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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Chinese collective memory on the Internet: Remembering the Great Famine in online encyclopaedias2019In: Memory Studies, ISSN 1750-6980, E-ISSN 1750-6999, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 184-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on how the Great Chinese Famine was debated on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, in 2012 suggests that information and communication technologies can challenge official versions of the past and increase pluralism in collective memory narratives in authoritarian states. This article suggests that analysing change in the treatment of the famine in Chinese online encyclopaedias during and following the debate helps us further explore the debate’s impact. Moreover, it allows us to determine the extent to which Chinese online encyclopaedias function as the type of memory place that previous research on Wikipedia in other contexts might lead us to expect. The article concludes that the changes made to the narratives about the Great Famine in Chinese online encyclopaedias following the debate were rather limited and that the Chinese online encyclopaedias have not yet developed into participatory and pluralistic memory places that challenge official narratives.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exhibiting the Chinese War of Resistance in the People’s Republic of China2009Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Freds- och krigsmuseers politiska roll i Japan och Kina2009In: Kosmopolis, ISSN 1236-1372, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    International reconciliation on the Internet? Ontological security, attribution and the construction of war memory narratives in Wikipedia2019In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the Internet’s often touted potential for facilitating reconciliation. It conceptualises Wikipedia as a site for collective memory construction and analyses the Chinese- and Japanese-language entries on the bilaterally contentious Second Sino-Japanese War. It addresses the question of how to make sense of the construction of these online collective memory narratives theoretically. Both historical determinism and instrumentalism – two influential theoretical approaches to collective memory and reconciliation – have great difficulties in fully accounting for this case. Instead, it is argued that ontological security theory is better equipped for understanding collective memory construction in Wikipedia. It is suggested that ontological security seeking can impede efforts for reconciliation even when, as in Wikipedia, there exist norms seeking to promote more neutral narratives. It is argued that a subtle bias in favour of the in-group and against the out-group functions as a mechanism for ontological security management that protects a positive self-identity.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Motståndskriget mot Japan i kinesisk historiografi under efterkrigstiden2010In: Kinarapport, ISSN 1404-185, no 4, p. 94-99Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Narratives and Bilateral Relations: Rethinking the "History Issue" in Sino-Japanese Relations2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of the thesis is to present a framework that makes possible an understanding of bilateral relations that challenges mainstream International Relations (IR) approaches through a study of the “history issue” in Sino-Japanese relations. A secondary aim is to provide an alternative understanding of this issue. Discussions of the issue are often highly influenced by the objectivism, rationalism, state-centrism and agent-centrism common in mainstream IR theory. This has several consequences, primarily that the focus is chiefly on behaviour and that equal emphasis is rarely put on both contexts. In order to address these consequences, the question of what kinds of narrative, as expressed in museum exhibitions about war in both countries, can be found and which ones dominate is addressed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The narratives, which contain the stories “we” tell about “our” past, are important components in and instantiate the abstract images that are identities, through which people make sense of the world.

    The context-sensitive analysis confirms the constructivist assumption that narratives matter by demonstrating that political actors strongly believe narratives shape people’s minds and act accordingly. It also shows that different narratives are present in both countries. It is suggested that the narratives are closely linked to domestic identity politics. Nonetheless, the depiction of self and other in these has consequences for bilateral relations. This has several implications, for example, that changes in the behaviour of leaders, while they may have a positive impact on relations, are insufficient as solutions to the problems. This has consequences for approaches preoccupied with behaviour. The study contributes to constructivist IR through a close textual analysis of narrative structure that illustrates the significance of labelling and categorizing in identity construction that is easily missed by less fine-grained analyses.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    The History Problem: The Politics of War Commemoration in East Asia, by Hiro Saito. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 20162019In: Social Science Japan Journal, ISSN 1369-1465, E-ISSN 1468-2680, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 312-315Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    The Struggle over the Meaning of Chinese Patriotism in the 21st Century2016In: China: An International Journal, ISSN 0219-7472, E-ISSN 0219-8614, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 133-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various definitions are used in research on Chinese nationalism and patriotism, and scholars often distinguish between different types of both. While such research has provided important insights, it pays scant attention to how political actors use terms such as patriotism. This article, by contrast, focuses precisely on how patriotism is used discursively by various Chinese domestic actors in seeking to further their political agendas by promoting their preferred understandings of the term. The article argues that such discursive contestation and struggle is a key aspect of Chinese identity politics that should not be ignored.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hagström, Linus
    Hanssen, Ulv
    Long live pacifism! Narrative power and Japan's pacifist model2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 502-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International relations research acknowledges that states can have different security policies but neglects the fact that 'models' may exist in the security policy realm. This article suggests that it is useful to think about models, which it argues can become examples for emulation or be undermined through narrative power. It illustrates the argument by analysing Japan's pacifism-an alternative approach to security policy which failed to become an internationally popular model and, despite serving the country well for many years, has even lost its appeal in Japan. Conventional explanations suggest that Japan's pacifist policies were 'abnormal', and that the Japanese eventually realized this. By contrast, this article argues that narratives undermined Japan's pacifism by mobilizing deep-seated beliefs about what is realistic and unrealistic in international politics, and launches a counter-narrative that could help make pacifism a more credible model in world politics.

  • 10. Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Narrative power: how storytelling shapes East Asian international politics2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 387-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are living at a time when people appear to have become more aware of the power of narratives in international politics. Understanding how narratives exercise power is therefore more pertinent than ever. This special issue develops the concept of narrative power for international relations research by focusing on East Asia-the region that has been at the centre of debates about international power shifts since the 1990s. This introduction seeks to elucidate and define four key binary distinctions: (a) narrative power as understood from the perspective of an individualist versus a narrative ontology; (b) narrative power as explanandum versus explanans; (c) narrative power as more prone to continuity or change; and (d) the scholar as a detached observer of narrative power versus the scholar as a narrative entrepreneur and a potential wielder of power. Informed by the individual contributions, the introduction demonstrates how and with what implications research on narrative power can negotiate and traverse these binary distinctions.

1 - 10 of 10
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