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  • 1.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Venkataraman, V.
    Joshi, V.
    Ashok, N. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE2014In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 788, no 2, p. L21-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wavelength dependence of the extinction of Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 has been measured using UV to near-IR photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope, and the Mount Abu Infrared Telescope. This is the first time that the reddening of an SN Ia is characterized over the full wavelength range of 0.2-2 mu m. A total-to-selective extinction, R-V >= 3.1, is ruled out with high significance. The best fit at maximum using a Galactic type extinction law yields R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1. The observed reddening of SN 2014J is also compatible with a power-law extinction, A(lambda)/A(V) = (lambda/lambda(V))(p) as expected from multiple scattering of light, with p = -2.1 +/- 0.1. After correcting for differences in reddening, SN 2014J appears to be very similar to SN 2011 fe over the 14 broadband filter light curves used in our study.

  • 2.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Brown, P. J.
    Cao, Y.
    Contreras, C.
    Dahle, H.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gorosabel, J.
    Guaita, L.
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Kankare, E.
    Kasliwal, M.
    Leloudas, G.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mattila, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Asadi, Saghar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Herrero-Illana, R.
    Jensen, J. J.
    Karhunen, K.
    Lazarevic, S.
    Varenius, E.
    Santos, P.
    Sridhar, S. Seethapuram
    Wallström, S. H. J.
    Wiegert, J.
    Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, no 3, p. 3300-3328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

  • 3. Cao, Yi
    et al.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Valenti, Stefano
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Horesh, Assaf
    Sagiv, Ilan
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Arcavi, Iair
    Surace, Jason
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Moody, Daniela I.
    Rebbapragada, Umaa D.
    Bue, Brian D.
    Gehrels, Neil
    A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 521, no 7552, p. 328-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type Ia supernovae(1) are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs(2,3). Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances(4-6), the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious(3). One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion(3,7,8). Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star(9), and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

  • 4.
    Goobar, Ariel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cao, Y.
    Perley, D. A.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nugent, P. E.
    Harris, C.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Tendulkar, S. P.
    Dennefeld, M.
    Valenti, S.
    Arcavi, I.
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Venkataraman, V.
    Joshi, V.
    Ashok, N. M.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Diaz, R. F.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Horesh, A.
    Howell, D. A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sand, D.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    Bloom, J. S.
    Surace, J.
    Dupuy, T. J.
    Liu, M. C.
    THE RISE OF SN 2014J IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M822014In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 784, no 1, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the discovery of SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Given its proximity, it offers the best opportunity to date to study a thermonuclear supernova (SN) over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical, near-IR, and mid-IR observations on the rising light curve, orchestrated by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, show that SN 2014J is a spectroscopically normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), albeit exhibiting high-velocity features in its spectrum and heavily reddened by dust in the host galaxy. Our earliest detections start just hours after the fitted time of explosion. We use high-resolution optical spectroscopy to analyze the dense intervening material and do not detect any evolution in the resolved absorption features during the light curve rise. Similar to other highly reddened SNe Ia, a low value of total-to-selective extinction, R-V less than or similar to 2, provides the best match to our observations. We also study pre-explosion optical and near-IR images from Hubble Space Telescope with special emphasis on the sources nearest to the SN location.

  • 5. Hsiao, E. Y.
    et al.
    Burns, C. R.
    Contreras, C.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Sand, D.
    Marion, G. H.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Stritzinger, M.
    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.
    Mason, R. E.
    Folatelli, G.
    Parent, E.
    Gall, C.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Anupama, G. C.
    Arcavi, I.
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Beletsky, Y.
    Blanc, G. A.
    Bloom, J. S.
    Brown, P. J.
    Campillay, A.
    Cao, Y.
    De Cia, A.
    Diamond, T.
    Freedman, W. L.
    Gonzalez, C.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Holmbo, S.
    Howell, D. A.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Maguire, K.
    Milne, P. A.
    Morrell, N.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Osip, D.
    Palunas, P.
    Perley, D. A.
    Persson, S. E.
    Piro, A. L.
    Rabus, M.
    Roth, M.
    Schiefelbein, J. M.
    Srivastav, S.
    Sullivan, M.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Surace, J.
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Yaron, O.
    Strong near-infrared carbon in the Type Ia supernova iPTF13ebh2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 578, article id A9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2 : 3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C I lambda 1.0693 mu m line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Delta m(15)(B) = 1.79 +/- 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a transitional event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. There is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II lambda 0.6355 mu m line, implying a long dark phase of similar to 4 days.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Sources of Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae: Measurements and constraints from X-rays to the Infrared2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators is essential for studying the expansion history of the Universe and for exploring the nature of dark energy. However, a lack of understanding of the progenitor systems and the empirically derived colour-brightness corrections represent severe limitations for SNe Ia as cosmological probes. In this thesis, we study how dust along the line of sight towards SNe Ia affects the observed light over a wide range of wavelengths; from X-rays to infrared.

    Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources and bias the cosmological parameter estimates as derived from observations of SNe Ia. We model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and measurements of the soft X-ray background. We place upper limits on the extinction AB(z = 1) < 0.10 - 0.25 mag, and the dust density parameter Ωdust < 105 − 10(ρgrain/3 g cm3), for models with RV < 12 − ∞, respectively.

    Dust in the host galaxies, and dust that may reside in the circumstellar (CS) environment, have important implications for the observed colours of SNe Ia. Using the Hubble Space Telescope and several ground based telescopes, we measure the extinction law, from UV to NIR, for a sample of six nearby SNe Ia. The SNe span a range of E(B − V ) ≈ 0.1 − 1.4 mag and RV  ≈ 1.5 − 2.7, showing a diversity of dust extinction parameters. We present mid- and far-infrared (IR) observations for a number of SNe Ia, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope, addressing CS dust as an explanation for “peculiar” extinction towards some SNe Ia. No excess IR emission is detected, limiting CS dust masses, Mdust < 105 solar masses. In particular, the timely appearance of SN 2014J in M82 - the closest SN Ia in several decades - allows for detailed studies, across an unprecedented wavelength range, of its lightcurve and spectral evolution along with the host galaxy and CS environment.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Herschel limits on far-infrared emission from circumstellar dust around three nearby Type Ia supernovae2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 1, p. L43-L47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report upper limits on dust emission at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths from three nearby Type Ia supernovae: SNe 2011by, 2011fe and 2012cg. Observations were carried out at 70 and 160 mu m with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. None of the supernovae were detected in the far-IR, allowing us to place upper limits on the amount of pre-existing dust in the circumstellar environment. Due to its proximity, SN 2011fe provides the tightest constraints, M-dust less than or similar to 7 x 10(-3)M(circle dot) at a 3 sigma level for dust temperatures T-dust similar to 500K assuming silicate or graphite dust grains of size a = 0.1 mu m. For SNe 2011by and 2012cg the corresponding upper limits are less stringent, with M-dust less than or similar to 10(-1)M(circle dot) for the same assumptions.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Helou, G.
    Masci, F.
    Tinyanont, S.
    Jencson, J.
    Cao, Y.
    Fox, O. D.
    Kromer, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Joshi, V.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Kankare, E.
    Prince, T. A.
    Spitzer observations of SN 2014J and properties of mid-IR emission in Type Ia supernovae2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 466, no 3, p. 3442-3449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SN 2014J in M 82 is the closest Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. The proximity allows for detailed studies of supernova physics and provides insights into the circumstellar and interstellar environment. In this work, we analyse Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) data of SN 2014J in the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m wavelength range, together with several other nearby and well-studied SNe Ia. We compile the first composite mid-IR light-curve templates from our sample of SNe Ia, spanning the range from before peak brightness well into the nebular phase. Our observations indicate that SNe Ia form a very homogeneous class of objects at these wavelengths. Using the low-reddening supernovae for comparison, we constrain possible thermal emission from circumstellar dust around the highly reddened SN 2014J. We also study SNe 2006X and 2007le, where the presence of matter in the circumstellar environment has been suggested. No significant mid-IR excess is detected, allowing us to place upper limits on the amount of pre-existing dust in the circumstellar environment. For SN 2014J, M-dust less than or similar to 10(-5) M-circle dot within r(dust) similar to 10(17) cm, which is insufficient to account for the observed extinction. Similar limits are obtained for SNe 2006X and 2007le.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mortsell, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Combined constraints on intergalactic dust from quasar colours and the soft x ray background2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 426, no 4, p. 3360-3368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift-dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources. This would lead to overestimated luminosity distances compared to a dust-free universe and bias the cosmological parameter estimation as derived from, e.g., Type Ia supernova observations. In this paper, we model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and the soft X-ray background. Quasar colours effectively constrain the amount of intergalactic dust grains smaller than similar to 0.2 mu m, to the point where we expect the corresponding systematic error in the Type Ia supernova magnituderedshift relation to be sub-dominant. Soft X-ray background observations are helpful in improving the constraints on very large dust grains for which the amount of optical reddening is very small and therefore is more difficult to correct for. Our current upper limit corresponds to similar to 0.25 mag dimming at optical wavelengths for a source at redshift z = 1, which is too small to alleviate the need for dark energy but large in terms of relative error. However, we expect it to be possible to lower this bound considerably with an improved understanding of the possible sources of the X-ray background, in combination with observations of compact X-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei.

  • 10. Khazov, D.
    et al.
    Yaron, O.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Manulis, I.
    Rubin, A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Arcavi, I.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Cao, Y.
    Perley, D.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Horesh, A.
    Sullivan, M.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Howell, D. A.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Silverman, J. M.
    Ebeling, H.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Laher, R. R.
    Surace, J.
    Rebbapragada, U. D.
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Matheson, T.
    FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND < 10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 818, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (<= 10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (flash spectroscopy), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe. II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as blue/featureless (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M-R = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M-R = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  • 11.
    Leloudas, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Maeda, K.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Nordin, J.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Silverman, J. M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Xu, D.
    Supernova spectra below strong circumstellar interaction2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, article id A61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct spectra of supernovae (SNe) interacting strongly with a circumstellar medium (CSM) by adding SN templates, a black-body continuum, and an emission-line spectrum. In a Monte Carlo simulation we vary a large number of parameters, such as the SN type, brightness and phase, the strength of the CSM interaction, the extinction, and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectrum. We generate more than 800 spectra, distribute them to ten different human classifiers, and study how the different simulation parameters affect the appearance of the spectra and their classification. The SNe IIn showing some structure over the continuum were characterized as SNe IInS to allow for a better quantification. We demonstrate that the flux ratio of the underlying SN to the continuum f(v) is the single most important parameter determining whether a spectrum can be classified correctly. Other parameters, such as extinction, S/N, and the width and strength of the emission lines, do not play a significant role. Thermonuclear SNe get progressively classified as Ia-CSM, IInS, and IIn as f(v) decreases. The transition between Ia-CSM and IInS occurs at f(v) similar to 0.2-0.3. It is therefore possible to determine that SNe Ia-CSM are found at the (un-extincted) magnitude range -19.5 > M > -21.6, in very good agreement with observations, and that the faintest SN IIn that can hide a SN Ia has M = -20.1. The literature sample of SNe Ia-CSM shows an association with 91T-like SNe Ia. Our experiment does not support that this association can be attributed to a luminosity bias (91T-like being brighter than normal events). We therefore conclude that this association has real physical origins and we propose that 91T-like explosions result from single degenerate progenitors that are responsible for the CSM. Despite the spectroscopic similarities between SNe Ibc and SNe Ia, the number of misclassifications between these types was very small in our simulation and mostly at low S/N. Combined with the SN luminosity function needed to reproduce the observed SN Ia-CSM luminosities, it is unlikely that SNe Ibc constitute an important contaminant within this sample. We show how Type II spectra transition to IIn and how the H alpha profiles vary with f(v). SNe IIn fainter than M = -17.2 are unable to mask SNe IIP brighter than M = -15. A more advanced simulation, including radiative transfer, shows that our simplified model is a good first order approximation. The spectra obtained are in good agreement with real data.

  • 12.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lundqvist, N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Garnavich, P. M.
    Kromer, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shappee, B. J.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. This study aims at constraining the origin of the nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe), 2011fe and 2014J. The two most favoured scenarios for triggering the explosion of the white dwarf supernova progenitor is either mass loss from a non-degenerate companion or merger with another white dwarf. In the former, there could be a significant amount of leftover material from the companion at the centre of the supernova. Detecting such material would therefore favour the single-degenerate scenario. Methods. The left-over material from a possible non-degenerate companion can reveal itself after about one year, and in this study such material was searched for in the spectra of SN 2011fe (at 294 days after the explosion) using the Large Binocular Telescope and for SN 2014J using the Nordic Optical Telescope (315 days past explosion). The observations were interpreted using numerical models simulating the expected line emission from ablated material from the companion star. The spectral lines sought for are H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, and [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291,7324, and the expected width of these lines is similar to 1000 km s(-1), which in the case of the [Ca II] lines blend to a broader feature. Results. No signs of H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, or [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291, 7324 could be traced for in any of the two supernovae. When systematic uncertainties are included, the limits on hydrogen-rich ablated gas are 0 : 003 M-circle dot in SN 2011fe and 0 : 0085 M-circle dot in SN 2014J, where the limit for SN 2014J is the second lowest ever, and the limit for SN 2011fe is a revision of a previous limit. Limits are also put on helium-rich ablated gas, and here limits from [O I] lambda 6300 provide the upper mass limits 0 : 002 M-circle dot and 0 : 005 M-circle dot for SNe 2011fe and 2014J, respectively. These numbers are used in conjunction with other data to argue that these supernovae can stem from double-degenerate systems or from single-degenerate systems with a spun-up/spun-down super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf. For SN 2011fe, other types of hydrogen-rich donors can very likely be ruled out, whereas a main-sequence donor system with large intrinsic separation is still possible for SN 2014J. Helium-rich donor systems cannot be ruled out for any of the two supernovae, but the expected short delay time for such progenitors makes this possibility less likely, especially for SN 2011fe. Published data for SNe 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am, and 2005cf are used to constrain their origin. We emphasise that the results of this study depend on the sought-after lines emerging unattenuated from the central regions of the nebula. Detailed radiative transfer calculations with longer line lists than are presently used are needed to confirm that this is, in fact, true. Finally, the broad lines of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are discussed, and it is found that the [Ni II] lambda 7378 emission is redshifted by similar to+ 1300 km s(-1), as opposed to the known blueshift of similar to-1100 km s(-1) for SN 2011fe. [Fe II] lambda 7155 is also redshifted in SN 2014J. SN 2014J belongs to a minority of SNe Ia that both have a nebular redshift of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [Ni II] lambda 7378, and a slow decline of the Si II lambda 6355 absorption trough just after B-band maximum.

  • 13. Marion, G. H.
    et al.
    Sand, D. J.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Valenti, S.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Vinkó, J.
    Joshi, V.
    Venkataraman, V.
    Ashok, N. M.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Binzel, R. P.
    Bochanski, J. J.
    Bryngelson, G. L.
    Burns, C. R.
    Drozdov, D.
    Fieber-Beyer, S. K.
    Graham, M. L.
    Howell, D. A.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Milne, P. A.
    Parrent, J.
    Silverman, J. M.
    Vervack, Jr., R. J.
    Wheeler, J. C.
    Early Observations and Analysis of the Type Ia SN 2014J in M822015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 798, no 1, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present optical and near infrared (NIR) observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. Seventeen optical and 23 NIR spectra were obtained from 10 days before (–10d) to 10 days after (+10d) the time of maximum B-band brightness. The relative strengths of absorption features and their patterns of development can be compared at one day intervals throughout most of this period. Carbon is not detected in the optical spectra, but we identify C I λ1.0693 in the NIR spectra. Mg II lines with high oscillator strengths have higher initial velocities than other Mg II lines. We show that the velocity differences can be explained by differences in optical depths due to oscillator strengths. The spectra of SN 2014J show that it is a normal SN Ia, but many parameters are near the boundaries between normal and high-velocity subclasses. The velocities for O I, Mg II, Si II, S II, Ca II, and Fe II suggest that SN 2014J has a layered structure with little or no mixing. That result is consistent with the delayed detonation explosion models. We also report photometric observations, obtained from –10d to +29d, in the UBVRIJH and Ksbands. The template fitting package SNooPy is used to interpret the light curves and to derive photometric parameters. UsingRV = 1.46, which is consistent with previous studies, SNooPy finds that AV = 1.80 for E(B – V)host = 1.23 ± 0.06 mag. The maximum B-band brightness of –19.19 ± 0.10 mag was reached on February 1.74 UT ± 0.13 days and the supernova has a decline parameter, Δm 15, of 1.12 ± 0.02 mag.

  • 14. Rubin, Adam
    et al.
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    De Cia, Annalisa
    Horesh, Assaf
    Khazov, Danny
    Ofek, Eran O.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Arcavi, Iair
    Manulis, Ilan
    Yaron, Ofer
    Vreeswijk, Paul
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Ben-Ami, Sagi
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Cao, Yi
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Rebbapragada, Umaa D.
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Clubb, K. I.
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Pan, Y-C.
    Badenes, C.
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Valenti, Stefano
    Sand, David
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Leonard, Douglas C.
    Horst, J. Chuck
    Armen, Stephen F.
    Fedrow, Joseph M.
    Quimby, Robert M.
    Mazzali, Paulo
    Pian, Elena
    Sternberg, Assaf
    Matheson, Thomas
    Sullivan, M.
    Maguire, K.
    Lazarevic, Sanja
    TYPE II SUPERNOVA ENERGETICS AND COMPARISON OF LIGHT CURVES TO SHOCK-COOLING MODELS2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 820, no 1, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics. Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of 57 R-band SN II light curves that are well-monitored during their rise, with > 5 detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within 1-3 days. We show that the energy per unit mass (E/M) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing early-time optical data to the 2011 model of Rabinak & Waxman, while the progenitor radius cannot be determined based on R-band data alone. We find that SN II explosion energies span a range of E/M = (0.2-20) x 10(51) erg/(10 M-circle dot), and have a mean energy per unit mass of < E/M > = 0.85 x 10(51) erg/(10 M-circle dot), corrected for Malmquist bias. Assuming a small spread in progenitor masses, this indicates a large intrinsic diversity in explosion energy. Moreover, E/M is positively correlated with the amount of Ni-56 produced in the explosion, as predicted by some recent models of core-collapse SNe. We further present several empirical correlations. The peak magnitude is correlated with the decline rate (Delta m(15)), the decline rate is weakly correlated with the rise time, and the rise time is not significantly correlated with the peak magnitude. Faster declining SNe are more luminous and have longer rise times. This limits the possible power sources for such events.

  • 15. Silverman, Jeffrey M.
    et al.
    Vinko, Jozsef
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Fox, Ori D.
    Cao, Yi
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Tal, David
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Arcavi, Iair
    Bloom, Joshua S.
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Laher, Russ
    Lee, William H.
    Marion, G. H.
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Shivvers, Isaac
    SN 2000cx and SN 2013bh: extremely rare, nearly twin Type Ia supernovae2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 436, no 2, p. 1225-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2000cx was one of the most peculiar transients ever discovered, with a rise to maximum brightness typical of a SN Ia, but a slower decline and a higher photospheric temperature. 13 yr later SN 2013bh (also known as iPTF13abc), a near identical twin, was discovered and we obtained optical and near-infrared photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy from discovery until about 1 month past r-band maximum brightness. The spectra of both objects show iron-group elements [Co ii, Ni ii, Fe ii, Fe iii and high-velocity features (HVFs) of Ti ii], intermediate-mass elements (Si ii, Si iii and S ii) and separate normal velocity features (similar to 12 000 km s(-1)) and HVFs (similar to 24 000 km s(-1)) of Ca ii. Persistent absorption from Fe iii and Si iii, along with the colour evolution, implies high blackbody temperatures for SNe 2013bh and 2000cx (similar to 12 000 K). Both objects lack narrow Na i D absorption and exploded in the outskirts of their hosts, indicating that the SN environments were relatively free of interstellar or circumstellar material and may imply that the progenitors came from a relatively old and low-metallicity stellar population. Models of SN 2000cx, seemingly applicable to SN 2013bh, imply the production of up to similar to 1 M-circle dot of Ni-56 and (4.3-5.5) x 10(-3) M-circle dot of fast-moving Ca ejecta.

  • 16. Singer, L. P.
    et al.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Perley, D. A.
    Anderson, G. E.
    Anupama, G. C.
    Arcavi, I.
    Bhalerao, V.
    Bue, B. D.
    Cao, Y.
    Connaughton, V.
    Corsi, A.
    Cucchiara, A.
    Fender, R. P.
    Fox, D. B.
    Gehrels, N.
    Goldstein, A.
    Gorosabel, J.
    Horesh, A.
    Hurley, K.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kann, D. A.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    Huang, K.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Masci, F.
    Nugent, P.
    Rau, A.
    Rebbapragada, U. D.
    Staley, T. D.
    Svinkin, D.
    Thöne, C. C.
    de Ugarte Postigo, A.
    Urata, Y.
    Weinstein, A.
    The Needle in the 100 deg2 Haystack: Uncovering Afterglows of Fermi GRBs with the Palomar Transient Factory2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 806, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts' host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target of opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: eight afterglow discoveries, two of which (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z=0.145 and 0.384 respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star, rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.

  • 17.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Asadi, Saghar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wiik, Kaj
    Jonsson, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Scott, Pat
    Datta, Kanan K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Friedrich, Martina M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jensen, Hannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rydberg, Claes-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hunting for dark halo substructure using submilliarcsecond-scale observations of macrolensed radio jets2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 3, p. 2172-2183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark halo substructure may reveal itself through secondary, small-scale gravitational lensing effects on light sources that are macrolensed by a foreground galaxy. Here, we explore the prospects of using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of multiply-imaged quasar jets to search for submilliarcsecond-scale image distortions produced by various forms of dark substructures in the 10(3)-10(8) M-circle dot mass range. We present lensing simulations relevant for the angular resolutions attainable with the existing European VLBI Network, the global VLBI array and an upcoming observing mode in which the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is connected to the global VLBI array. While observations of this type would not be sensitive to standard cold dark matter subhaloes, they can be used to detect the more compact forms of halo substructure predicted in alternative structure formation scenarios. By mapping approximately five strongly lensed systems, it should be possible to detect or robustly rule out primordial black holes in the 10(3)-10(6) M-circle dot mass range if they constitute greater than or similar to 1 per cent of the dark matter in these lenses. Ultracompact minihaloes are harder to detect using this technique, but 10(6)-10(8) M-circle dot ultracompact minihaloes could in principle be detected if they constitute greater than or similar to 10 per cent of the dark matter.

1 - 17 of 17
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