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  • 1. Rahm, Lina
    et al.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Prepare for Monsters! Governance by Popular Culture2016In: The Irish Journal of Gothic and Horror Studies, ISSN 2009-0374, Vol. 1, no 15, p. 76-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, various stakeholders have applied the pop-cultural metaphor of the zombie in efforts that seek to aware and prepare citizens for potential threats and disasters. But what are the cultural and political consequences of applying this very specific metaphor in what are, essentially, attempts to govern populations? By studying how and why the zombie is used in civil defence courses, government information campaigns and popular science TV shows, this paper identifies five patterns to its cultural-political operation: (1) it emphasizes a world-view where complexity has become too overwhelming to handle and that we therefore need to go back to a more simple model of the world; (2) the solution to complexity is the application of an anthropocentric metaphor that makes specific what was previously unknown through arbitrary ruling and othering; (3) once complexity is reduced, the metaphor is easily overgeneralized to contexts far beyond its initial reach; (4) however, as such rules and generalizations are applied the metaphor comes to legitimize certain agencies and limit others in what is basically an attempt to maintain power differentials in the future; (5) and finally, the metaphor is being protected from falsification by relying on pseudo-scientific explanations. Conclusively, this cultural ambition to send every monster on a path towards comfortable transparency becomes limiting and by making the zombie the metaphor we prepare by (in order to make familiar what are irreducible social, cultural and political intricacies) we effectively foreclose many options for a more inclusive future.

  • 2.
    Rahm-Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Carlsson, Anders
    The archive and the scene: on the cultural techniques of retrocomputing databases2019In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several digital spaces are now archiving artifacts from the first 1980s home computer boom. These spaces are not only storages, but also social venues and ‘memory banks’, and thereby depend on several concurrent practices: software and hardware developed to read, run, and preserve computer code; archiving of old software, magazines, and personal stories; contemporary conferences dedicated to retrocomputing; and making artifacts, which used to be private, publically available. The paper argues that retrocomputing can be seen as a foreshadowing in terms of managing collective digital archives, memories, and relationships to digital material. Taking the Commodore 64 Scene Database as a case, this paper 1) engages with both users and cultural techniques, in order to 2) theorize collective digital archives as ‘performative in-betweens’, and 3) discuss how retrocomputing may become a default mode for people seeking access to their digital pasts in a time when planned obsolescence is rampant.

  • 3.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    A Systemic Approach to Online Sharing Motivations: A Cross-Disciplinary Synthesis of Rhetorical Analysis and Gift Research2012In: Virtual Community Participation and Motivation: Cross-Disciplinary Theories / [ed] Honglei Li, Hershey: IGI Global, 2012, p. 192-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to present and argue for a cross-disciplinary and systemic approach to the examination of motivations for sharing digital media objects via social mediating technologies. The theoretical foundation of this approach is built on two social theories from rhetorical analysis (Burke’s pentad) and gift research (gift systems), respectively. A synthesis of these two theories provides an approach capable of producing more coherent and contextually grounded insights regarding online sharing motivations. The reason these two theories were identified as useful is that they acknowledge and incorporate social and contextual factors. This is important to overcome the assumption that motivations to share are detached from the specifics of actors, situations, and sociotechnical means. As such, this cross-disciplinary combination challenges the limited, but common approach of trying to identify generic motivations for contributing to virtual communities. Instead, this chapter argues for a consideration of situated and contextual motivations for contributing by highlighting the conceptual questions what, to whom, how, where, and finally, why. In conclusion, the chapter fills a gap in the literature on online motivations mainly because current models focus on motivations as self-containing. Instead, this chapter suggests to consider sociotechnical means, types of relationships, values of media objects, identity, or culture in cohort.

  • 4.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    A Systemic Approach to Online Sharing Motivations: A Cross-Disciplinary Synthesis of Rhetorical Analysis and Gift Research2014In: Cyber Behavior: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour et al., Hershey PA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 1959-1974Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to present and argue for a cross-disciplinary and systemic approach to the examination of motivations for sharing digital media objects via social mediating technologies. The theoretical foundation of this approach is built on two social theories from rhetorical analysis (Burke’s pentad) and gift research (gift systems), respectively. A synthesis of these two theories provides an approach capable of producing more coherent and contextually grounded insights regarding online sharing motivations. The reason these two theories were identi ed as useful is that they acknowl- edge and incorporate social and contextual factors. This is important to overcome the assumption that motivations to share are detached from the speci cs of actors, situations, and sociotechnical means. As such, this cross-disciplinary combination challenges the limited, but common approach of trying to identify generic motivations for contributing to virtual communities. Instead, this chapter argues for a consideration of situated and contextual motivations for contributing by highlighting the conceptual questions what, to whom, how, where, and nally, why. In conclusion, the chapter lls a gap in the lit- erature on online motivations mainly because current models focus on motivations as self-containing. Instead, this chapter suggests to consider sociotechnical means, types of relationships, values of media objects, identity, or culture in cohort.

  • 5.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Biometrics2018In: Encyclopedia of Big Data / [ed] Laurie A. Schintler, Connie L. McNeely, London: Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biometrics refers to measurable and distinct (preferably unique) biological, physiological, or behavioral characteristics. Stored in both commercial and governmental biometric databases, these characteristics are subsequently used to identify and/or label individuals. This entry summarizes common forms of biometrics, their different applications and the societal debate surrounding biometrics, including its connection to big data, as well as its potential benefits and drawbacks.

  • 6.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Critical incidents in everyday technology use: exploring digital breakdowns2019In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the analysis of 292 personal stories of digital media breakdown in everyday life. The analysis identifies significant occurrences (events, incidents, processes, or issues) as identified by informants themselves; the way these occurrences are pragmatically negotiated; and the perceived outcomes in terms of cognitive, affective and behavioural effects. Against a backdrop of techno-optimism, techno-pessimism and technology as experience, the paper proposes four analytical dimensions, or tensions, common in digital media failures: the digital and the material; trust and lack of control; planned obsolescence and desirable updates; and nostalgia and reluctance to go back. While these dimensions indicate a highly ambiguous relation to digital media with the informants, the most striking observation is how the practical solution to these uncertainties is to irrevocably ‘accept and commit’ to being and becoming even more digital. That is, in the face of (a risk of) digital breakdown, individuals argue that more and upgraded digital media is always the best and undisputable response. In the light of these results, some design possibilities are suggested, including designing for nostalgia, designing for comprehensibility, and designing for failing infrastructure resilience.

  • 7.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Crosscurrents in ‘micro’ marketing: home computers and media genealogy2018In: Artnodes: Journal on Art, Science and Technology, ISSN 1695-5951, no 21, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the late 1970s to the mid 1980s, many countries experienced a “home computer boom”. The “home computer” (or “micro” as it was colloquially referred to) had become a viable marketing concept because companies, having developed advanced and expensive machines for business, science and engineering applications, now identified a new market segment for more affordable, accessible, and less advanced single-user “home computers”. The domestication of the computer is, naturally, an interesting phase in media history, revealing intermedialities, continuities, and disruptions in the development of digital culture. By analysing home computer marketing as it appears from 1981 to 1985 in magazine advertisements, this paper argues that we can come to a better understanding of the mutually transformative relation between the inherently technical design and language of software and hardware engineering and the ideological and cultural language of computerisation. The key research question for this paper is: How was the inherently technical language, and indeed material operations, of software and hardware engineering transcoded into marketing concepts? Or, in other words, how was human agency and technological agency negotiated through the visual language of marketing? Answering this question will provide insights into how the impending computerisation of society started to take place at an ideological and semiotic level, which in turn is underpinned by the material capacities of media technologies. As a result, the paper identifies three tentative ‘crosscurrents’ where materialities, agencies and discourses are negotiated.

  • 8.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Designing Control of Computer-mediated Gifting in Sharing Networks2007In: Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development / [ed] S. B. Heilesen & S. S. Jensen, Hershey: IGI Global , 2007, 1, p. 240-268Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter suggests that the pro-social provision, or gifting, of goods in multiple user sharing networks is largely determined by the relationship an individual has to the larger group(s) of which he or she is a member. This relationship is often referred to as a social dilemma and can be both a conflict of interest or a pattern of cooperation reflecting a predicament in acting in self-interest versus the interest of the collective (or different groups of the collective). In this chapter, the social dilemma is modelled by the relationship model, which operates for end users on a tactical level of control and thus sets a general path of performance. Once a specifc gifting act is included in such a tactic, five dimensions of control are also suggested, which operates on a situated sociotechnical level. The dynamics of sharing networks makes gifting a continuous re-negotiation between reactive actions and overall tactics. In such an environment, the relationship model is suggested to be a relatively stable determinant of types of gifting acts, while the dimensions of control are tentatively suggested to address sociotechnical control requirements of the specifc gifting actions.

  • 9.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Dismantling the guitar hero?: A case of prodused parody and disarmed subversion2017In: Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice / [ed] Sonja K. Foss, Waveland Press, Inc. , 2017, 5 uppl., p. 194-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘shreds’ video combines existing live music concert footage, predominantly including a famous male rock guitarist or guitar based rock group, with a self-produced overdubbed soundtrack. The result is a musical parody which exist in an intersection between production and consumption and works as a within-genre evolution. The shred is controversial and its most popular installments have been pulled from YouTube on claims of copyright infringement. This paper examines shreds as a form of multimodal intertextual critique by engaging with the videos themselves as well as audience responses to them. As such, the applied method is genre analysis and multimodal semiotics geared towards the analysis of intertextual elements. The paper shows how prodused parody exists as a co-dependence between (1) production and consumption; (2) homage and subversion; (3) comprehension and miscomprehension; and (4) media synchronicity and socio-economical dis/harmony. The paper also discusses how shreds can be interpreted as tampered-with gender performances. In conclusion, it becomes clear that the produsage of shred videos is part of ‘piracy culture’ because it so carefully balances between the mainstream and counter-culture; between the legal and the illegal; and between the commoditized artifact and networked production.

  • 10.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Dismantling the guitar hero?: A case of prodused parody and disarmed subversion2013In: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘shreds’ video combines existing live music concert footage, predominantly including a famous male rock guitarist or guitar based rock group, with a self-produced overdubbed soundtrack. The result is a musical parody that exists in an intersection between production and consumption and works as a within-genre evolution. The shred is controversial and its most popular instalments have been pulled from YouTube on claims of copyright infringement. This paper examines shred sas a form of multimodal intertextual critique by engaging with the videos themselves, as well as audience responses to them. As such, the applied method is genre analysis and multimodal semiotics geared towards the analysis of intertextual elements. The paper shows how prodused parodyexists as a co-dependence between: (1) production and consumption; (2) homage and subversion;(3) comprehension and miscomprehension; and (4) media synchronicity and socioeconomic dis/harmony. The paper also discusses how shreds can be interpreted as tampered-with gender performances. In conclusion, it becomes clear that the produsage of shred videos is part of ‘piracy culture’ because it so carefully balances between the mainstream and counter-culture, between the legal and the illegal, and between the commoditized artefact and networked production.

  • 11.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Engineering meets marketing: advertising soft- and hardware in the 1980s2015In: In the Flow: People, Media, Materialities / [ed] Johanna Dahlin, Tove Andersson, Linköpings universitet , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of computer systems has been followed by market-ing and sales of the same systems. Computer systems and the language used to describe them form a material-discursive relationship, where information comes with both physical and philological propensities. This study will analyse the combined discourses and functionalities that permeated advertisements, commercials and infomercials in the marketing of computer systems during the 1980s. This will provide insights into how the impending computerisation of society took place at an ideological and linguistic level, which in turn was grounded in the material capacities of media technologies.

  • 12.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Exploring Qualitative Sharing Practices of Social Metadata: Expanding the Attention Economy2009In: The Information Society, ISSN 0197-2243, E-ISSN 1087-6537, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social metadata are receiving interest from many domains, mainly as a way to aggregate various patterns in social networks. Few scholars have, however, taken the perspective of end users and examined how they utilize social metadata to enrich interpersonal communication. The results of a study of end-user practices of social metadata usage are presented in this article. Data were gathered from a variety of online forums by collecting and analyzing user discussions relating to social metadata supporting features in Facebook. Three hundred and fifteen relevant comments on social metadata usage were extracted. The analysis revealed the use of experimental profiles, clashes between work-and non-work-related social metadata usage and differences in users' social investment, causing social dilemmas. The study also resulted in developments of theory relating to social metadata and relationship maintenance. In conclusion, social metadata expand a pure “attention economy,” conveying a much wider qualitative range of social information.

  • 13.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Forgetting in the Future: design fiction and the (evil) link between perfect and failing memory2013In: Missing Links: The Somatechnics of Decolonisation, Linköping: Tema Genus, Linköping university , 2013, p. 70-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper theorizes how memory-augmenting technologies can operate as the missing linkbetween perfect and failing memory. Notably, forgetting is an important strategy for queerhuman-computer interaction (Light, 2011) and for the study of “queer failure”(Halberstam,2011). In short,queer failure shows how errors, when occurring under the tyranny of success, can become important and empowering errata. By combining the theoretical perspective of queer failure with the notion of “evil media” (Fuller & Goffey, 2012), this paper makes fruitful conceptual connections between queer theory, media materialism and interaction criticism.

    “Mediation facilitates and amplifies thecreation of troubling, ambiguous social processes,fragile networks ofsusceptible activity, opaque zones of nonknowledge –the evils ofmedia.” (ibid.p.3)

    Empirically, the paper engages with two episodes of the futuristic British TV show Black Mirror:one emphasizing the liberating capacity of forgetting; the other emphasizing how forgetting, or rather, revoking remembering, becomes a systemict ool for instrumental power. This tension between forgetting as resistance andf orgetting as punishment is addressed through design fiction, which makes use of the imagined futures of science fiction narratives to inform our thinking about how (memory) technologies operate once they have matured and become ubiquitous in society (Tanenbaum, Tanenbaum & Wakkary, 2012). As such, the paper aims to discuss what memory technologies do. Generally speaking, they turn brains into harddrives and memories into databases – subject to search, storage, manipulation and sharing as any digital-virtual object (van Doorn, 2011). They create somatechnical gray zones inbetween good and evil, success and failure.

  • 14.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Framtidens medier: fiktion och politik2015In: ikaros - tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår värld blir allt mer medierad. Medieteknologier utgör allt oftare ett mellanled i allt fler mänskliga aktiviteter. Denna hypermediering är på många sätt ett uttryck för en längtan efter omedelbarhet — en ideal kommunikationssituation där vi, hypotetiskt, kan överföra tankar och sinnesförnimmelser direkt, utan mellanled, till varandra.

     

    Denna längtan efter kommunikationens allt snabbare omedelbarhet gör att alla medier egentligen bara blir en biprodukt av vår oförmåga till direkt och omedelbar tankeöverföring. Om vi kunde överföra tankar och känslor direkt, utan mellanled, så skulle många medier kanske till och med bli överflödiga. Men idag driver en längtan efter omedelbarhet medieutvecklingen och den skapar på sin väg också en längtan efter bättre medier — efter medier som hela tiden kan komma närmare omedelbarheten. Vi längtar efter medier som är bättre än tidigare på att ”mer omedelbart” förmedla tankar och sinnesförnimmelser mellan oss människor. Vi längtar efter framtidens medier.

  • 15.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Gift-giving as a conceptual framework: framing social behavior in online networks2010In: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the use of gift-giving as a theoretical and conceptual framework for analyzing sociotechnical behaviour in online networks and communities. Not only has gift-giving the potential to frame and explain much social media behaviour, but reversely and perhaps more importantly, mediated social behaviour also has the potential to develop gift-giving theory. Information and communication technologies form joint sociotechnical systems where new practices emerge. The paper focuses on describing the academic background of the gifting framework to help develop a deeper, theory-based, understanding of these sociotechnical phenomena. Three themes are prevalent in the gifting literature: other-orientation, social bonding and generalized reciprocity. The paper gives examples of how these themes are enacted by end-users via the use of information and communication technologies. Finally, sociotechnically embedded economies, called gifting technologies, are identified and discussed.

  • 16.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Imagined interaction: visualizing human-machine communication2018In: Journal of Digital Media & Interaction, ISSN 2184-3120, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 7-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in an age where consumer media technologies are hyped way before most people actually have a chance to engage with a physical product. Still, product representations, such as marketing videos, technical specifications and even software development kits provide certain clues to the capacities and limitations of the physical product in question. Prospective consumers are also increasingly invited to interact with technologies more distant in the future – via for example design fiction videos and technology vloggers. The ‘virtual products’ represented there also entice users to imagine how future interaction would take place (which they vividly do). From this premise, this paper explores what we may call imagined human-machine interaction. Put simply, this entails an interest inthe intentions and concerns that come with engaging with media technologies implicitly – i.e. through representations of different kinds (which may have different underpinning agendas). However, as we shall see, retaining a notion of strict implicitness or immateriality is difficult. Theories around imaginary media, performative prototypes and design fiction challenge any firm separation of material and immaterial technologies, pointing us towards developed studies of imagined human-machine interaction.

  • 17.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Im/possible desires: media temporalities and (post)human technology relationships2016In: Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics, ISSN 2001-4562, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 47-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general question of how our human desires can be supported by media technologies has produced a fairly constant endeavour in human history — and still does, for example in the shape of transhumanist hopes and aspirations. Over time, these desires have often driven development towards an, in the end, materialized technology. Many times, however, the desires have also not resulted in a physical product, but rather remained as ideas, conceptual sketches, or lo-fi prototypes. This essay will examine how such imaginary media technologies can be defined and categorized, why they are important to study, and how the underlying desires seem to be revitalized across centuries and decades. Such questions are of interest to transhumanism as they illustrate how desires, temporal relations, and human-technology relationships have been (and are) imagined both in the past, the present, and towards the future. So, while this essay is not a media archaeological excavation of transhumanist imaginary media only (which would be an interesting project in itself), it is a media genealogy of historically recurring desires to extend, substitute and enhance the human body and mind.

  • 18.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Interpreting online discussions: Connecting artefacts and experiences in user studies2015In: Qualitative Report, ISSN 1052-0147, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a methodological effort to connect the specifics of technologies to the details of social practices, in an attempt to deepen our understanding of evolving sociotechnical cultures. More specifically, this paper describes a methodological framework that makes use of online discussions as a vital source of data. The reason the paper focuses on online discussion is that the Internet has become a natural habitat for discussions of high-end technologies, be they physical products or online services. The framework combines interpretative research and attribute-consequence-value (ACV) chain theory – a theory commonly applied to market and consumer research – to conceptualize and explore evolving prosumer cultures through online discussions. The benefit of using ACV chain theory is that it explicitly connects products and services to practices and values. The proposed methodological framework identifies three central techniques to elicit and analyse ACV chains from online prosumer discussions: (1) attribute analysis (2) Internet forum data collection and (3) thematic analysis. The paper goes on to exemplify the application of this framework by examining the sociotechnical co-evolution of the friend list – a backbone feature of many social networking services. In summary, this paper shows how ACV chains can be fruitfully applied to explore evolving prosumer cultures and make the vital connection between technical features and emerging cultures.

  • 19.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Kassetten, radion och hemdatorn2014In: Återkopplingar: Medier, historier, praktiker, fält / [ed] Marie Cronqvist, Patrik Lundell, Pelle Snickars, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 1985 och 1986 sändes i Sveriges Radio P1 programmet Datorernas Värld. Programmet var unikt i en svensk kontext då det utgjorde ett tidigt försök till publik trådlös fildelning. Datorernas Värld sände under nattetid ut datorprogram (kod) i ljudform. Dessa ljud kunde sedan spelas in på kassett. Kassetten var vid den här tiden ett vanligt lagringsmedium för hemdatorer och på så sätt kunde de inspelade radiosändningarna användas i datorernas bandstationer. Det är många aspekter av detta kortvariga fenomen som är intressanta. Som redan nämnts så är ansatsen att bedriva publik trådlös fildelning (i potentiellt stor skala) fascinerande i sig. Vidare är ljudkassettens roll i den tidiga delningen av kod intressant. I och med att datorkod kunde representeras som ljud blev kassetten för första gången i någon mening multimedial (när koden exekverades av datorn kunde den aktualisera inte bara ljud och musik utan också animationer, grafik och ’interaktionslogik’).

    Som praktik betraktat finns också intressanta aspekter som kan sägas grundas i kassettens materiella begränsningar (och dess samspel med radion som medium). Till exempel så fanns många problem rörande behovet av perfekta inspelningar (med rätt inspelningsvolym, utan avbrott, med rätt vinkel på in/avspelningshuvudet). Kassetten kommer dock, trots dessa svårigheter, att under 1980-talet att användas i ett flertal samspel med andra medier och utgöra en central, men outforskad del av fildelning och fildelningskulturers framväxt. Det blir därmed intressant att fråga sig: vilka samspel ingick kassetten och hemdatorn i och vilken betydelse hade dessa för fildelningens framväxt i Sverige? I detta kapitel kommer vi börja besvara den frågan genom att fokusera på just radioprogrammet Datorernas värld och dess uppbyggnad, innehåll och ambition. Utifrån denna analys kommer kapitlet sedan dra upp riktlinjer för ett större forskningsområde kring intermedialitet och tidig fildelning.

  • 20.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Media Futures: premediation and the politics of performative prototypes2016In: First Monday, ISSN 1396-0466, E-ISSN 1396-0466, Vol. 21, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For centuries our interest in the future has spurred more and less spectacular ideas of potential relationships between bodies, minds and media. Today, we are, perhaps more than ever, surrounded by imaginary media technologies. Through advertising and popular culture our desires for — and fears of — the media of the future are enticed. This paper explores how imaginary media technologies are used to conceive of a relationship between failure and solution and how this relation can be interpreted critically. Theoretically, the paper calls on the notion of performative prototypes and premediation to stress how imagined designs may influence actual technology development, use and imagined interaction. Further, based on the notion that technologies can be interpreted as policies frozen in silicon the paper applies a form of policy analysis which analyses the performative prototypes as so-called problem representations (i.e. as the relations between envisioned problems and imagined resolutions). Three specific cases of fictitious media futures are then used to propose an analytical dimension of speculative solutions. As a general conclusion, the paper points to how imagined technologies calls for a more rigorous discussion of the intentionality and morality of (designed and imagined) machinery; the emergence of cyborg subjectivity; and the normativity perpetuated by designs that potentially limit our imaginable future.

  • 21.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Mischievous machines: a design criticism of programmable partners2017In: DHN 2017, Digital humaniora i Norden/Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, Göteborg, March 14–16, 2017: Conference abstracts / [ed] Daniel Brodén, 2017, p. 104-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from a design critical reading (Bardzell & Bardzell, 2015; Bardzell, Bolter, & Löwgren, 2010) of the AI-powered social robot Cozmo. Cozmo was released to the market during the fall of 2016 and is described as a “supercomputer on treads”. It comes in the form of a small forklift-like vehicle, which most prominent features are the caterpillar bands that drive it, the lift in front of it, and a screen, ef-fectively displaying stylized graphical facial expressions.The design critique will focus on the notion of programmability (Chun, 2008; Pa-rikka, 2014) and how this condition may affect human-technology relations (Ihde, 1990; Nørskov, 2015; Verbeek, 2011).

  • 22.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Online Ethnographic Methods: towards a qualitative understanding of virtual community practices2011In: Handbook of Research on Methods and Techniques for studying Virtual Communities : Paradigms and Phenomena / [ed] Ben Kei Daniel, Hershey: IGI Global , 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of online ethnographical methods as a potent way to reach qualitative understanding of virtual communities. The term online ethnography envelopes document collection, online observation and online interviews. The paper will explain the steps of conducting online ethnography – from defining setting and spelling out your research perspective, to collecting online data, analyzing gathered data, feeding back insights to the studied community and presenting results with ethical awareness. In this process the paper will compare online ethnography to traditional ethnography and provide illustrative empirical examples and experiences from three recent online ethnographical studies on social information and media sharing (Skågeby, 2007, 2008, 2009a). While multimedial forms of data and data collection are becoming more common (i.e. video and sound recordings), the focus of the paper lies mainly with text-based data. The paper concludes by discussing methodological benefits and drawbacks of an online ethnographical process.

  • 23.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Online friction: studying micro-level sociotechnical conflicts to elicit user experiences2011In: Knowledge Development and Social Change through Technology: Emerging Studies / [ed] Elaine Coakes, IGI Global, 2011, p. 123-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents conflicts as a central unit of analysis in investigations of online social mediasharing. Social media sharing services generate interesting sociotechnical problems as they often makesocial structures explicit, resulting in observable user experience conflicts. As such, they also presenta genre of services where theories of social structure become highlighted and, at times, challenged.Three examples of conflicts, from three different types of networks, are presented. The conflicts wereelicited through online, ethnography-inspired, methods. It is argued that the conceptual conflicts helpresearchers and designers to postulate, find and examine concerns and intentions of users who try toresolve the conflict or move from one end of the conflict to the other. Thechapter also demonstrates threeviable ways to communicate analytical conflict insights, intended to inform interaction design, namelyuse qualities, analytical dimensions and design patterns.

  • 24.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Online friction: studying sociotechnical conflicts to elicit user experience2009In: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development, ISSN 1941-6253, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 62-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents conflicts as a central unit of analysis in investigations of online social media sharing. Social media sharing services generate interesting sociotechnical problems as they often make social structures explicit, resulting in observable user experience conflicts. As such, they also present a genre of services where theories of social structure become highlighted and, at times, challenged. Three examples of conflicts, from three different types of networks, are presented. The conflicts were elicited through online, ethnography-inspired, methods. It is argued that the conceptual conflicts help researchers and designers to postulate, find and examine concerns and intentions of users who try to resolve the conflict or move from one end of the conflict to the other. The article also demonstrates three viable ways to communicate analytical conflict insights, intended to inform interaction design, namely use qualities, analytical dimensions and design patterns.

  • 25.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Pre-produsage and the remediation of virtual products2011In: New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, ISSN 1361-4568, E-ISSN 1740-7842, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 141-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces and explores cycles of pre-produsage and produsage. It reports on the results from an online ethnographical study of the Apple iPad conducted before the public release of the material product. Consequently, most users had not physically interacted with the device in question. Nevertheless, the release of the technical specifications and marketing material generated a massive amount of produsage-related online discussion. As such this paper explores the concept of pre-produsage. Pre-produsage is a form of predicted or expected use, relating to products or services that are only accessible to users as a form of representation (e.g. technical specification, virtual prototype, and design sketch), but with an added element of user-generated design suggestions, conflict coordination, and software development. Remediation—the process by which new digital media technologies reuses qualities of previous technologies and enters an existing media ecology—is a prevalent theme in pre-produsage and involves a tension between features that support protracted use and features that provide total innovation. The paper argues that an analysis of pre-produsage can provide insights that relate to both anticipated and actual user experience (UX). More specifically, pre-produsage analysis can trace the underlying reasons for a certain problem, intention, or concern and connect it to a specific set of features and potential solutions. Finally, the paper shows how proprietary products become subject to produsage, resulting in artifacts negotiated by cycles of produsage.

  • 26.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    The changing shape of sharing: digital materiality and moral economies2015In: Discover Society, no 18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital is expanding. More and more of our virtual world (e.g. emotions, sentiments, ideas, fears, beliefs, thoughts) is being digitally crowdsourced and quantified as Big Data. Equally, more and more of our physical objects (including our bodies) are being interlaced with digital information (commonly referred to as the Internet of Things). Thus, there is no longer (if there ever was) a clear separation between the digital on the one hand and the virtual and the material on the other hand.

    At the same time, the digital-material objects we surround ourselves with can take on different transactional identities — as gifts, public goods or commodities — and thereby become parts of larger economies. Depending on the transactional identity of objects, these larger economies can be seen as following different moral orders. These two processes, digital materiality and moral economies, have become more visible in our everyday lives as they converge in the so-called sharing economy. In what follows, this article will show how sharing has changed shape and that we can understand this process precisely by considering digital materiality and moral economies together.

  • 27.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The irony of serendipity: disruptions in social information behaviour2012In: Library hi tech, ISSN 0737-8831, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 321-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This paper proposes that the current social media surge gives rise to what can be called social information behaviour. Social information behaviour is characterized, at least partly, by a tension between serendipity and disruption. While serendipity is a promoted feature of social media and social information behaviour, social disruption can be seen as its ironic counterpart. This paper goes on to explore different kinds of social disruption that emerge with the use of social media services.

    Design/methodology/approach. The paper uses a meta-ethnographical approach and draws on results from three online ethnographic studies. User activities are conceptualized as social information behaviour and focus is put on potential social disruption.

    Findings. The paper discusses five prevalent tensions relating to social disruption: market logic and social logic; public and private; work and non-work; individual and collective; and IRL (In Real Life) or AFK (Away From Keyboard).

    Research limitations/implications. The paper mainly focuses on the disruptive side of social information behaviour. Future work would include studies and comparisons of serendipitous effects.

    Practical implications. The findings are relevant for library and information science academics, analysts and professionals interested in social information behaviour as it emerges over new social mediating technologies.

    Originality/value. This paper proposes the notion of social information behaviour and provides a conceptual analytical pair in serendipity and social disruption. Theoretical discussion is conducted with reference to ‘ironic technics’ (2008). The paper compiles and highlights prevalent social disruptions from previous online ethnographical studies on social media usage.

  • 28.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The media archaeology of file sharing: broadcasting computer code to Swedish homes2015In: Popular Communication, ISSN 1540-5702, E-ISSN 1540-5710, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What form did file sharing take before the internet’s usage became mainstream, and what prac- 5 tices from that period remain? This article examines a Swedish radio show that broadcast listener- contributed computer code in the mid 1980s. It applies a combined theoretical framework of intermediality and sharing theory and argues that this combination is central to the analysis of piracy

    and social change. The results indicate an interesting paradox in terms of pushing and pulling con- tent as the practice relied on both in public broadcasting as well as with contributing media users. 10 As such, the case of Datorernas värld prefigures how peer interaction and sharing relies on more centralized and controlled channels of communication. The article historically situates themes such as intermediality, surveillance, gender representation, and piracy and provides a piece of computing history that is topical, but strangely, critically ignored.

  • 29.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The media archaeology of file sharing: broadcasting computer code to Swedish homes2017In: Popular Communication, Piracy and Social Change / [ed] Jonas Andersson Schwarz, Patrick Burkart, London: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What form did file sharing take before the internet’s usage became mainstream, and what practices from that period remain? This article examines a Swedish radio show that broadcast listener-contributed computer code in the mid 1980s. It applies a combined theoretical framework of intermediality and sharing theory and argues that this combination is central to the analysis of piracy and social change. The results indicate an interesting paradox in terms of pushing and pulling content as the practice relied on both in public broadcasting as well as with contributing media users. As such, the case of Datorernas värld prefigures how peer interaction and sharing relies on more centralized and controlled channels of communication. The article historically situates themes such as intermediality, surveillance, gender representation, and piracy and provides a piece of computing history that is topical but, strangely, critically ignored.

  • 30.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    The Performative Gift: A Feminist Materialist Conceptual Model2013In: communication +1, ISSN 2380-6109, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gifting (or gift-giving) is a particularly interesting form of communication that envelops both material and social dimensions. Objects are transformed into gifts through particular socio-material practices. While these practices are, of course, interesting in themselves, this paper will take a step back and revisit attempts to define and theorize the gift as a concept. In a time when the gift economy is often called upon as a potential candidate for more “participatory alternatives to capitalist totality”, particularly in relation to theorizing of labour on and through the Internet, theories of gifting provide an important foundation for discussing the boundaries of alternative futures and economies.

    So far, little effort has been taken to advance gift theory into a new materialist or posthumanist thinking. In an attempt to take that first step, this paper provides two contributions. First, it highlights how feminist theorizing of the gift comprises interesting forerunners in a new materialist conception of the gift. Second, it explores the analytical traction that can be gained from interlocking theories of the gift, feminist materialism and digital media, the result being a conceptual model that addresses the gift as a form of virtual-digital-material communication.

  • 31.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Useful, joyful, willful: thinking about types of play2014In: First Person Scholar, no 4 JuneArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I outline three perspectives that emphasize different characters of play: useful; joyful; and willful play. I further argue that designing for willfulness (e.g. rule-bending) will allow players to become game-changers rather than being played.

    Generally speaking, computer games have created new arenas for play in several senses. Massive multiplayer online games have spurred, amongst other things, particular forms of social interaction and behavior; mobile and casual gaming has generated new breeds of gamers; the fundamentally code-based underpinnings of computer games make hacks and modifications possible; and grand ambitions of gamification, supported by digitization, even aims to turn ‘anything and everything’ into a race for points and badges. Instead of clearly situating itself within one particular practice, this paper will take an overarching perspective on play. It will go on to propose three perspectives that, in the light of processes such as the increasing specialization, quantification and rationalization of play, emphasize different characters of play.

    Useful play has connotations relating to instrumental, worthwhile and advantageous activities. Joyful play is perhaps most connected to the prototypical notion of play, as something different from work, done for the fun of it. Willful play conceptualizes play as a deliberate creation/visualization of problems and problematizations through games.

    These perspectives may, of course, overlap in actual practice, but as analytical tools they illuminate, what we may call, different characters of play. Out of these three characters of play, this paper will devote the most attention to willful play, as it is in that character where subversion, reconfiguration and opposition is most visibly performed.

  • 32.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Value2014In: Encyclopedia of Social Media and Politics / [ed] Kerric Harvey, London: Sage Publications, 2014, p. 1318-1319Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value is a generic term that may refer to a personal or cultural level and domains such as ethics, sociology and economics. In the context of social media and digital communication however it becomes interesting to think of values in terms of exchange and sharing. In other words, what values do people attach to the digital objects that they share via social mediating technologies? This question becomes increasingly pertinent with the potential convergence of producers and consumers that becomes possible with the disperse of media technologies.

  • 33.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    'Well-behaved robots rarely make history’: coactive technologies and humanistic HCIIn: Design and Culture, ISSN 1754-7075, E-ISSN 1754-7083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies, equipped with artificial intelligence and an agency of their own, are becoming increasingly available to consumers. Rather than just augmenting human senses or mediating information, these coactive technologies are mobile, pro-active, context-sensitive, programmable and agential in the milieu of the user. This paper illustrates a humanistic HCI approach to coactive technologies by analysing the AI-powered robot Cozmo. The analysis demonstrates how Cozmo 1) remediates fictional characteristics to appear more familiar, emotional and lovable; 2) is both pre-programmed and programmable, creating an interesting tension in its agential spectrum; and 3) is discursively marketed as a cunning, emotional, and non-machinic accomplice.

  • 34.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    “Well-Behaved Robots Rarely Make History”: Coactive Technologies and Partner Relations2018In: Design and Culture, ISSN 1754-7075, E-ISSN 1754-7083, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 187-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies equipped with artificial intelligence and an agency of their own are becoming increasingly available to consumers. Rather than just augmenting human senses or mediating information, these coactive technologies are mobile, pro-active, context-sensitive, programmable, and agential in the milieu of the user. This paper illustrates a humanistic human–computer interaction (HCI) approach to coactive technologies by analyzing the artificial intelligence (AI) powered robot Cozmo. The analysis demonstrates how Cozmo: 1) remediates fictional characteristics to appear more familiar, emotional, and lovable; 2) is both pre-programmed and programmable, creating an interesting tension in its agential spectrum; and 3) is discursively marketed as a cunning, emotional, and non-machinic accomplice. Referring to established models of human–technology relations, the paper introduces the concept of partner relations, where a coactive human–machine intentionality is negotiated. The paper also discusses potential implications for designers, who must focus on the multitude of partner relations and joint intentionalities that new coactive technologies can engender.

  • 35.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Rahm, Lina
    Everyday expertise: instructional videos on YouTube2015In: Debates for the digital age: The good, the bad, and the ugly of our online world. Volume 1. The Good / [ed] Danielle Sarver Coombs, Simon Collister, Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2015, p. 77-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores how videos on YouTube have become an everyday form of producing and consuming instructions, how-to:s and tutorials. It presents of a number of use scenarios as “examples to think with” in order to explore the larger implications of such videos. Particularly, the chapter focuses on how a political economy of expertise is distributed across bodies and machines. The presented scenarios are grounded partly in interviews with young adults as well as in more anecdotal empirical experiences from the authors’ everyday lives. What they have in common is that YouTube was always discussed as an arena for the sharing of everyday expertise. The chapter will begin by presenting a brief genealogy of the instructional video. After that, the chapter argues for a developed analysis of the instructional video on YouTube, not restricted to efficiency. The instructional video is then discussed in terms of YouTube as an all-purpose archive of everyday expertise; YouTube as a non-neutral platform; and the political economy of expertise on YouTube. Drawing on contemporary media theory, the chapter goes on to conclude that the instructional video may work both as a risk and opportunity.

  • 36.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Rahm, Lina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Making Change: Produsing Hybrid Learning Products2014In: Hybrid Pedagogy - a digital journal of learning, teaching and technology, ISSN 2332-2098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Too often, we demand from our students written proof of learning in the form of academic text. This is perhaps especially true within the humanities and the social sciences. We have, however, previously argued for the importance of installing an agency for change in students. For us, this agency seems unlikely to come only from producing a text that will at worst only be read by an examiner and at best also by a few classmates. This feeling of agency and efficacy (the capacity to produce an effect) rather comes with produsing hybrid learning products belonging to new/other genres than the ’pure’ critically reflecting text (or hardcore exams). We do not oppose critical reflection as being a foundation stone of any education, but as Laurillard, we argue that further inspiration could be taken from engineering, architecture, computer science and medicine in encouraging more of a ”design thinking” in (digital) humanities students. On a more general scale this is an approach that would combine critical reflection and experiential learning, and imbue students with an agency to make change and, quite literally, push things forward.

  • 37.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Rahm, Lina
    Linköping university.
    Positive resistance and the queering of digital media theory: on course dis/contents and classroom spaces2013In: Media Fields Journal - Critical Explorations in Media and Space, ISSN 2159-7553, no 7, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay considers the entangled nature of classroom spaces and mediated course content. The authors rework an example course on digital media theory by applying three queer tactics in order to make room for diversity. These tactics are disidentification, crisis and failure. Their application provided the original course content with a number of resonating queer themes, including temporality, virality, anarchives, glitch, heterodoxy, and agency for change. The final theme (agency for change) is expanded upon by resignifying resistance as something positive to be developed in the classroom space. Positive resistance includes an acknowledgement of oppression in both theory and practice as well as an appeal to values such as fairness, social justice and ethical accountability in critical analyses of media. The essay also introduces some unconventional genres of writing that can support the queering of digital media theory, namely: anti-thesis; media-archaeology; interaction criticism; media failure; and manifesto.

  • 38.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Rahm, Lina
    What is Feminist Media Archaeology?2018In: Communication +1, ISSN 2380-6109, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a fairly recent blog post, Jussi Parikka discusses how media archaeology can be criticized for being a “boy’s club”. In the introduction of this text, he writes: One of the set critiques of media archaeology is that it is a boys' club. That is a correct evaluation in so many ways when one has a look at the topics as well as authors of the circle of writers broadly understood part of 'media archaeology'. I make the same argument for instance in What is Media Archaeology?, but there is also something else that we need to attend to.

There is however a danger that the critique also neglects the multiplicity inherent in the approach. For sure, there are critical points to be made in so many aspects of Kittler's and others' theoretical work, but at the same time it feels unfair to neglect the various female authors and artists at the core of the field. In other words, the critique often turns a blind eye to the women who are actively involved in media archaeology. Let's not write them out too easily. Parikka then goes on to briefly introduce several female researchers and artists who are active in the media archaeological field. These are women who are, in different ways, doing media archaeology. This is of course an important issue – skewed representations or lopsided citation practices are never good – and the contributions of these researchers are significant and important. However, we could also argue that there is an important difference between the body of work being done by women and, what we may call, feminist media archaeology. There can, of course, be overlaps between these two ways of representing feminist interests in media archaeology, but for feminist theorizing and practising to truly have an impact, we have to ask ourselves what is feminist media archaeology? By looking for empirical gaps and putting questions of, for example, design, power, infrastructure and benefit, to the fore we can shine a different light on the material-discursive genealogy of digital culture, still very much in the vein of media archaeological endeavors. What we suggest is quite simple – a transdisciplinary approach which emphasizes “the unity of intellectual frameworks beyond the disciplinary perspectives [which] points toward our potential to think in terms of frameworks, concepts, techniques, and vocabulary that we have not yet imagined”. As such, we want to take an exploratory tactic to the question posed in the title of this paper. We do not intend to provide a single nor definite answer – rather we want to think with media archaeology and feminism together, seeking to raise other questions in order to find dynamic parallels and crosscurrents.

1 - 38 of 38
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