue.

  • 19.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Eliciting the potentials of mathematical mobile learning trough scaffolding learning processes across contexts2012In: International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, ISSN 1746-725X, E-ISSN 1746-7268, Vol. 6, no 3/4, p. 285-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is understood in terms of scaffolding learning processes in more dynamical contexts than the classroom environment. The scope of mobile learning research has so far been limited to the scaffolding functions of the mobile technology. Thus, in this paper, a larger grip was taken, focusing on all available means, such as teachers, mobile technology, pre- and post-activities as supportive structures. In doing that a sequence of learning activities were designed within the domain of mathematics education. We asked what scaffolding role the available resources can play in supporting the students learning processes, and further, how we are to orchestrate these resources across contexts in a pedagogical manner. The findings demonstrates how students' learning processes are to be scaffolded and how learning in an outdoor context can be meaningfully supported through the sequencing of activities and the utilisation of pre- and post-activities in indoor contexts.

  • 20.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mobile Inquiry-based Learning – a hype?2014In: Conference proceedings: 4th international Designs for Learning conference 6-9th May 2014, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Orchestrating scaffolded outdoor mobile learning activities2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of time, technological innovations have formed the basis for the development of society and supported the most fundamental societal features. The educational system is no exception. This we have witnessed on many occasions, as for example in form of the transformations of learning and teaching introduced by the printing press, the calculator and computers. With the advance of mobile technology, we have received another technology that inspires research fields to study the learning and teaching potentials that mobile technology may present. It is from here this thesis takes its general starting point, namely, in the determination to critically examine the role mobile technology can play in supporting outdoor learning activities. More specifically, the thesis attempts to, on the one hand, develop an understanding of the challenges and limitations associated with scaffolding students’ mobile learning in outdoor environments. On the other hand, based on such a developed understanding, the thesis investigates how mobile technology-supported outdoor activities should be orchestrated to scaffold students learning. Orchestration is, in this thesis, understood as the process of productively coordinating supportive interventions across multiple learning activities occurring at multiple social levels involving multiple contexts, and multiple tools and media.The framework of design-based research has guided the methodological approach. Three design studies formed the empirical basis of the study of the issues. The results of the thesis indicate the difficulties and challenges in supporting students in outdoor contexts and delineate an understanding of how mobile outdoor learning activities can be orchestrated with students scaffolding needs taken into account.The thesis contributes with a conceptualization of and a model for orchestration of mobile learning activities, a framework for design-based research in mobile learning, as well as a critical perspective on the introduction of mobile technology in education. 

  • 22.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Students Multimodal Literacy and Design of Learning During Self-Studies in Higher Education2019In: Technology, Knowledge and Learning, ISSN 2211-1662, E-ISSN 2211-1670, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 683-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies have increasingly been integrated in our everyday lives, and as many would say changed how we acquire knowledge and how we learn. It is against such a background this paper will describe how higher education students engage with technology during self-studies and how they in particular utilize different semiotic affordances of information and communication technologies in order to learn course content. Consequently, focus is put on how university students design their learning during self-studies through exploiting multimodal literacy and by constructing knowledge through different modes and media. The paper reports on a mixed-method study and presents findings that points to that (1) students are becoming active designers of learning due to access to new modes and media that can be tailored to their needs, (2) that students have developed a multimodal digital literacy to various degrees, and (3) that students are provided opportunities for enhanced and more effective learning than before because of the availability of affordances of contemporary technology. Thus the paper calls for a pedagogical shift that take departure from a design-oriented, multimodal understanding of learning.

  • 23.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The flipped classroom: for active, effective and increased learning - especially for low achievers2016In: International journal of educational technology in higher education, ISSN 2365-9440, Vol. 13, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education has been pressured to shift towards more flexible, effective, active, and student-centered teaching strategies that mitigate the limitations of traditional transmittal models of education. Lately, the flipped classroom model has been suggested to support this transition. However, research on the use of flipped classroom in higher education is in its infancy and little is known about student's perceptions of learning through flipped classroom. This study examined students' perceptions of flipped classroom education in a last year university course in research methods. A questionnaire was administered measuring students' (n = 240) perceptions of flipped classroom in general, video as a learning tool, and Moodle (Learning Management System) as a supporting tool within the frame of a flipped classroom model. The results revealed that a large majority of the students had a positive attitude towards flipped classroom, the use of video and Moodle, and that a positive attitude towards flipped classroom was strongly correlated to perceptions of increased motivation, engagement, increased learning, and effective learning. Low achievers significantly reported more positively as compared to high achievers with regards to attitudes towards the use of video as a learning tool, perceived increased learning, and perceived more effective learning.

  • 24.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Characterizing learning mediated by mobile technologies: a cultural-historical activity theoretical analysis2015In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technologies have not yet triggered the knowledge revolution in schools anticipated, in particular, by the telecommunications industry. On the contrary, mobile technologies remain extensively used outside the frontiers of formal education. The reasons for this are many and varied. In this paper, we concentrate on those associated with the prevalent methodological weakness in the study of innovative educational interventions with mobile technologies. In this context, the paper investigates the following question: what is the potential of second-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for characterizing learning activities mediated by mobile technologies? To this end, an empirical study was designed with the goal of examining five small groups of students (fifth grade, age 12) who were using mobile devices in authentic educational settings, within a natural science inquiry-based learning activity outdoors. Second-generation CHAT was operationalized as an analytical and dialectic methodological framework for understanding learning activities mediated by mobile devices. The study contributes a characterization of mobile learning and identification of constraints and transformations introduced by mobile technology into students’ tasks.

  • 25.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Pekplattor, undervisning och lärande2017In: Didaktik i omvandlingens tid: text, representation, design / [ed] Eva Insulander, Susanne Kjällander, Fredrik Lindstrand, Anna Åkerfeldt, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, p. 150-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    When Teaching Practices Meet Tablets’ Affordances: Insights on the Materiality of Learning2016In: Adaptive and Adaptable Learning: Proceedings / [ed] Katrien Verbert, Mike Sharples, Tomaž Klobučar, Springer, 2016, p. 179-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on tablets in schools is currently dominated by the effects these devices have on our children’s learning. Little has yet been said about how these devices contribute and participate in established school practices. This study delves into the questions of what do tablet-mediated teaching practices look like in Swedish schools and how are these practices valued by teachers? We collected data in four Swedish schools that were part of the one-to-one program financed by their municipalities. We apply qualitative and quantitative analysis methods on 22 deep interviews, 20 classrooms observations and 30 teachers’ responses to an online survey. The study identifies a set of tablet-mediated teaching practices that lead to a deeper understanding of how affordances of media tablets configure contemporary forms of learning.

  • 27.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Eliasson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Exploring the challenges of supporting collaborative mobile learning2011In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technology opens up opportunities for collaborative learning in otherwise remote contexts outside the classroom. A successful realization of these opportunities relies, however, on mobile learning activities providing adequate collaboration structures. This article presents an empirical study aimed at examining the role played by mobile devices, teachers and task structures as a means for collaborative learning in geometry. The study focused on the analysis of the nature of collaboration that unfolded when students measured areas outdoors in the field. The analysis of the mobile learning activity was conducted from an Activity theory perspective. The findings obtained indicate that the collaboration observed may be impaired if: 1) the functionalities needed for collaborative problem-solving are asymmetrically distributed on a number of mobile devices; 2) task-related information is not accessible to all learners; 3) the task structure is not sufficiently complex; 4) teacher scaffolding is too readily available; and 5) necessary collaborative skills are not developed.

  • 28.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rossitto, Chiara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning with or without mobile devices? A comparison of traditional school field trips and inquiry-based mobile learning activities2014In: Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, ISSN 1793-7078, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 241-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zetali, Karwan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mobile inquiry-based Learning2013In: Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013. Proceedings Part II / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 464-473Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on mobile learning that could be viewed as a manifestation of strong voices calling for learning in natural contexts. The study was based on a sequence of inquiry-based mobile learning activities within the domain of natural sciences and mathematics education. We questioned the effects of collaborative scaffolding, and the effects scaffolding provided by technology have on learning and performance. Based on a quantitative interaction analysis, findings suggest that low-achievement students benefit from inquiry-based mobile activities; that the use of mobile technologies bring multiple effects on students’ learning, both positive and negative, and that the roles of teachers remains as crucial as before the introduction of learning technologies.

  • 30.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zetali, Karwan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Multiple effects of collaborative mobile inquiry-based learning2013In: To See the World and a Grain of Sand: Learning across Levels of Space, Time, and Scale: CSCL 2013 Conference Proceedings Volume 2 — Short Papers, Panels, Posters, Demos, & Community Events / [ed] Nikol Rummel, Manu Kapur, Mitchell Nathan, Sadhana Puntambekar, International Society of the Learning Sciences, 2013, p. 323-324Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ebner, Martin
    Ifenthaler, Dirk
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Malmberg, Jonna
    Khalil, Mohammad
    Bruun, Jesper
    Viberg, Olga
    Conde González, Miguel Ángel
    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula
    Berthelsen, Ulf Dalvad
    Efforts in Europe for Data-Driven Improvement of Education – A review of learning analytics research in seven countries2019In: International journal of learning analytics and artificial intelligence for education, ISSN 2706-7564, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies are increasingly mediating learning and teaching practices as well as how educational institutions are handling their administrative work. As such, students and teachers are leaving large amounts of digital footprints and traces in various educational apps and learning management platforms, and educational administrators register various processes and outcomes in digital administrative systems. It is against such a background we in recent years have seen the emergence of the fast-growing and multi-disciplinary field of learning analytics. In this paper, we examine the research efforts that have been conducted in the field of learning analytics in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Spain, and Sweden. More specifically, we report on developed national policies, infrastructures and competence centers, as well as major research projects and developed research strands within the selected countries. The main conclusions of this paper are that the work of researchers around Europe has not led to national adoption or European level strategies for learning analytics. Furthermore, most countries have not established national policies for learners’ data or guidelines that govern the ethical usage of data in research or education. We also conclude, that learning analytics research on pre-university level to high extent have been overlooked. In the same vein, learning analytics has not received enough focus form national and European national bodies. Such funding is necessary for taking steps towards data-driven development of education.

  • 32.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Ken
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Bachelor Thesis Analytics: Using Machine Learning to Predict Dropout and Identify Performance Factors2019In: International journal of learning analytics and artificial intelligence for education, ISSN 2706-7564, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 116-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor thesis is commonly a necessary last step towards the first graduation in higher education and constitutes a central key to both further studies in higher education and employment that requires higher education degrees. Thus, completion of the thesis is a desirable outcome for individual students, academic institutions and society, and non-completion is a significant cost. Unfortunately, many academic institutions around the world experience that many thesis projects are not completed and that students struggle with the thesis process. This paper addresses this issue with the aim to, on the one hand, identify and explain why thesis projects are completed or not, and on the other hand, to predict non-completion and completion of thesis projects using machine learning algorithms. The sample for this study consisted of bachelor students’ thesis projects (n=2436) that have been started between 2010 and 2017. Data were extracted from two different data systems used to record data about thesis projects. From these systems, thesis project data were collected including variables related to both students and supervisors. Traditional statistical analysis (correlation tests, t-tests and factor analysis) was conducted in order to identify factors that influence non-completion and completion of thesis projects and several machine learning algorithms were applied in order to create a model that predicts completion and non-completion. When taking all the analysis mentioned above into account, it can be concluded with confidence that supervisors’ ability and experience play a significant role in determining the success of thesis projects, which, on the one hand, corroborates previous research. On the other hand, this study extends previous research by pointing out additional specific factors, such as the time supervisors take to complete thesis projects and the ratio of previously unfinished thesis projects. It can also be concluded that the academic title of the supervisor, which was one of the variables studied, did not constitute a factor for completing thesis projects. One of the more novel contributions of this study stems from the application of machine learning algorithms that were used in order to – reasonably accurately – predict thesis completion/non-completion. Such predictive models offer the opportunity to support a more optimal matching of students and supervisors.

  • 33.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Ken
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Identifying Factors for Master Thesis Completion and Non-completion Through Learning Analytics and Machine Learning2019In: Transforming Learning with Meaningful Technologies: Proceedings / [ed] Maren Scheffel, Julien Broisin, Viktoria Pammer-Schindler, Andri Ioannou, Jan Schneider, Springer, 2019, p. 28-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The master thesis is the last formal step in most universities around the world. However, all students do not finish their master thesis. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the non-completion of the master thesis should be viewed as a substantial problem that requires serious attention and proactive planning. This learning analytics study aims to understand better factors that influence completion and non-completion of master thesis projects. More specifically, we ask: which student and supervisor factors influence completion and non-completion of master thesis? Can we predict completion and non-completion of master thesis using such variables in order to optimise the matching of supervisors and students? To answer the research questions, we extracted data about supervisors and students from two thesis management systems which record large amounts of data related to the thesis process. The sample used was 755 master thesis projects supervised by 109 teachers. By applying traditional statistical methods (descriptive statistics, correlation tests and independent sample t-tests), as well as machine learning algorithms, we identify five central factors that can accurately predict master thesis completion and non-completion. Besides the identified predictors that explain master thesis completion and non-completion, this study contributes to demonstrating how educational data and learning analytics can produce actionable data-driven insights. In this case, insights that can be utilised to inform and optimise how supervisors and students are matched and to stimulate targeted training and capacity building of supervisors.

  • 34.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    A framework for evaluating and orchestrating game-based learning that fosters computional thinking2018In: EDULEARN18: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 1305-1310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some years now many teachers around the world have explored programming with their pupils in K-9 education. Research has shown that educational games of different kinds are often utilized by teachers as a mean for teaching programming and developing computational thinking among pupils. However, teaching and learning programming and computational thinking trough educational games is associated with a number of challenges. One of those challenges are related to that teachers are presented with an ever increasing amount of educational games and not supported with tools that, one the one hand, can help them evaluate the didactical affordances and potentials of specific games so they can select curriculum appropriate games, and on the other hand, that can help them design and orchestrate game-based learning activities. It is against such a background this paper presents a framework for the evaluation and orchestration of game-based learning activities that fosters computational thinking. The framework consists of two dimensions, namely game mechanics and learning mechanics. These two dimensions consists of a number of aspects that teachers and researchers can take into account in order to evaluate and design activities, and to reap the benefits of the didactical affordances of the games and the available scaffolding resources built inside games and available outside of them.

  • 35.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Skog, Kicki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Didactical strategies employed by teachers when teaching programming in K-9 education2018In: INTED2018: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 7983-7989Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in programming education has been significantly strengthened recently, as a consequence of an increasingly digital world that demands development of digital skills. More and more countries have introduced programming in their K-9 curricula. In 2017, Sweden joined these countries through the government's decision to make changes to the curriculum in terms of introducing programming in compulsory school. However, the path to successful programming education is associated with a number of challenges, of which the most crucial - on an international level - is related to lack of didactical research that sheds light on good teaching practices. In this study, we reached out to 19 teachers that by now considered themselves experienced in teaching programming for young children in K-9 and conducted interviews with them. A large majority of these teachers, fifteen of them, participated in a national research project with focus on programming education. The remaining four teachers were identified in specialized social media groups with focus on programming education.In the paper, we report on an analysis of the 19 interviews conducted with K-9 teachers that have experience in teaching programming asking the question: what didactical strategies are employed by experienced teachers when teaching programming in K-9? As such, the paper reports on a number of strategies employed by teachers and contributes to our understanding of how programming education are enacted by experienced K-9 teachers.

  • 36.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Skog, Kicki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Learning programming by playing and coding games in K-92018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 7990-7995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some years now many Swedish teachers in K-9 education have explored programming with their pupils supported by a number of national and global initiatives, despite not having any formal education in programming or for teaching programming. However, with the advent of programming languages such as Scratch and various online resources tailored to younger learners, teachers have some extent been supported to teach programming. In this study, we reached out to 19 teachers that by now considered themselves experienced in teaching programming for young children in K-9 and conducted interviews with them. A large majority of these teachers, fifteen of them, participated in a national research project with focus on programming education. The remaining four teachers were identified in specialized social media groups with focus on programming education. When doing the interviews with the teachers we soon found that games play a big role when teaching and learning programming in K-9 education. This entails both playing games in order to learn programming concepts using game developed for this purpose, and coding games in order to learn programming concepts. In this paper, we report on this two approaches of relating to games in programming education in K-9 and present the advantages teachers emphasize with these approaches in terms of how they are received by pupils and what the bring to school.

  • 37.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The design of mobile learning activities informed by learning theories2010In: Norditel 2010 Book of abstracts, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We need mobile learning innovations that are adaptable in educational settings. Considering this aim, the mobile learning field has had a history of technology-driven designs with less successful results. However, in order to overcome the shortcomings of the technology-driven attempts several studies have leaned towards codesign approaches that involve teachers and students in the design process. In this position paper, we argue that the co-design approach is insufficient on its own and we direct our focus towards learning theories to inform the design of mobile learning activities in educational settings.

  • 38.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sacr, Mohammed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Predicting performance of students in a flipped classroom using machine learning: towards automated data-driven formative feedback2019In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 17-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning analytics (LA) is a relatively new research discipline that uses data to try to improve learning, optimizing the learning process and develop the environment in which learning occurs. One of the objectives of LA is to monitor students activities and early predict performance to improve retention, offer personalized feedback and facilitate the provision of support to the students. Flipped classroom is one of the pedagogical methods that find strength in the combination of physical and digital environments i.e. blended learning environments. Flipped classroom often make use of learning management systems in which video-recorded lectures and digital material is made available, which thus generates data about students interactions with these materials. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with focus on a flipped learning course in research methodology. Based on data regarding how students interact with course material (video recorded lectures and reading material), how they interact with teachers and other peers in discussion forums, and how they perform on a digital assessment (digital quiz), we apply machine learning methods (i.e. Neural Networks, Nave Bayes, Random Forest, kNN, and Logistic regression) in order to predict students overall performance on the course. The final predictive model that we present in this paper could with fairly high accuracy predict low- and high achievers in the course based on activity and early assessment data. Using this approach, we are given opportunities to develop learning management systems that provide automatic datadriven formative feedback that can help students to selfregulate as well as inform teachers where and how to intervene and scaffold students.

  • 39.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Predicting performance of students in a flipped classroom using machine learning: towards automated data-driven formative feedback2019In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 17-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning analytics (LA) is a relatively new research discipline that uses data to try to improve learning, optimizing the learning process and develop the environment in which learning occurs. One of the objectives of LA is to monitor students activities and early predict performance to improve retention, offer personalized feedback and facilitate the provision of support to the students. Flipped classroom is one of the pedagogical methods that find strength in the combination of physical and digital environments i.e. blended learning environments. Flipped classroom often make use of learning management systems in which video-recorded lectures and digital material is made available, which thus generates data about students interactions with these materials. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with focus on a flipped learning course in research methodology. Based on data regarding how students interact with course material (video recorded lectures and reading material), how they interact with teachers and other peers in discussion forums, and how they perform on a digital assessment (digital quiz), we apply machine learning methods (i.e. Neural Networks, Nave Bayes, Random Forest, kNN, and Logistic regression) in order to predict students overall performance on the course. The final predictive model that we present in this paper could with fairly high accuracy predict low- and high achievers in the course based on activity and early assessment data. Using this approach, we are given opportunities to develop learning management systems that provide automatic datadriven formative feedback that can help students to selfregulate as well as inform teachers where and how to intervene and scaffold students.

  • 40.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Learning Activity Design Framework for Supporting Mobile Learning2016In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the Learning Activity Design (LEAD) framework for the development and implementation of mobile learning activities in primary schools. The LEAD framework draws on methodological perspectives suggested by design-based research and interaction design in the specific field of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). The LEAD framework is grounded in four design projects conducted over a period of six years. It contributes a new understanding of the intricacies and multifaceted aspects of the design-process characterizing the development and implementation of mobile devices (i.e. smart phones and tablets) in curricular activities conducted in Swedish primary schools. This framework is intended to provide both designers and researchers with methodological tools that take account of the pedagogical foundations of technologically-based educational interventions, usability issues related to the interaction with the mobile application developed, multiple data streams generated during the design project, multiple stakeholders involved in the design process and sustainability aspects of the mobile learning activities implemented in the school classroom.

  • 41.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sundman, Terese
    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Multimodal, game-based and mobile learning practices with tablets in Swedish schools2017In: EDULEARN17: Conference Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, p. 8964-8969Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zhang, Lechen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mannila, Linda
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Development of computational thinking, digital competence and 21st century skills when learning programming in K-92020In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers around the world have started teaching programming at the K-9 level, some due to the formal introduction of programming in the national curriculum, others without such pressure and on their own initiative. In this study, we attempted to understand which skills – both CT-related and general – are developed among pupils in the process of working with programming in schools. To do so, we interviewed 19 Swedish teachers who had been teaching programming for a couple of years on their own initiative. The teachers were selected based on their experience in teaching programming. Our thematic analysis of these interviews shed light on what skills teachers perceive pupils develop when programming. This led us to identify three themes related to CT skills and five themes related to general skills. The CT skills identified corresponded well with and were thus thematically structured according to the dimensions of CT proposed in the framework of Brennan and Resnick, namely computational concepts, computational practices and computational perspectives. In addition to the CT skills, our thematic analysis also resulted in the identification of general skills related to digital competency and 21st century skills, namely cognitive skills and attitudes, language skills, collaborative skills and attitudes and creative problem-solving skills and attitudes.

  • 43.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Åkerfeldt, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Assessing Collaborative Problem Solving Skills in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments - The PISA Framework and Modes of Communication2017In: International Journal:  Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As been highlighted by many, for instance by PISA, Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) is a critical and necessary 21st century skill across educational settings. While many initiatives have been launched to investigate the nature of these skills, fewer are the attempts to understand how they should be assessed. However, in 2015, the PISA organization presented a framework for assessing CPS skills. This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating the predictive validity of the PISA assessment framework and if and how modes of communication influence the assessment of 24 students' collaborative problem solving activities when using a computer-based assessment task system. The findings presented demonstrate that the PISA CPS assessment framework have a weak predictive validity, does not count for quality or productivity in communication, and that the mode of communication indeed influence CPS processes and in turn what is possible to assess.

  • 44.
    Oqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Coding by hand or on the computer? Evaluating the effect of assessment mode on performance of students learning programming2018In: Journal of Computers in Education, ISSN 2197-9987, E-ISSN 2197-9995, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 199-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming courses suffer from low retention rates, believed to be caused by difficulties in learning programming concepts. Another possibility relates to how programming ability is assessed. Although extensively used, pen-and-paper is arguably not the best way to assess a student's programming ability. Although previous studies have chosen to implement lab exams as a replacement for pen-and-paper examinations, little consideration has been made to evaluate the extent of the exam mode effect in relation to the use of computers during summative assessment in programming courses, and to what degree this could affect the student's performance. This study aims to answer to: Are there any differences in performance between students using a computer, compared to students using pen-and-paper during summative assessment of programming ability among novice programmers? This could aid teachers to better assess students' programming ability in novice courses, which could in turn aid in student retention. An experimental approach has been applied. 20 students participated and were divided in two groups that were giving the same programming problems that was either solved and examined through pen-and-paper assessment or through computerised assessment. While some differences between the groups were noted, the overall results demonstrate no statistical significant difference between the groups in terms of performance.

  • 45.
    Persson, Veronica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Systematic Review of Second Language Learning with Mobile Technologies2018In: International Journal: Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 188-210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a systematic literature review of the research done in mobile assisted second language learning (MASLL) published since 2010. Starting from 1424 sources, 54 articles were selected using predefined selection criteria. The documents were analyzed and coded using the categories: educational form and level, study design, location, context, role of technology, pedagogical practice and learning impact. That information allowed an identification of major educational outcomes related to the integration of mobile devices into second language learning. In addition, the study contributes with a set of identified research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  • 46.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Using social network analysis to understand online Problem-Based Learning and predict performance2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social network analysis (SNA) may be of significant value in studying online collaborative learning. SNA can enhance our understanding of the collaborative process, predict the under-achievers by means of learning analytics and uncover the role dynamics of learners and teachers alike. As such, it constitutes an obvious opportunity to improve learning, inform teachers and stakeholders.  Besides, it can facilitate data-driven support services for students.

    This study included four courses in Qassim University. Online interaction data were collected and processed following a standard data mining technique. The SNA parameters relevant to knowledge sharing and construction were calculated on the individual and the group level. The analysis included quantitative network analysis and visualizatization, correlation tests as well as predictive and explanatory regression models.

    Our results showed a consistent moderate to strong positive correlation between performance, interaction parameters and students’ centrality measures across all the studied courses, regardless of the subject matter. In each of the studied courses, students with stronger ties to prominent peers (better social capital) in small interactive and cohesive groups tended to do better. The results of correlation tests were confirmed using regression tests, which were validated using a next year dataset. Using SNA indicators, we were able to classify students according to achievement with a high accuracy (93.3%). This demonstrates the possibility of using interaction data to predict underachievers with a reasonable reliability, which is an obvious opportunity for intervention and support.

  • 47.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia .
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Tedre, Matti
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    How social network analysis can be used to monitor online collaborative learning and guide an informed intervention2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0194777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure online collaborative learning meets the intended pedagogical goals (is actually collaborative and stimulates learning), mechanisms are needed for monitoring the efficiency of online collaboration. Various studies have indicated that social network analysis can be particularly effective in studying students' interactions in online collaboration. However, research in education has only focused on the theoretical potential of using SNA, not on the actual benefits they achieved. This study investigated how social network analysis can be used to monitor online collaborative learning, find aspects in need of improvement, guide an informed intervention, and assess the efficacy of intervention using an experimental, observational repeated-measurement design in three courses over a full-term duration. Using a combination of SNA-based visual and quantitative analysis, we monitored three SNA constructs for each participant: the level of interactivity, the role, and position in information exchange, and the role played by each participant in the collaboration. On the group level, we monitored interactivity and group cohesion indicators. Our monitoring uncovered a non collaborative teacher-centered pattern of interactions in the three studied courses as well as very few interactions among students, limited information exchange or negotiation, and very limited student networks dominated by the teacher. An intervention based on SNA-generated insights was designed. The intervention was structured into five actions: increasing awareness, promoting collaboration, improving the content, preparing teachers, and finally practicing with feedback. Evaluation of the intervention revealed that it has significantly enhanced student-student interactions and teacher-student interactions, as well as produced a collaborative pattern of interactions among most students and teachers. Since efficient and communicative activities are essential prerequisites for successful content discussion and for realizing the goals of collaboration, we suggest that our SNA-based approach will positively affect teaching and learning in many educational domains. Our study offers a proof-of-concept of what SNA can add to the current tools for monitoring and supporting teaching and learning in higher education.

  • 48.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Temporality matters: A learning analytics study of the patterns of interactions and its relation to performance2018In: EDULEARN18: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 5386-5393Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Time to focus on the temporal dimension of learning: A learning analytics study of the temporal patterns of students’ interactions and self-regulation2019In: International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, ISSN 1753-5255, E-ISSN 1753-5263, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 398-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this learning analytics study, we attempt to understand the role of temporality measures for the prediction of academic performance. The study included four online courses over a full-year duration. Temporality was studied on daily, weekly, course-wise and year-wise. Visualising the activities has highlighted certain patterns. On the week level, early participation was a consistent predictor of high achievement. This finding was consistent from course to course and during most periods of the year. On course level, high achievers were also likely to participate early and consistently. With a focus on temporal measures, we were able to predict high achievers with reasonable accuracy in each course. These findings highlight the idea that temporality dimension is a significant source of information about learning patterns and has the potential to inform educators about students’ activities and to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of predicting students’ performance.

  • 50.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    What shapes the communities of learners in a medical school2018In: EDULEARN18: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 7709-7716Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 64
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