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  • 1.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 2.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 3.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    School climate and delinquency – on the significance of the perceived social and learning climate in school for refraining from offending2016In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 110-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School is regarded as a central arena for crime prevention. This study analyses the effects of student perceptions of school contextual aspects on self-reported offending, using logistic regression with control for clustering effects. The data comprise a census of pupils in year nine in comprehensive school (15 year olds) and in year two of upper secondary school (17 year olds) in the City of Stockholm in 2006, 2008 and 2010 (n = 25,850 of which 47% are boys and 53% are girls). Besides showing that several aspects of students’ perceptions of the school setting have direct protective effects on offending, the study shows that perceiving schoolwork as meaningful appears to moderate the effect of adverse home conditions on delinquency for boys. The only aspect of school investigated in this study that was not significantly related to offending was the perception of classroom order, indicating that emotional support from teachers is more important for crime preventive implications than maintaining order in the classroom. Controlling for clustering effects shows differences in offending between classes and schools that are not produced by differences between the students.

  • 4.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    School variation in offending: A macro-level strain approach2018In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study employs Macro-level Strain Theory (MST) as a framework to provide a better understanding of the way in which the structural and social context of Stockholm schools covaries with self-reported violent and general offending. The findings contribute to the literature in this area by directing a special focus at the interplay between the theory’s macro-level components and some individual-level mechanisms that may be assumed to condition the effect of strain on offending. Using multi-level data on 5274 students nested in 90 schools in the City of Stockholm, the study notes significant contextual effects of anger and life dissatisfaction on offending. School-level deprivation appears to have a confounding effect on the relationship between school-contextual negative affect and offending. Further, school-contextual anger influences some individuals more than others. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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