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  • 1. Cappellini, Francesca
    et al.
    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano
    Latvala, Siiri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Malmlöf, Maria
    Kippler, Maria
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Gerde, Per
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Dry generation of CeO2 nanoparticles and deposition onto a co-culture of A549 and THP-1 cells in air-liquid interface – dosimetry consideration and comparison to submerged exposureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2. Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    Lowe, Troy A.
    Winnberg, Lina
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    Möller, Lennart
    Intracellular Uptake and Toxicity of Ag and CuO Nanoparticles: A Comparison Between Nanoparticles and their Corresponding Metal Ions2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 970-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of nanoparticle toxicity and its impact on human health is essential to enable a safe use of nanoparticles in our society. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of a Trojan horse type mechanism for the toxicity of Ag-nano and CuO-nano particles and their corresponding metal ionic species (using CuCl2 and AgNO3), i.e., the importance of the solid particle to mediate cellular uptake and subsequent release of toxic species inside the cell. The human lung cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B are used and cell death/membrane integrity and DNA damage are investigated by means of trypan blue staining and the comet assay, respectively. Chemical analysis of the cellular dose of copper and silver is performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy are employed to study cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. The results confirm a high uptake of CuO-nano and Ag-nano compared to no, or low, uptake of the soluble salts. CuO-nano induces both cell death and DNA damage whereas CuCl2 induces no toxicity. The opposite is observed for silver, where Ag-nano does not cause any toxicity, whereas AgNO3 induces a high level of cell death. In conclusion: CuO-nano toxicity is predominantly mediated by intracellular uptake and subsequent release of copper ions, whereas no toxicity is observed for Ag-nano due to low release of silver ions within short time periods.

  • 3. Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Midander, Klara
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    Möller, Lennart
    Effect of sonication and serum proteins on copper release from copper nanoparticles and the toxicity towards lung epithelial cells2011In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 269-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methodological settings can influence particle characteristics and toxicity in nanotoxicology. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum proteins and sonication of Cu nanoparticle suspensions influence the properties of the nanoparticles and toxicological responses on human lung epithelial cells. This was investigated by using methods for particle characterization (photon correlation spectroscopy and TEM) and Cu release (atomic absorption spectroscopy) in combination with assays for analyzing cell toxicity (MTT-, trypan blue- and Comet assay). The results showed that sonication of Cu nanoparticles caused decreased cell viability and increased Cu release compared to non-sonicated particles. Furthermore, serum in the cell medium resulted in less particle agglomeration and increased Cu release compared with medium without serum, but no clear difference in toxicity was detected. Few cells showed intracellular Cu nanoparticles due to fast release/dissolution processes of Cu. In conclusion; sonication can affect the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  • 4.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berg, Peter
    Ultrafine particle characteristics in seven industrial plants.2009In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrafine particles are considered as a possible cause of some of the adverse health effects caused by airborne particles. In this study, the particle characteristics were measured in seven Swedish industrial plants, with a special focus on the ultrafine particle fraction. Number concentration, size distribution, surface area concentration, and mass concentration were measured at 10 different job activities, including fettling, laser cutting, welding, smelting, core making, moulding, concreting, grinding, sieving powders, and washing machine goods. A thorough particle characterization is necessary in workplaces since it is not clear yet which choice of ultrafine particle metric is the best to measure in relation to health effects. Job activities were given a different order of rank depending on what particle metric was measured. An especially high number concentration (130 x 10(3) cm(-3)) and percentage of ultrafine particles (96%) were found at fettling of aluminium, whereas the highest surface area concentration (up to 3800 mum(2) cm(-3)) as well as high PM10 (up to 1 mg m(-3)) and PM1 (up to 0.8 mg m(-3)) were found at welding and laser cutting of steel. The smallest geometric mean diameter (22 nm) was found at core making (geometric standard deviation: 1.9).

  • 5.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berg, Peter
    Lidén, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Correlation between airborne particle concentrations in seven industrial plants and estimated respiratory tract deposition by number, mass and elemental composition2011In: Journal of Aerosol Science, ISSN 0021-8502, E-ISSN 1879-1964, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 127-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and mass distribution of airborne particles were recorded in several industrial plants. From the data obtained, particle deposition was estimated in three regions of the respiratory tract using the ICRP grand average deposition model based on Hinds' (1999) parameterization. The median diameter was 30-70 nm (number distributions), and >4 mu m (mass distributions) near most work activities, resulting in linear relationships between the deposited number/mass concentrations and the number/mass concentrations in the air. Welding and laser cutting produced particles in the 200-500-nm range; total deposition was small, not in accordance with the linear relationship observed for the other work activities. The elemental content varied between particle sizes in some workplaces, causing different elements to deposit in different respiratory regions. Iron was the most abundant element in the particles in many of the workplaces; in an iron foundry, however, Fe was most abundant only in the micron-sized particles whereas the nanoparticles mainly comprised Pb and Sb.

  • 6.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cronholm, Pontus
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Midander, Klara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Möller, Lennart
    Cellular doses of partly soluble Cu particle aerosols at the air-liquid interface using an in vitro lung cell exposure system2013In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine, ISSN 1941-2711, E-ISSN 1941-2703, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure.

    Methods: In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air–liquidinterface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow.

    Results: Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180nm [geometric standarddeviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 105 particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4–2.6 lg/cm2 at pulsed flow and 1.6–7.6 lg/cm2 at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 107 particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01–0.05 lg/cm2 at pulsedflow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium.

    Conclusions: Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a non negligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles.

  • 7.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Landstroem, L.
    Alm, O.
    Boman, M.
    Heszler, P.
    Size and structure of nanoparticles formed via ultraviolet photolysis of ferrocene2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 34311-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron nanoparticles enclosed in carbon shells were formed by laser-assisted chemical vapor decomposition of ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)(2)) vapor in Ar gas atmosphere. The particle size dependence on the total ambient gas pressure and on laser fluence of the pulsed ArF excimer laser was examined and, e.g., an effective size decrease of the iron core was observed at elevated laser fluences. Characterizations of the iron and carbon microstructures were performed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while relative iron deposition rates were measured by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Both alpha-Fe and gamma-Fe phases were found for the single crystalline iron cores, surrounded by graphitic (inner) and amorphous (outer) carbon layers. The temperature rise of the laser-excited particles was also determined by optical spectroscopy of the emitted thermal radiation, which allowed an estimation of the iron loss of the nanoparticles due to evaporation. The estimated and measured iron losses are in good agreement. 

  • 8.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ulvestad, B.
    Hetland, S.
    Wallén, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Randem, B.G.
    Exposure to Ultrafine Particles in Asphalt Work2008In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 5, p. 771-779Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    Herting, Gunilla
    Latvala, Siiri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions2016In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 81, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, H
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Elihn, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Copper oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic in vitro - a comparison between different nanoparticles2008In: Nanotoxicology - 2nd International Conference: 7-10 September, Zürich, Switzerland, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Latvala, Siiri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano
    Möller, Lennart
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Nickel release, ROS generation and toxicity of Ni and NiO micro- and nanoparticles2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, article id e0159684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  • 12.
    Latvala, Siiri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    Möller, Lennart
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles2016In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1294-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.

  • 13.
    Latvala, Siiri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vare, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    In vitro genotoxicity assessment of airborne nickel nanoparticles using air-liquid interface exposure2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Latvala, Siiri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vare, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    In vitro genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NP in air-liquid interface2017In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 1420-1427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies using advanced toxicological methods enabling in vitro conditions that are more realistic are currently needed for understanding the risks of pulmonary exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Owing to the carcinogenicity of certain nickel compounds, the increased production of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) raises occupational safety concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NPs using a recently developed air-liquid interface exposure system. The wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79) was used and cytotoxicity, DNA damage and mutagenicity were studied by testing colony forming efficiency, alkaline DNA unwinding and HPRT mutation assays, respectively. Additionally, co-exposure to a PARP-1 inhibitor was performed to test possible involvement of base excision repair (BER) in repair of Ni-induced DNA damage. The results showed that cell viability was reduced significantly (to 45% and 46%) after 48hours Ni-NP exposure at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.32g cm(-2). DNA damage was significantly increased after Ni-NP exposure in the presence of the BER inhibitor indicating that Ni-NP-induced DNA damages are subsequently repaired by BER. Furthermore, there was no increased HPRT mutation frequency following Ni-NP exposure. In conclusion, this study shows that Ni-NP treatment of lung fibroblasts in an air-liquid interface system that mimics real-life exposure, results in increased DNA strand breaks and reduced cellular viability. These DNA lesions were repaired with BER in an error-free manner without resulting in mutations. This study also underlines the importance of appropriate quantification of the actual exposure concentrations during air-liquid interface exposure studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of airborne Ni nanoparticles using a recently developed air-liquid interface exposure system that mimics real-life exposure. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage and mutagenicity were in the V79 cell line. Ni nanoparticle exposure of the cells in the air-liquid interface resulted in increased DNA strand breaks and reduced cellular viability at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.32 g cm (-2). These DNA lesions were repaired with BER in an error-free manner without resulting in mutations

  • 15. Midander, Klara
    et al.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wallén, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Belova, Lyuba
    Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 427, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20 000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols.

  • 16. Ohlson, Carl-Goran
    et al.
    Berg, Peter
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ngo, Yen
    Westberg, Haken
    Sjogren, Bengt
    Inflammatory markers and exposure to occupational air pollutants2010In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691, Vol. 22, no 13, p. 1083-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods: Total dust was sampled in the breathing zone of 73 subjects working with welding, cutting, grinding and in foundries such as iron, aluminium, and concrete. Stationary measurements were used to study different size fractions of particles including respirable dust, particulate matter (PM)(10) and PM2.5, the particle number concentration, the number of particles deposited in the alveoli, and total particle surface area concentration. Inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer, and urate were measured in plasma or serum before the first shift after the summer vacation and after the first, second, and fourth shift. Results: The mean level of total dust in the breathing zone was 0.93 mg/m

  • 17. Ohlson, C.G.
    et al.
    Berg, P.
    Bryngelsson, I.-L.
    Elihn, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ngo, Y.
    Sjögren, B.
    Inflammatory markers at exposure to particles in industrial environments2008In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Medicinska Riksstämma, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Todea, Ana Maria
    et al.
    Beckmann, Stefanie
    Kaminski, Heinz
    Bard, Delphine
    Bau, Sebastien
    Clavaguera, Simon
    Dahmann, Dirk
    Dozol, Helene
    Dziurowitz, Nico
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Fierz, Martin
    Lidén, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Meyer-Plath, Asmus
    Monz, Christian
    Neumann, Volker
    Pelzer, Johannes
    Simonow, Barbara Katrin
    Thali, Patrick
    Tuinman, Ilse
    van der Vleuten, Arjan
    Vroomen, Huub
    Asbach, Christof
    Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605, p. 929-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size. In view of their use for personal exposure studies, the comparability of these personal monitors was assessed in two measurement a large range of particle sizes, morphologies and concentrations. The data provided by the personal monitors were compared with those obtained from reference instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for LDSA and mean particle size and a ultrafine particle counter (UCPC) for number concentration. The results indicated that the LDSA concentrations and the mean particle sizes provided by all investigated instruments in this study were in the order of +/- 30% of the reference value obtained from the SMPS when the particle sizes of the test aerosols generated were within 20-400 nm and the instruments were properly calibrated. Particle size, morphology and concentration did not have a major effect within the aforementioned limits. The comparability of the number concentrations was found to be slightly worse and in the range of +/- 50% of the reference value obtained from the UCPC. In addition, a minor effect of the particle morphology on the number concentration measurements was observed. The presence of particles >400 nm can drastically bias the measurement results of all instruments and all metrics determined.

  • 19. Ulvestad, Bente
    et al.
    Randem, Britt Grethe
    Skare, Oivind
    Aalokken, Trond Mogens
    Myranek, Georg Karl
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lund, May Brit
    Lung function in asphalt pavers: a longitudinal study2017In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study longitudinal changes in lung function in asphalt pavers and a reference group of road maintenance workers, and to detect possible signs of lung disease by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Seventy-five asphalt pavers and 71 road maintenance workers were followed up with questionnaires and measurements of lung function. Not every worker was tested every year, but most of them had four or more measurement points. The 75 asphalt pavers were also invited to have HRCT scans of the lungs at the end of the follow-up period. Mean annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of the asphalt pavers was 58 and 35 ml, respectively. Adjusted for age at baseline, packyears of smoking and BMI, the asphalt pavers had a significant excess annual decline in FVC and FEV1 compared to the references. The screedmen, the most exposed group of the asphalt pavers, showed a significantly larger decline in FVC than the other asphalt pavers (P = 0.029). Fine intralobular fibrosis without evident cysts was identified with HRCT in three subjects (4 %). We conclude that our findings may indicate an excess annual decline in FVC and FEV1 related to exposure to asphalt fumes. The screedmen, who carry out their work behind and close to the paving machine, had the largest decline in lung function. The finding of adverse pulmonary effects in asphalt pavers calls for better technological solutions to prevent exposure.

  • 20.
    Wallén, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Midander, Klara
    Elihn, Karine
    Belova, Lyubov
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    Odnevall, Wallinder
    A multi-analytical assessment of nano to micron-sized subway particlesArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 21. Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Eva
    Persson, Bodil
    Andersson, Lennart
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Karlsson, Cathe
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Inflammatory markers and exposure to airborne particles among workers in a Swedish pulp and paper mill2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 813-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the relationship between exposure to airborne particles in a pulp and paper mill and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. Personal sampling of inhalable dust was performed for 72 subjects working in a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of total dust, respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, interleukins (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen and markers of coagulation factor VIII, von Willebrand, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and D-dimer were measured in plasma or serum. Sampling was performed on the last day of the work free period of 5 days, before and after the shift the first day of work and after the shifts the second and third day. In a mixed model analysis, the relationship between particulate exposures and inflammatory markers was determined. Sex, age, smoking, and BMI were included as covariates. The average 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) air concentration levels of inhalable dust were 0.30 mg/m(3), range 0.005-3.3 mg/m(3). The proxies for average 8-h TWAs of respirable dust were 0.045 mg/m(3). Significant and consistent positive relations were found between several exposure metrics (PM 10, total and inhalable dust) and CRP, SAA and fibrinogen taken post-shift, suggesting a dose-effect relationship. This study supports a relationship between occupational particle exposure and established inflammatory markers, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

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