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  • 1. Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Can government support both women and entrepreneurship?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Entrepreneurship for equality?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3. Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 4. Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014In: GWO2014 Book of abstracts: GWO 8th Biennial International Interdisciplinary conference, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Alkhaled-Studholme, Sophie
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Reconceptualising ‘freedom and power’ in entrepreneurship discourse: examining motivations and experiences of female entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7. Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    PART I: Policies for Innovation2012In: Promoting Innovation: Policies, practices and procedures / [ed] Susanne Andersson, Karin Berglund, Ewa Gunnarsson, Élisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2012, p. 21-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8. Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Granat Thorslund, Jennie
    Gunnarsson, Ewa
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Introduction2012In: Promoting innovation: Policies, practices and procedures / [ed] Susanne Andersson, Karin Berglund, Ewa Gunnarsson, Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2012, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Berglund, KarinStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.Gunnarsson, EwaSundin, Elisabeth
    Promoting Innovation: Policies, practices and procedures2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Promoting Innovation är ett resultat av över tio års satsningar på innovationsforskning med ett genusperspektiv. I antologin presenterar 31 forskare analyser av hur genus är en begränsande struktur i innovationssystemet. Här fokuseras såväl policy som regionala och organisatoriska praktiker. Vidare presenteras procedurer, det vill säga metoder och metodologier för att utveckla genusmedvetna, innovativa organisationer. Likt ett kalejdoskopiskt skifte framträder andra bilder när ett genusperspektiv tillämpas med möjlighet att se nya möjligheter och innovativa lösningar.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Bent Flyvbjerg, Todd Landman & Sanford Schram (Eds.). (2012) Real social science: Applied phronesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 308 pages2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 455-456Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Discursive diversity in fashioning entrepreneurial identity2006In: Entrepreneurship as Social Change : A Third Movements in Entrepreneurship Book / [ed] Chris Steyaert, Daniel Hjort, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006, p. 231-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    E viral Essay - Entrepreneurship goes viral: The invention of deviant enterprising selves2015In: M@n@gement, ISSN 1286-4692, E-ISSN 1286-4692, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 359-362Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Entreprenörskap som kreativt handlingsutrymme2015In: Skolledning: scener från den organiserande vardagen / [ed] Jan Löwstedt, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015, p. 95-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Fighting against all odds: Entrepreneurship education as employability training2013In: Ephemera : Theory and Politics in Organization, ISSN 2052-1499, E-ISSN 1473-2866, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 717-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the efforts of transforming ‘regular’ entrepreneurship to a specific kind of ‘entrepreneurial self’ in education are linked to the materialization of employability. It will be illustrated that schoolchildren, under the guise of entrepreneurship education, are taught how to work on improving their selves, emphasizing positive thinking, the joy of creating and awareness of the value of their own interests and passions. This ethic reminds us that we can always improve ourselves, since the enterprising self can never fully be acquired. The flipside of this ethic is that, by continuously being encouraged to become our best, it may be difficult to be satisfied with who we are. Highlighted in this paper is that, with all the amusement and excitement present in entrepreneurship education, also comes an expectation of the individual to fight against all odds. Recruiting students to this kind of shadow-boxing with their selves should involve critical reflection on its political dimensions, human limits, alternative ideals and the collective efforts that are part of entrepreneurial endeavours.

  • 15.
    Berglund, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola, Sverige.
    Jakten på entreprenörer: Om öppningar och låsningar i entreprenörskapsdiskursen2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are expected to play a crucial role in times of unemployment and economical regression. A “hunt for entrepreneurs” can thus be said to be occurring as they appear to be people who can save nations, societies, and companies in troublesome situations.

    The project Diversity in Entrepreneurship (DiE) aimed to introduce a broad view of entrepreneurship in a regional context. Three development areas are emphasized that are strategically important to transforming a traditional indus- trial community into an entrepreneurial region: paying attention to the spirit of enterprise among underrepresented groups; stimulating entrepreneurship among young people; and considering the importance of culture in stimulating a diverse and entrepreneurial society.

    An equality discourse is introduced through DiE that – emphasising social and mundane occurrences - stands in contrast to the historically rooted enterprise discourse that proffers companies as productive apparatus, where a few competent people – often men – have been, and still are, in charge. In the equality dis- course, all people in the region make a difference, not merely a few. The encounter of the two discourses has resulted in confusion, and thus conflicts and collisions; but also in new possibilities.

    A new perspective of entrepreneurship and regional development is developed where conflicts are put forward as constructive. That the two discourses met on the same regional scene is therefore seen as positive as many people have been made aware of the social, political, and economic contradictions which restrain some groups in society from creating a (working) life. Hence, the contradictions have enabled the inhabitants to see themselves, and others, as entrepreneurs in regional development processes. Openings have thus emerged to view entrepreneurship from a broader perspective that includes people, to create practices through which a diverse working life is becoming discernible.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Kärt barn har många namn: Om entreprenörskaps alla (o)möjliga former2013In: Företagsekonomin och samhället / [ed] Hans Hasselbladh, Mikael Holmqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 167-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    När det oavsedda utmanar spelreglerna…2006In: Den oavsedda organisationen / [ed] Daniel Ericsson, Academia adacta, 2006, p. 108-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    The queer potential of women entrepreneurs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Berglund, Karin Anna Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    Using pictures and artefacts in a PAR process to disclose new wor(l)ds of entrepreneurship2012In: Action Research, ISSN 1476-7503, E-ISSN 1741-2617, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 276-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on Freire, this article elaborates on how pictures and artefacts benefit processes of 'prise de conscience' and 'conscientization' among those with powerful voices. Wor(l)d-making was unfolded in the Swedish think-and-do tank, 'the Smithy', emphasizing the intrinsically political nature of promoting 'societal entrepreneurship' (SE). New words for SE were formulated and a more inclusive world was discerned where all had a role, not just as 'helpers', but as equal members of SE practices. Pictures and artefacts enabled hitherto silenced stories to be told and created a common understanding of how SE contrasted with traditional entrepreneurship. When new words were added to entrepreneurship, it was possible to reflect on the actions taken within the Smithy in a deeper sense, not only focusing on actions for the entrepreneurs 'out there', but also initiating self-reflection on the roles all had in the Smithy, or in other settings, to promote SE.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Annika, Skoglund
    Social entrepreneurship: to defend society from itself2016In: Rethinking entrepreneurship: debating research orientations / [ed] Alain Fayolle, Philippe Riot, Routledge, 2016, p. 57-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Birkelöf, Frida
    Lundin, Johanna
    Löfgren, Annika
    Engaged Sisters: studying the entrepreneurship and innovation support system from ‘within’2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship and innovation support has grown into large institutions in a society that cherishes an enterprising culture. Individuals are encouraged to be entrepreneurial and innovative in general, and to start up their own companies in particular. To support individuals in their business creation processes, policy stresses the need of providing with measures. Together these measures comprise a support system, directed towards supporting new and established entrepreneurs. It has however been recognized that the entrepreneurship and innovation public support system is highly gendered, favoring men and male businesses, whilst programs targeting women put the onus on individual women to start and grow businesses. As well it has been recognized that the policy support system tends to exclude ‘othered’ groups rather than including them in enterprising activities. The subtext of entrepreneurship support points to how some people “are” entrepreneurs, whilst others need support in order to become more entrepreneurial. Hence, there is a need to change the support system of entrepreneurship and innovation since it tends to disempower rather than to empower ‘othered’ groups in society.

    “Sisters in Business” make up an organization of wo/men entrepreneurs who have joined forces to address this need. Their vision is that entrepreneurship should reflect the society at large. During the last year they have therefore taken several initiatives to make this happen and is today one of the support organizations in a medium sized Swedish town. In this paper three Sisters are working together with a researcher within this area. Together we have formed a group of “engaged sisters´”. In our dialogue the dichotomy between ‘practice’ and ‘theory’ have temporarily dissolved in favor of creating narratives, from episodes, experiences and the everyday life of sister´s, to illustrate how the support system works from ‘within’. This led us to questioning whether the ‘support system’ really is a support system, or something else? Furthermore, this insight made it apparent that there exists ‘other’ support system, tough concealed and silenced. Finally, suggestions are proposed for how ‘practitioners’ can work together with ‘academics’ to change the rules of the game.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Dahlin, Maria
    Tilling, Katarina
    Johansson, Ulf
    Book review: Making Sense of Intellectual Capital: Designing a Method for the Valuation of Intangibles2005In: The European Accounting Review, ISSN 0963-8180, E-ISSN 1468-4497, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 160-162Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    SLU.
    Entrepreneurship Requires Resistance to be Mobilized2010In: (De)Mobilizing entrepreneurship : Exploring entrepreneurial thinking and action / [ed] Bill Frederic, Bjerke Björn and Johansson Anders W., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 140-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    Lindgren, Monica
    Provoking identities: entrepreneurship and emerging identity positions in rural development2016In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 76-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses entrepreneurship in a depleted community in transition. The purpose is to develop knowledge about how discourses are used in the positioning of identity in regional development. The concept positioning illustrates how identities are provoked, challenged, negotiated and moved into identity positions that break away from the idea of imitating successful and wealthy regions; instead, locality, place and history emerge as important resources from where local actors obtain agency and recognize new opportunities. Ethnographic data of a single case were collected over a six-year period between 2005 and 2010. The longitudinal nature of the study made it possible to incorporate how local stakeholders took on new identity positions, while handling their inspiration as well as their frustration. Results show how rural change was conditioned by discourses and how entrepreneurship challenged and reframed dominating structures through interaction between entrepreneurship and community. Four discourses, expressed as dichotomies available to people in this depleted community, illustrate the interactive process of positioning: change vs. traditions, rational vs. irrational, spectacular vs. mundane and individual vs. collective. The results support research emphasizing perspectives that acknowledge interaction between entrepreneurship and context as well as discursive aspects of regional development.

  • 25.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Granat Thorslund, Jennie
    Innovative policies? Entrepreneurship and innovation policy from a gender perspective2012In: Promoting innovation: Policies, practices and procedures / [ed] Susanne Andersson, Karin Berglund, Ewa Gunnarsson, Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2012, p. 25-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are no longer two words that only assist in describing societal phenomena of “newness”, “change” and “diffusion”; they have also grown into important policy areas for assisting the European Union Member States to estab-lish conditions for creating economic growth, new jobs and social cohesion. Our inter-est lies in understanding the gender dimension of innovation and entrepreneurship policy. Do entrepreneurship and innovation policies consolidate, adapt to, challenge, or even transform the gender system? The gender system is referred to here as a theo-retical concept which recognises how men and women are separated in society, hori-zontally as well as vertically. This chapter provides a discourse analysis of two texts within the framework of the Lisbon Strategy - Innovative Sweden (2004) and the Green Paper of Entrepreneurship (European Commisson, 2003), with the aim of look-ing into how innovation and entrepreneurship policies are gendered.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Holmgren, Carina
    Entrepreneurship Education in Policy and Practice2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, ISSN 1742-5360, E-ISSN 1742-5379, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 9-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article pays interest to the intersection between policy and practice when implementing entrepreneurship in the educational system. Taking a point of departure in Mahieu’s (2006) call for knowledge of the interplay between different policy levels and Backström-Widjeskog’s (2010) conclusion about tensions occurring when teachers are introduced to the concept, the intention is to develop knowledge about conflicts and tensions at the intersection between policy and practice. From analysing policy documents and narratives from entrepreneurship education implementation projects during a time when entrepreneurship education started to be promoted in Sweden three figures of thought are found (economic/humanistic, biological/social, and individual/collective) which are proposed to be involved in creating tensions and conflicts in the intersection between policy and practice. Theoretically, these figures of thought can be seen as a contribution to understanding processes in which the concept of entrepreneurship education has deliberately been moved, by way of policy, to the educational practice. Reflecting on these thought figures may enhance teachers’ translation processes when starting to work with entrepreneurship education in practice.

  • 27.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    School of Business at Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Carina
    Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research, Sweden.
    What do teachers do when they do entrepreneurship education? … and How can we ask about it?2008In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 354-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we take our point of departure in the research project ”Entrepreneurship Education 2007” (EDU07)  which focused on the earlier stages of the educational system as well as on what teachers do when they do entrepreneurship education. More specifically, the purpose here is to discuss the method - focus group interviews - applied in this research project and in what way it can, without putting words in the mouths of the respondents, answer the question: What is really being taught in entrepreneurship education? In addition to providing researchers with the research result, it is argued that focus group interviews work as an arena for reflection and action. 

  • 28.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Janne, Tienari
    The Paradox of Alternative Entrepreneurship: Doing, Undoing & Redoing Gender in a Contested Space2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Jerregård, Helena
    Jag tar ett steg i taget: barns tankar om ingenjören, teknik och arbetsliv2013In: Bilden av ingenjören / [ed] Yvonne Eriksson, Ildikó Asztalos Morell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2013, p. 266-297Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Introduction: in the beginning was societal entrepreneurship2012In: Societal entrepreneurship: positioning, penetrating, promoting / [ed] Karin Berglund, Bengt Johannisson, Birgitta Schwartz, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Conclusions2012In: Societal entrepreneurship: positioning, penetrating, promoting / [ed] Karin Berglund, Bengt Johannisson, Birgitta Schwartz, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 259-277Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Johannisson, BengtSchwartz, Birgitta
    Societal entrepreneurship: positioning, penetrating, promoting2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship generally is about creative organizing but with social enterprising this is especially so. Most social ventures cross the boundaries between the private, the public and the non-profit/voluntary sectors. This broad involvement of actors and intertwining of sectors makes the label ‘societal’ entrepreneurship appropriate. Stating the importance of both the local and the broader societal context, the book reports close-up studies from a variety of social ventures. Generic themes include positioning societal entrepreneurship against other images of collective entrepreneurship, critically penetrating its assumptions and practices and proposing ways of promoting societal entrepreneurship more widely. Providing a new conceptual framework and research methodology, this compendium will prove insightful for academic scholars. The basic concepts and illustrative cases/stories will also appeal to students and reflective practitioners.

  • 33.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders W.Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Arenor för entreprenörskap2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den breda syn på entreprenörskap som förespråkas i denna bok innebär att entreprenörskapet finns överallt där människorna finns. Varje individ är potentiellt en entreprenör, men den viktiga frågan blir om denna potential kan tas till vara och utvecklas eller om den förhindras. En arena för entreprenörskap finns således där denna potential tas till vara. Entreprenörskapet ligger ständigt på lur där människor finns. Det luriga blir att se det. Det är detta författarna söker göra genom denna bok – att synliggöra det osynliggjorda. Att göra oss varse om den potential som finns om det breda entreprenörskapet görs synligt.

    Författarna till denna antologi ser entreprenörskap, inte som något som är kännetecknande för några få särskilt kapabla individer utan som en potentiell kraft hos alla människor. Alla människor är i grunden socialt responsiva. Inte minst kommer det till uttryck när barn leker. I boken diskuteras lekens betydelse i skolans värld och i samma linje associeras leken till förmågan att skapa innovationer. Vidare illustreras betydelsen av spontan informell interaktion för skapandet av företagaridentiteter och gränslinjen mellan företagandet och livets andra dimensioner.

    Boken har tre huvudavdelningar. I den inledande delen ges bakgrund och teoretisk utgångspunkt för ett breddat entreprenörskap. Den andra delen innehåller ett antal kapitel som gestaltar det breda entreprenörskapet. Bokens avslutande del tar upp policyfrågor relaterade till ett breddat entreprenörskap.

  • 34.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    School of Business, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    School of Business, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Constructions of entrepreneurship: a discourse analysis of academic publications2007In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 77-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to investigate opposing versions of entrepreneurship and to introduce a metaphor to stimulate a dialogue about the diversity and complexity of enterprising communities.

    Design/methodology/approach – A discourse framework is developed in order to describe dominating – and even new and challenging – versions of entrepreneurship. The discourse analysis is presented in three steps: the introductory text to a handbook of entrepreneurship is deconstructed to expose some basic assumptions of entrepreneurship; drawing on several research articles, some dominating versions of entrepreneurship are analysed; drawing on research articles which have recently been published in two special issues in entrepreneurship journals, alternative versions of entrepreneurship are analysed.

    Findings – This paper compares three dominating and three alternative versions of entrepreneurship. All the versions are related to the idea of entrepreneurship as a story of creation for our times, where it is implied that entrepreneurship appears to be something inherently good for society and for people. The versions share a common denominator but are also distinguished by different ontological and epistemological assumptions that make a dialogue between the versions problematic.

    Research limitations/implications – The results of this research paper have obvious limitations because of the methodology employed and due to the limited number of texts analysed.

    Originality/value – The concept of a discursive web to analyse the world of entrepreneurship is introduced.

  • 35.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Dark and bright effects of a polarized entrepreneurship discourse… and the prospects of transformation2012In: Societal Entrepreneurship: positioning, penetrating, promoting / [ed] Karin Berglund, Bengt Johannisson, Birgitta Schwartz, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 163-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    School of Business, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    School of Business, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Maria
    School of Business, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Walking a tightrope between artistry and entrepreneurship: the stories of Hotel Woodpecker, Otter Inn and Luna Resort2007In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to challenge a traditional image of the content of entrepreneurship, which is associated with creativity, identity and discovery recognition.

    Design/methodology/approach – A narrative approach is used in telling the story about the artist/entrepreneur Mikael Genberg. The story is based on interviews, newspaper material and observations. Taking this story as the point of departure, an alternative image of entrepreneurship is suggested.

    Findings – First, from a traditional Schumpeterian perspective Genberg could be portrayed as a good example of a hero entrepreneur, an archetype of the creative artist/entrepreneur. Instead Genberg in this paper is described in terms of a creative imitator. Second, the Schumpeterian “hero entrepreneur” is associated with a fixed and strong identity. This picture is challenged and replaced by a demonstration of how double or multiple identities are used in legitimizing work which is argued to be more illustrative to the content of entrepreneurship than finding the true identity of the hero entrepreneur. Third, discovery recognition from a traditional perspective is attributed to the individual, while in this case opportunity creation signifies the process of making discoveries collectively shared.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is exploratory and based on a single case, while the results cannot be taken as generalizations. Instead an alternative understanding of the content of entrepreneurship is illustrated.

    Originality/value – The value of this study is the demonstration of an alternative image of the content of entrepreneurship.

  • 37.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Lindberg, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Skoglund, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Transformation from entrepreneurship to entrepreneurships: creating alternatives?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper our ambition is to provide with theoretical and empirical inspiration for studying contemporary constitutions of entrepreneurship. In specific, we seek to highlight how the transformation from entrepreneurship into forms of entrepreneurships has unfolded on various arenas. This means tracing the interplay between criticism of (traditional) entrepreneurship and the outbreak and dissemination of alternative entrepreneurships. In specific, we focus on the positive connotations that come with the alternative forms, a goodness that lures behind each and every corner, to see what it shapes as well as what shape entrepreneurship takes. Even if entrepreneurship research does pay some interest to the changing conditions for entrepreneurship, it seldom links these to changes in conditions for people, organizations and societies.

  • 38.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Lindgren, Monica
    Packedorff, Johann
    Otherness in discourse, otherness in practice: Gendered notions of entrepreneurship in Swedish school education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Lindgren, Monica
    Packendorff, Johann
    Responsibilising the next generation: Fostering the enterprising self through de-mobilising gender2017In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 892-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, our interest is in what subjectivities are fostered among schoolchildren through the recent introduction of entrepreneurship initiatives in primary and secondary school. The educational terrain is but one example where entrepreneurship has been discursively transformed during recent decades from the notion of starting businesses into a general approach to life itself in the advancement of neoliberal societies. The inherently elitist and excluding position of the entrepreneurial subject is now offered to all and sundry. While entrepreneurship pedagogy is explicitly intended to be gender neutral and inclusive of all such identities traditionally suppressed in the entrepreneurship discourse, we ask what kind of enterprising selves are mobilised and de-mobilised here. Second, in what way are these seemingly gender-neutral' enterprising selves gendered? Our analysis of three recent and dominating entrepreneurial initiatives in the Swedish school system emphasises the need for activation, performativity and responsibility. The analysis also shows that gender is indeed silenced in these initiatives but is at the same time productive through being subtly present in the promotion of a neo-masculine', active, technology-oriented and responsible subject. Entrepreneurship is presented as being equally available for all and something everyone should aspire to, yet the initiatives still sustain the suppression and marginalisation of women and femininities. The initiatives specifically promote a responsible and adaptive masculine subject position while notions of rebellious entrepreneurship and non-entrepreneurial domestic positions are mobilised out of the picture.

  • 40.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    SLU.
    Will the recognition of women entrepreneurs advance gender equality?: Theorising the gendering of the enterprising self,2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Redmalm, David
    Skoglund, Annika
    Sensitizing entrepreneurship: The shaping of a FemInc.ist entrepreneurship of care2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Holding on the anomaly of social entrepreneurship: dilemmas in starting up and running a fair-trade enterprise2013In: Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1942-0676, E-ISSN 1942-0684, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The different shapes taken on by social entrepreneurship in contemporary society show that social goals are integrated by commercial enterprises and commercial goals are incorporated by organisations with a social mission. Combining a social mission with commercial goals is often presented as a ‘win-win’ situation. In this article, we highlight the potential tensions and conflicts created by the conflicting demands and expectations when the institutional non-profit and for-profit logics meet in social entrepreneuring. From this viewpoint, social entrepreneurship is an anomaly, which seems difficult to resolve. Despite this, we often read descriptions of social entrepreneurs as heroes, which show how social entrepreneurship is glorified and part of the marketisation of society. This article sets out to present a more complex and problematic picture of practising social entrepreneurship where the obvious ‘win-win’ situations more often appear as ‘win-lose’ and sometimes even as ‘lose-lose’. From a three-year ethnographic study of an emerging fair-trade enterprise, the concept of disharmony shows that dilemmas are part of everyday life in social entrepreneuring. Instead of posing insoluble conflicts, dilemmas light the way for the individual social entrepreneur. They are managed through temporary rationalisation; finding a way to integrate conflicting demands into the life of a social entrepreneur. Disharmony includes moments of identity struggle, but is also a learning process in which the social entrepreneur tries to understand the difference between what she does and what she actually achieves.

  • 43.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Skoglund, Annika
    Uppsala University.
    Entrepreneurship and the Enterprising Self: Creating alternatives through entrepreneurship education?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Tillmar, Malin
    To play or not to play: that is the question: entrepreneuring as gendered play2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 206-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can play be used to unravel the discourse of the gendered hero entrepreneur and instead describe mundane entrepreneuring? Further, how can the doing of gendered social orders be problematized when entrepreneuring is equated with play? In this article we answer these questions by engaging with the French social theorist Caillois’ (1961) conceptualization of play as being at the heart of all higher culture. Two ethnographic cases act as our vehicle in analysing play as entrepreneuring. From a rich description of these cases we find that it is not a question of playing or not playing, but about how to play. All four forms of play described by Caillois are present, which illustrates the variation of entrepreneuring and the richness of activities conducted in the ‘doing of entrepreneurship’. Further, both ways of playing discussed by Caillois are found. Whilst these two ways are interrelated on a continuum in the theory of play, they have been separated in entrepreneurship discourse, where they underpin the tendency to differentiate between the hero entrepreneur and ordinary people. Finally, we engage in a more interpretive and reflective discussion on entrepreneuring as performative acts through which social orders can be not only reproduced but also transformed.

  • 45.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Ethnographic approaches to entrepreneurship and small business research: What lessons can we learn?2014In: Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Small Business and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Alan L. Carsrud, Malin Brännback, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 201-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Paul Reynolds said in a speech that entrepreneurs quickly learn how to tell the polished stories about their journeys when they are asked by researchers and journalists about what they have done and achieved. The notion of polished stories is also recognized byWilliam Gartner (2007) in a special issue on narrative, reflecting upon the fact that he can name dozens of entrepreneurs, and he has several logico-scientific descriptions, explanations, categories, concepts and hypotheses about entrepreneurs, but he cannot say much about their stories. Consequently, it has been argued that the field of entrepreneurship studies needs new concepts if it is to take seriously the ambition to understand entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship and entrepreneuring (e.g. Hjorth et al., 2003; Johannisson, 2011; Steyaert, 2007; Gartner, 2007; Huse and Landström, 1997). In this chapter we will show how entrepreneurship and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can be researched through the ethnographic method, focusing on understanding the social context of a certain phenomenon or person. Specifically, four ethnographic studies are introduced, which will be discussed as themes: context; the role of the researcher; the research process; and lessons learned.

  • 46.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline
    A picture is worth a thousand words… but an artifact is worth a changed world2012In: Curiosity and Serendipity - a conference on qualitative methodsin the social sciences: Abstracts, 2012, p. 79-79Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47. Fayolle, Alain
    et al.
    Landström, Hans
    Gartner, Bill William
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    The institutionalization of entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Questioning the status quo and re-gaining hope for entrepreneurship research2016In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, no 7-8, p. 477-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we briefly identify three main challenges/issues that should be taken into consideration in the institutionalization of entrepreneurship research: (1) recognizing the complexity of the phenomenon under study; (2) producing interesting, relevant and useful research results for all stakeholders; and (3) developing a critical posture in research. Following the discussion of these challenges/issues we introduce the five contributions to the Special Issue that, in different ways, problematize and challenge mainstream research and approaches. These articles use ‘dissensus discourses’, apply critical, ideological and paradigmatic stances and in some cases underline the importance of contextual factors.

  • 48. Johannisson, Bengt
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Rosell, Erik
    Schwartz, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Tillmar, Malin
    Organizing societal entrepreneurship: A cross-sector challenge2015In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research / [ed] Paula Kyrö, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 130-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49. Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    Tillmar, Malin
    In the name of women? Feminist readings of policies for women’s entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women – such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women’s well- being and financial or other independence – or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. We claim that such an outcome depends on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women’s entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women’s entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005–2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. 

  • 50. Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Management & Organisation.
    The question of quotas or qualitative measures: Tracing variations in Norwegian and Swedish policies for supporting women’s entrepreneurship2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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