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  • 1.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Who Moves to Whom? Gender Differences in the Distance Moved to a Shared Residence2019Ingår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 435-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the migration of couples and families is well examined, the migration that occurs at the start of co-residence has only been minimally studied. This study examines (1) whether women move more often and move over longer distances at the start of co-residence and (2) whether gender differences (if any) stem from compositional differences between women and men, such as gender differences in ties, or if they are the consequence of the within-couple distribution of bargaining power. The analyses are performed on Swedish population register data from 1991 to 2008, including longitudinal information on the residence of all couples who either married or had a child as cohabitants in 2008, backtracking them to the year of union formation. The results indicate that women are more prone to move for the sake of their male partner in the process of union formation than vice versa. If partners lived in close proximity prior to co-residence, the woman’s increased likelihood of moving and longer distance moved is nearly completely explained by power imbalances in the couple. Gender differences in ties only have minor importance in explaining gender differences in these types of migration patterns. If partners lived far apart prior to co-residence, gender differences are particularly pronounced. These differences remain after adjusting for the two partners’ relative resources. We contribute to the family migration literature by suggesting that women’s higher propensity to move and their longer distance moved are indications that even couples’ decisions at the start of co-residence are made in favour of the man’s career.

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  • 2.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen / Uppsala University, Department of Human Geography.
    Who Moves to Whom?: Gender Differences in the Distance  Moved to a Shared Residence2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although family migration is a well examined topic, the migration that takes place at the start of co-residence of couples is so far hardly studied. This study examines gender differences in who moves to whom and who moves the longer distance when couples start a co-residential union. Analyses are performed based on Swedish register data, 1991-2008, including detailed longitudinal information on the residence of all couples in Sweden who married or had a child as cohabitants in 2008. The study reveals that even after adjusting for gender differences in age, local-, family-, and labor market ties, education, occupation, and economic bargaining power, it is more common for the woman to move to the man than vice versa, and the woman is on average moving longer distances than the man. Gender differences are especially pronounced when partners live far apart prior to union formation. Among these couples the woman on average moves 40 kilometers longer than the man. The proposed intervening factors explain half of this excess distance. Men’s likelihood to move and their distance moved is more affected by labor market ties than women’s, indicating that traditional gender ideologies matter for understanding migration patterns at the start of co-residence.

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  • 3.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    A place for pensioners? Demographic developments2007Ingår i: A compact geography of the northern Netherlands / [ed] Gregory Ashworth, Peter Groote and Piet Pellenbarg, Assen: In Boekvorm , 2007, s. 19-22Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Netherlands is experiencing an ageing population because of lowfertility levels and increasing life expectancy. What is the situation in theNorth and what can we expect for the near future? Is the North really apensioner’s land, with senior citizens enjoying the peace and quiet, andyoung people fleeing away to areas with more employment opportunities?

  • 4.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Binational Marriages in Sweden: Is There an EU Effect?2014Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 177-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores and explains the partner choice of Swedes in the period 1991-2008. The partner market for Swedes has expanded considerably in the last few decades, because of EU expansion, globalisation processes, and an increased diversity of the migrant population. Besides increased opportunities, citizens who are better educated, younger, and more mobile might prefer foreign partners of their own kind. The paper focuses on marriages between Swedish-born and foreign-born partners and distinguishes people with Swedish-born parents from those with foreign-born parents. Using full-population register data, I conducted a systematic comparison between Swedes marrying EU partners and those marrying non-EU partners. I find that the binational marriage rate has increased over time, especially for native Swedish men and men who are second-generation Swedes. The increase is for the greater part attributable to an increase in the number of marriages to partners from outside the EU, whereas binational EU marriages have remained stable with no effects from EU accession. Patterns of binational marriages are highly gender specific: Finland being the most important supplier for foreign husbands, whereas Thai women are most popular amongst men. Against expectation, native Swedes in binational marriages are, by and large, older and less well educated.

  • 5.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Bi-national marriages in Sweden: Is there an EU effect?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses trends in binational marriages, defined as marriages between natives and migrants, in Sweden. The partner market for Swedes has increased considerably in the last few decades, due to globalisation processes, increased diversity of the migration stock, and in the light of EU expansion. The paper examines whether there is an effect of EU accession on the tendency for native Swedes to marry binationally. As previous studies have argued that it is especially the educated middle class who have more opportunities to meet partners abroad, the socio-economic status of those involved in binational marriages is examined. Using full-population register data for the period 1991-2008, a systematic comparison between natives marrying EU partners versus natives marrying non-EU partners is conducted, focusing both on the native and the foreign partner. I find that the share of binational marriages has increased over time, with the increase largely attributable to an increase in marriages to partners from outside the EU. However, compared to marriages to partners from neighbouring countries, natives have increasingly married EU15 partners. Patterns of binational marriages are highly gender-specific. While Finland is the most popular recruitment area for foreign husbands, Thai wives have superseded Finnish wives. Multivariate analyses show that all types of binational marriages are common in border areas, and that there is an urban effect. I find some evidence that partners in Swedish-EU couples are higher educated, but this is also true for foreign partners from the new countries of the EU and from outside the EU.

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  • 6.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Book review of Charsley (2012), “Transnational marriage. New perspectives from Europe and Beyond”2013Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 234-235Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Coping with time. Using a local time-path calendar to reduce heaping in durations2004Ingår i: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 13, nr 2/3, s. 339-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive health surveys often face difficulties in measuring age and durations. Heaping is the phenomenon that certain dates, ages or durations are over- or underrepresented. Following the calendar method used in several Demographic and Health Surveys, the current research proposes the use of a local time path calendar, based on time perceptions of women in South India. The objective of the calendar is to reduce heaping in the durations of postpartum amenorrhoea, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, and contraceptive use. The interviewer takes the respondent back in time using the local calendar; the memory of respondents is triggered by relating events to Indian festivals and other landmarks in the lives of people, enabling them to reply in their own time perspective. The method was tested in 2000 in a survey in South India; the findings indicate significantly less duration heaping.

  • 8.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    De geografische dimensie van partnerkeuze [The geographical dimension of partner choice].2008Ingår i: Bevolkingstrends, ISSN 1571-0998, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [nl]

    De meeste mensen kiezen ‘ruimtelijk homogame’ partners: ze vinden een partner in hun omgeving. Dit artikel beschrijft in welke mate Nederlanders een samenwoonpartner kiezen die in de buurt woont. Mensen met een hoge sociaaleconomische status vinden hun partners verder weg dan mensen met een lage sociaaleconomische status. Andere kenmerken die samenhangen met een partner op grotere afstand zijn een hogere leeftijd, alleenwonen en gescheiden zijn. Regionale verschillen in ruimtelijke homogamie lijken te duiden op regionale culturele verschillen, waarbij de kortste afstanden worden gevonden in hechte gemeenschappen met een specifieke religie en/of dialect.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Effects of the fertility transition on birth seasonality in the Netherlands2008Ingår i: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 655-672Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronous with the decline in fertility that took place in the post-war period in the Netherlands, patterns of birth seasonality changed as well. In this paper seasonal fluctuations in fertility in the Netherlands are examined using population register data for the period 1952 to 2005. The peak in births has changed from spring to summer and subsequently to August/September, thereby shifting from the European to the American pattern. The seasonal shift can be attributed to parity-specific changes. Before the transition, birth seasonality did not differ much between the different parities. In the transition period from higher to low fertility, differences between parities increased which persist up to today. At present, the overall seasonality pattern is determined by first births. Moreover, birth seasonality varies by maternal age. The findings stimulate the discussion on the role of planning as a cause of birth seasonality.

  • 10.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Explaining spatial homogamy. Compositional, spatial and regional cultural determinants of regional patterns of spatial homogamy in the Netherlands.2011Ingår i: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, ISSN 1874-4621, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 75-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial homogamy, or sharing a similarity in geographical origin, is anunder-researched dimension in homogamy studies. In the Netherlands, people tendto choose spatially homogamous partners. Moreover, there is considerable regionalvariation in spatial homogamy, even when residential location and populationdensity are controlled for. This study aims to explain the regional variation in spatialhomogamy by means of a spatial regression. Three sets of explanations are takeninto account: compositional effects, spatial determinants, and regional culturaldifferences. The data used consists of a unique geo-coded micro dataset on all newcohabiters in the Netherlands in 2004 (N=289,248), combined with other data fromvarying sources. In the spatial regression, the dependent variable is the standardizeddistance coefficient, based on the distance between partners before cohabitation,standardised for the average distance to other inhabitants. We find that especiallyeducational, income and cultural differences contribute to the regional variation inspatial homogamy.

  • 11.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Geography matters. Patterns of spatial homogamy in the Netherlands2008Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 387-405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Cupid may have wings, but apparently they are not adapted for long flights.’ Studies on the spatial dimension of the partner market have found that the number of marriages declines as the distance between potential spouses increases. This paper explores the role of geographical distance in partner choice in the Netherlands. The availability of unique integral micro data from the population register enables us to study spatial homogamy among all new cohabiters. Spatial homogamy is measured by calculating distances between partners before cohabitation. The explorative study shows that geography matters: Dutch persons choose spatially homogamous partners. Spatial homogamy is influenced by demographic factors. With increasing age, spatial homogamy increases. Moreover, those who live with their parents and those who are single parents before cohabitation live significantly closer to their future partners. Spatial homogamy also exhibits a distinct spatial pattern. However, conditional on population size and geographical location, long distances between partners in peripheral areas become insignificant. Finally, the distance between partners decreases as urbanisation increases. The findings stimulate the discussionon the role of cultural factors in partner choice.

  • 12.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nederlandse life style migranten: Waar wonen de meeste Nederlanders?2019Ingår i: Hollandse nieuwtjesArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of Dutch emigrants to Sweden settles in less urban areas. The article gives an overview of the places of residence of Dutch people in Sweden. In addition, it zooms into some of these life style migrants.

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  • 13.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Partner choice in Sweden: How distance still matters2019Ingår i: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 440-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial homogamy, or the geographical closeness of life partners, has received little attention inrecent decades. Theoretically, partners may be found anywhere in the world, as increases ineducational participation, affluence, mobility and internet access have reduced the meaning ofgeographical distance in general. This paper examines whether geography still matters in theSwedish partner market, by examining distances between partners before co-residence overtime. Register data are used to track the residential histories (1990–2008) of couples whomarried or had a child in 1996, 2002 or 2008 (N¼292,652). With the couple as the unit ofanalysis, the distance between partners before co-residence is explained by geographical, socioeconomicand demographic indicators. I find that although the distance between partners hasincreased over time, it is still the case that half of all partners lived within 9 kilometres of eachother before moving in together. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics explain someof the variation in spatial homogamy, but geographical factors, such as previous place of residence,spatial mobility, degree of urbanization and nearness of parents, are crucial. Even in a globalizedsociety, most people still find their partners very close by. The findings are relevant to the familymigration literature, where residential mobility at the beginning of co-residence has received littleattention, despite long-lasting consequences of partner choice on social ties and people’s socioeconomiccareers. The results exemplify the importance of short geographical distances forintimate relationships.

  • 14.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Soort zoekt soort. Ontmoetingsplaatsen van partners [Like likes like. Meeting places of partners)2007Ingår i: Demos, ISSN 0169-1473, Vol. 23, nr 10, s. 12-14Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [nl]

    De meeste mensen ontmoeten hun partner via uitgaan of vakantie. Dit geldt vooral voor jongeren, laag opgeleiden, rooms-katholieken en mensen die in perifere gebieden wonen. Verschillende sociale groepen kiezen hun eigen ontmoetingsplaatsen, en beïnvloeden daarmee hun partnerkeuze.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Spatial homogamy: The geographical dimensions of partner choice2011Ingår i: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 102, nr 1, s. 100-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals tend to find life partners who are similar to themselves, a phenomenon known as homogamy. This study focuses on spatial homogamy, which is the similarity regarding the geographical origin of partners. Adopting a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the geographical dimension of partner choice is explored for the Netherlands. Distance decay is highly pertinent for Dutch cohabitation partners: half of them meet within a 6-kilometre distance. The level of spatial homogamy not only varies by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, but also exhibits a spatial distribution. The spatial variation can be explained by a combination of cultural, geographical and socioeconomic factors. In a case study in a rural area in eastern Netherlands, villagers indicated that a partner from close by is seen as convenient, familiar and trustworthy. The distance at which partners are found is influenced by the perceived mentality and culture of neighbouring places.

  • 16.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The geographical dimensions of partner choice2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation of Karen Haandrikman shows that spatial homogamy, or the similarity of partners regarding their geographical origins, plays a key role in partner choice. The research shows that Dutch cohabiters find their partner at very short distances. Distances are shortest for older people, those who lived with their parents before cohabitation and for the lower educated. Spatial homogamy of partners increases the probability for a partner match, even when demographic, socio-economic and cultural similarity of partners is accounted for.

    Spatial analyses show that distances to partners are especially long in peripheral areas, whereas spatial homogamy is pronounced in the Bible belt, in cities and in Northern and Eastern Netherlands. These differences are explained by a combination of geographical factors, the composition of the population and local cultural differences.

    In a case study in Vriezenveen it was examined how distance plays a role in partner choice. A partner from close by is viewed as convenient, familiar and trustworthy. Partners from places with deviating denominations, alleged different mentality or culture, and from cities were not considered as potential partners. Local cultural differences can be seen as forming spatial barriers prohibiting partner choice.

    The meeting place plays a central role in the partner choice process. Meeting places are socially differentiated: partners with similar background characteristics are found in local partner markets. In their partner choice, individuals are driven by preferences, constrained by social and cultural norms, and influenced by the opportunities to meet potential partners.

  • 17.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Waar ontmoeten partners elkaar? Sociale differentiatie in ontmoetingsplaatsen [Where do partners meet? Social differentiation in meeting places].2010Ingår i: Mens en Maatschappij, ISSN 1876-2816, Vol. 85, nr 2, s. 176-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting places form a vital link in the process of partner choice, in which preferences, norms and opportunities to meet partners play a role. Using the 2003 Fertility and Family Survey (Onderzoek Gezinsvorming) for the Netherlands, we find that the partner market is segmented by relationship career, education, age, religion and geography. Public places are popular among youngsters, the lower educated, Catholics and the rural population. So-called ‘closed’ places are meeting places for the higher educated, partners in the repartnering market, young adults, the re-reformed and city dwellers. Those meeting in private settings tend to have a lower level of education, to be Muslim, and to have grown up abroad.

  • 18.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Costa, Rafael
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Rogne, Adrian Farner
    University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography.
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (currently Municipality of Amsterdam).
    Socio-economic Segregation in European Cities: A Comparative Study of Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo and Stockholm2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare socioeconomic segregation patterns and levels in Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo, and Stockholm with uniform measurements. Socioeconomic segregation is a persistent reality in European cities that may have negative effects on social cohesion and individual outcomes. Previous research has been hampered by conceptual and methodological shortcomings, preventing comparable studies of segregation. We use harmonized datasets from 2011 containing geocoded indicators based on a nearest-neighbors approach, allowing for comparable measures of socio-economic segregation at multiple scales. Our analyses offer an unprecedented comparison of patterns and levels of socio-spatial inequalities in European capitals. Using maps, segregation indices and percentile plots, we find that for all cities, the level of segregation by affluence is much larger than that of poverty. Macro-scale poverty segregation is most prominent in Stockholm and Brussels, and quite low in Amsterdam. At micro- scales, Brussels and Stockholm stand out with very high concentrations of poverty at the local level. In such poor neighborhoods, there are hardly any non-poor, indicating high levels of polarization. Macro-scale segregation by affluence is most pronounced in Oslo. Differences in levels and patterns are interpreted in the light of their particular welfare regimes, housing systems, area-based policies and migration dynamics.

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  • 19.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University.
    Hassanen, Sadia
    Multicultural Centre & Department of Cultural Anthropology, Stockholm University.
    Onward Migration of African Europeans:Comparing Attitudes to Migration Motives2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Hutter, Inge
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    ‘That’s a different kind of person’ - Spatial connotations and partner choice2012Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 241-259Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the process of partner choice and the specific role of geographical distance in this process. This focus on the spatial component is a unique and new approach to address the topic. By adopting a qualitative approach, the decision‐making process preceding partner choice is captured,including the preferences people have for partners, the norms influencing partner choice,and the places people go to meet potential partners. In a Dutch village, focus groups were organised around the topic. The results show that place is crucial in partner choice. Partners from close by are preferred as that is convenient and as they are seen as trustworthy persons. Spatial perceptions of people and places, based on perceived local cultural differences, affect the distance at which partners are found. The rural setting of the study, including mostly less educated participants, revealed that opportunities and norms are more important in partner choice in such a case, whereas preferences play a minor role. Local cultural diversity, from diverse reformed denominations to spatial perceptions of the mentality of people in nearby communities, affects patterns of social interaction.

  • 21.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    van Wissen, Leo
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.
    Regional variation in short distance homogamy2011Ingår i: Genus - Journal of Population Sciences, ISSN 2035-5556, Vol. 67, nr 1, s. 45-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population register data on all new cohabiters in 2004 were used. Regression methods were employed to explain spatial patterns. Regional variation in short distance homogamy is largely explained by geographical and socioeconomic indicators, namely the size of an area, the degree of urbanisation, and the level of education and income of inhabitants. Moreover, cultural differences between regions contribute to spatial differences in short distance homogamy. Culture, geography and socio-economic class determine the predominant spatial patterns of social contact, including the choice of a life partner.

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    genus2011
  • 22.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Van Wissen, Leo J. G.
    Explaining the flight of Cupid's arrow: A spatial random utility model of partner choice2012Ingår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 417-439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial homogamy may be defined as follows: anyone may be attractedto anyone else, but near candidates are more attractive than distant candidates.In this article, we propose a model of partner choice, where homogamy is definedin terms of spatial, demographic, socioeconomic and cultural similarity. A spatialchoice model using random utility theory is formulated, taking into account arelaxation of the independence from the irrelevant alternatives property, as spatialalternatives are not independent of one another. We model partner choice given thecharacteristics of the chosen partner and a choice set of alternatives, using uniquemicro data on all new cohabiters in the Netherlands, linked to other relevant datasets. The model takes the spatial locations of potential candidates within a choice setinto account, including an indicator for the spatial similarity between alternatives.We find that spatial homogamy is a vital component of partner matching, aside fromand adding to the spatial effects in demographic, socioeconomic and culturalhomogamy. Given a choice set of partners, the highest likelihood of a match occurswith a person who is born and lives near by, who is close in age, is in the same lifestage and has the same marital status, who has the same educational and incomelevel and the same labour market status, who speaks the same dialect and lives in aculturally similar residential area. The distance effect is most pronounced for thoseindividuals with lower levels of education and those living in rural areas.

  • 23.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Webster, Natasha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nederlandse vrouwelijke ondernemers in Zweden: Kansen en belemmeringen2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [nl]

    De economische integratie van migranten kan veel beter; een onderwerp dat hoog op de Zweedse politieke agenda staat. Vergeleken met andere westerse landen hebben migranten in Zweden een veel lagere arbeidsparticipatie. Ondernemerschap is een belangrijke manier voor economische integratie, maar het is ook een belangrijke aanjager voor de economie en voor regionale ontwikkeling. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat vrouwelijke ondernemers wat andere paden bewandelen vergeleken met mannen. Dit is het onderwerp van een onderzoeksproject dat ik samen met collega Natasha Webster heb aan Stockholms Universiteit, bij de afdeling Sociale Geografie. Wie zijn deze vrouwelijke ondernemers, wat zijn problemen die zij in Zweden tegenkomen, en hoe staat het eigenlijk met Nederlandse ondernemers?

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  • 24.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Webster, Natasha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Thaise migrantenvrouwen in Nederland en Zweden2018Ingår i: Demos - bulletin over bevolking en samenleving, ISSN 0169-1473, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 1-4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 25.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Webster, Natasha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Understanding Local Variations in Gender Relations Using Gender Contract Theory2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite Sweden’s family policy existing at the national level, usage of these policies can vary substantially across regions and by gender suggesting a need for closer examination of local variance in these usages. The concept of ‘gender contract’, describes the systematic organization of a gender system that is constructed, controlled and reinforced by relations between men and women and articulated into daily activities such as childcare. This study demonstrates the importance of spatial variation in gender contracts and identifies gender contracts from the gendered use of parental leave in Sweden. Using register data, we create individualized neighbourhoods with fixed population size, based on the location of the residence of individuals. By using a multiscalar approach, we show that local gender contracts vary substantially, and that no dominant regional gender contracts appear instead highlighting local variance of gender contracts. The spatial analyses show the ways in which individuals engage with both structure and society in their daily life. Uncovering gender contracts highlights the ways in which national policies are interpreted locally by users and test the operationalisation of a so far mainly theoretical concept.

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  • 26.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Mångfaldens utmaning på landsbygden2011Ingår i: Invandrare och minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, nr 4-5, s. 21-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utrikes födda kvinnor får snabbare och oftare ett jobb än män, om de bor på landet. Migrantmannen gynnas däremot av att vara stadsbo. Trots att allt fler migranter bor på landsbygden, ses inte deras kulturkompetens som en resurs.

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  • 27.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University.
    Repopulation of the Swedish countryside: Globalisation by international migration2014Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 34, s. 128-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural areas have often been treated as mono-ethnic and homogeneous areas, as compared to urban areas that are seen as dynamic and mobile areas. Recent discourses in rural studies have been questioning this idea, adding the perspectives that rural areas are constituted by mobilities, actively engaged in globalization processes, and characterized by ethnic diversity. As population decline is a constant threat to many rural areas, international migration flows can contribute to their repopulation and to a dynamic and transnational countryside. The present paper takes a quantitative perspective, thereby adding to the mostly qualitative studies in this field. Through the use of Swedish full-population register data, patterns of international migrants in rural areas are depicted, using a unique definition of rurality. Our study shows that international migration to the countryside reveals a rich diversity in ethnicity and age. Nordic and European middle-aged and elderly migrants have the highest odds of living in the countryside, while South East Asian women are an upcoming group. Migrants in the countryside are more often women, have a Swedish partner, have less education, live in border areas and are short stayers. Female migrants in rural areas also have a higher employment rate than their urban counterparts. The results suggest a variety of migration motives, ranging from quality of life to cross-border and marriage migration, which indicate increased globalization of the countryside.

  • 28.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990–20122018Ingår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 169-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geocoded individual-level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 409,600 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries, face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that already have high proportions of non-European migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if segregation is measured as differences in the neighbourhood concentration of migrants, segregation has increased.

  • 29.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990-20122016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geo-coded individual level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 400,000 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that have high proportions of nonEuropean migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if unevenness is measured as variation in the neighbourhood proportion of migrants across neighbourhoods, segregation has increased.

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  • 30.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Christiansen, Henning (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Statistics Denmark.
    Costa, Rafael (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Vrije Universiteit Brussels.
    Sleutjes, Bart (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.
    Rogne, Adrian F. (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    epartment of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Stonawski, Marcin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    epartment of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Residential segregation in 5 European countries: Technical report2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project “Residential segregation in in five European countries – A comparative study using individualized scalable neighbourhoods” (ResSegr) started in August 2014 as a cooperation between researchers at Stockholm University (Department of Human Geography), the University of Oslo (Department of Sociology and Human Geography), Statistics Denmark, the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute and the Vrije Universiteit Brussels (Interface Demography). Funding was granted by the Joint Programme Initiative Urban Europe.This is the technical report documenting the processes that have led to the making of the harmonized multi-country datasets with segregation indicators that was one of the main outputs of the project. In the report, we provide a description of the national datasets and the geographical coordinates, the definition of indicators and a description of the software used to produce the data. Similarities as well as differences between the different national datasets and indicators are highlighted. One chapter pays attention to the various ethical and privacy considerations that were considered in the creation of the dataset so that privacy of individuals could be protected. More information about the project can be found at www.residentialsegregation.org.

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  • 31.
    Webster, Natasha A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thai women in Sweden: Victims or participants? 2016Ingår i: Social Science Asia, E-ISSN 2229-2608, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 13-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from Thailand to Sweden is a rapidly growing phenomenon with a threefold increase over thelast ten years, with the majority of migrants being female marriage migrants. In Nordic media andpopular culture, stereotyping of Thai-Swedish couples is commonplace, focusing on unequal powerrelations, sex tourism and other social problems which often position Thai women “as both materialistrural women and ignorant victims” (Sunanta, 2013, p. 193). Our paper positions and explores thestatus of this unique group of migrants through a power and agency lens and by adopting a multimethodsapproach. Using register data, we give a detailed picture of the migration and sociodemographicfeatures of Thais in Sweden, while in-depth interviews with Thai women provide nuancedunderstandings of Thai-Sweden migration. We find a complex narrative of migration, where Thaiwomen are active agents in their migration process but still face many inequalities in Sweden. Adiversified picture of these women is revealed suggesting that power and agency are situated spatiallyand temporally.

  • 32.
    Webster, Natasha Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thai women entrepreneurs in Sweden: Critical perspectives on migrant small businesses2017Ingår i: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 60, s. 17-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thai migrant women are an important and visible part of the small business community in Sweden, most notably through restaurants, massage spas and small shops. In this paper we explore the overlap between migration and entrepreneurship and position ourselves within the feminist entrepreneurial framework. We ask: which Thai women become entrepreneurs? How does being migrant women shape their entrepreneurial activities and practices? Our paper employs a mixed-method design to explore Thai migrant businesses, giving a detailed overview of which women become entrepreneurs based on register data, and providing space for the narratives of women. We find a gendered approach to understanding the business activities of Thai women business practitioners does challenge normative perspectives on entrepreneurship. We show that family structure, migration length, education and partner's labor market status all play important roles. Furthermore, we find that small businesses are sites of negotiation and contestation.

  • 33.
    Webster, Natasha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Starting your business in Stockholm? 6 Tips!2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Webster, Natasha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thai women in Sweden: Victims or participants?2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from Thailand to Sweden is a rapidly growing phenomenon with a threefold increase over the last ten years, with the majority of migrants being female marriage migrants. In the media and popular culture, stereotyping of Thai-Swedish couples is commonplace; focusing on unequal power relations, sex tourism and other social problems which often position Thai women ‘as both materialist rural women and ignorant victims’ (Sunanta 2013, 193). Our paper positions and explores the status of this unique group of migrants through a power and agency lens and by adopting a multi-methods approach. Using register data, we are able to give a detailed picture of the migration and socio-demographic features of Thais in Sweden, while in-depth interviews with Thai women provide nuanced understandings of Thai-Sweden migration. We find a complex narrative of migration, where Thai women are active agents in their migration process but still face many inequalities in Sweden. A diversified picture of these women is revealed, giving an inside view into their lives that goes beyond and break common stereotypes.

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  • 35.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Migrant labor market integration: the association between initial settlement and subsequent employment and income among migrants2019Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 101, nr 2, s. 118-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neighborhood effects literature indicates that a person’s place of residence may affect their socio-economic situation. This study examines the association between initial settlement and immigrants’ employment and income. Previous studies mostly used administratively defined geographical units of study, which may have led to an underestimation of neighborhood effects. The current study uses individualized neighborhoods, where neighborhoods are constructed based on each individual’s closest neighbors using geocoded register data, on different scales. In this way, more of the individual’s actual neighborhood is captured. The longitudinal study follows three cohorts of migrants and examines the relationship between the initial neighborhoods that migrants settle in and their employment and income, in the short and medium-long term. The results show clear associations between neighborhoods of initial settlement and labor market integration. Starting off in neighborhoods with high levels of deprivation is associated with lower levels of employment, while settling in affluent neighborhoods is associated with higher incomes. Findings are stable for different migrant cohorts and in the short and long term. Neighborhood effects are substantial especially for those settling in the most deprived or the most affluent neighborhoods.

  • 36.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Boende och integration: Samband mellan invandrades initiala bosättning och deras sysselsättning och inkomst2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att studera sambandet mellan boendesegregation och invandrades sysselsättning och arbetsinkomst. Med boendesegregation avses att individer eller grupper av individer med olika egenskaper lever på geografiskt åtskilda platser. Detta ses vanligtvis som en utmaning då den kan påverka individers framtida utfall, såsom utbildningsnivå och sysselsättningsgrad. När individer lever åtskilda kan de påverkas olika beroende på vilket slags grannskap de lever i, vilket brukar kallas grannskapseffekter. Dessa grannskapseffekter kan vara både positiva och negativa på individers socioekonomiska situation. Till exempel kan lokala normer kring attityder till högre utbildning påverka individens val att söka sig till högre utbildning. Det finns studier som visar att invandrades inkomster kan påverkas positivt om de bosatt sig i invandrartäta områden då de kunnat dra nytta av nätverk baserade på den egna etniska gruppen. Det finns å andra sidan flera studier som pekar på negativa effekter på arbetsmarknadsintegration av att bo i socioekonomiskt utsatta områden. Tidigare har tre politiska strategier för att motverka negativa effekter av boendesegregation använts. En strategi har varit blandat boende, vilket bygger på idén att en blandad bebyggelse i upplåtelseformer, bostadstyp och bostadsstorlek ska leda till en blandad befolkningssammansättning när det gäller ålder, familjesituation och ekonomi. Flyktingallokering, dvs. att flyktingmottagandet sprids över alla Sveriges kommuner, har varit en annan strategi för att minska boendesegregationen. Slutligen lanserades storstadssatsningen som en strategi där tyngdpunkten låg på att skapa förutsättningar för ekonomisk utveckling i socioekonomiskt utsatta områden i ett antal storstadskommuner. Forskningen har visat att ingen av dessa satsningar i nämnvärd utsträckning lyckats motverka boendesegregationen. Mot bakgrund av att den etniska segregationen ökat i Sverige har studien ställt följande forskningsfråga: Hur ser sambandet ut mellan de grannskap som invandrade initialt bosätter sig i och invandrades arbetsmarknadsintegration på kort och medellång sikt? Tidigare studier som analyserat segregationsförändringar och sambandet mellan segregation och individuella socioekonomiska utfall har endast analyserat detta på fördefinierade administrativa områden. Detta kan ha lett till en underskattning av grannskapssamband. I denna studie använder vi individbaserade grannskap som skapas baserat på individens närmsta grannar med hjälp av geografiskt kodad registerdata, på olika skalor. På så sätt kan vi bättre fånga in individers faktiska grannskap. I studien följer vi individer som invandrat under tre olika år (tre kohorter invandrare) genom att studera var de bosätter sig efter folkbokföringen och om de är sysselsatta och hur höga deras inkomster är på kort och på medellång sikt. Till studien har migrantkohorterna som folkbokfördes under år 1995, 2001 och 2007 valts. Anledningen till att vi studerar tre olika migrantkohorter är för att analysera om ett eventuellt samband mellan grannskap och arbetsmarknadsintegration håller över tid och för olika typer av migranter. Arbetsmarknadsintegrationen mäts genom sysselsättningsstatus och förvärvsinkomst fyra respektive tio år efter första folkbokföringen i Sverige. Sambandet mellan initialt grannskap och arbetsmarknadsintegration undersöks genom en modell som tar hänsyn till individens socioekonomiska och demografiska egenskaper, flyttningar, kommunala arbetsmarknader och typ av initialt grannskap. Vi finner ett negativt samband mellan att initialt bosätta sig i grannskap med ett högt värde av utsatthet och sannolikheten att vara sysselsatt, både på kort och på medellång sikt. Dessutom finns ett samband mellan initialt grannskap och förvärvsinkomst bland sysselsatta, både på kort och på medellång sikt för de flesta migrationskohorter. Ju högre grad av välstånd i initiala grannskapen, desto högre grad av sysselsättning och högre förvärvsinkomst bland sysselsatta, på kort och medellång sikt. På liknande sätt gäller att ju högre grad av utsatthet som råder i det initiala grannskapet desto lägre sannolikhet att vara sysselsatt på kort och medellång sikt och desto lägre förvärvsinkomst på kort sikt. Vi visar också att sambandet mellan arbetsmarknadsintegration och individegenskaper, särskilt kön, grund för bosättning och utbildning, är mycket starkare än sambandet mellan initialt grannskap och arbetsmarknadsintegration. Våra resultat visar på negativt samband mellan att vara initialt bosatt i utsatta områden och individers socioekonomiska utfall och även att det finns positivt samband mellan att vara bosatt i grannskap med höga värden av välstånd och individers arbetsmarknadsanknytning. En svaghet med denna typ av studier är att det inte är möjligt att avgöra om de uppmätta sambanden är kausala, dvs. sambanden kan bero på andra icke-uppmätta variabler. Vår modell kontrollerar för flyttningsmönster och individuella bakgrundsfaktorer men det kan finnas andra faktorer som inte fångas upp i vår studie. Exempelvis har vi inte uppgift om invandrades individuella motivation, ekonomiskt kapital, kontaktnät etc. En kausal tolkning om att initialt grannskap faktiskt påverkar invandrades arbetsmarknadsintegration är därför behäftad med osäkerhet. Trots studiens begränsningar manar resultaten till eftertanke i relation till såväl stadsplanering som sociala satsningar riktade mot nyanlända. För det första pekar resultatet på möjliga fördelar med att investera i nybyggnation i områden med etablerat välstånd för att skapa bättre förutsättningar för nyanlända invandrare. Eftersom nyproduktion av lägenheter generellt är förknippande med höga hyror eller höga bostadspriser kan de vara svårtillgängliga för nyanlända. Därför skulle det krävas lösningar som möjliggör att dessa blir tillgängliga för nyanlända i områden präglade av välstånd. För det andra talar resultaten för fördelar med strategier där nyanlända placeras i specifika områden. En möjlighet kan vara att inte bara allokera nyanlända, som inte väljer eget boende, över kommuner utan även fundera på vilken typ av grannskap de nyanlända placeras i. För det tredje pekar resultaten på potentialen med områdesbaserade satsningar som syftar till att motverka de negativa sambanden av att bosätta sig i socioekonomiskt svaga områden och därmed påverka individers arbetsmarknadsintegrering. Tidigare forskning har förordat områdesbaserade satsningar som beaktar både nackdelarna för de som invandrar av att bosätta sig i socioekonomiskt svaga grannskap och fördelarna av att bosätta sig nära den egna etniska gruppen. Avslutningsvis vill vi peka på att invandrades arbetsmarknadsintegration påverkas av många olika faktorer. Grannskap är en av dessa faktorer, men som våra resultat och tidigare forskning pekat på är andra faktorer framförallt på individnivå viktigare, såsom kön, grund för bosättning och utbildningsnivå. Förutom faktorer relaterade till individers socioekonomiska bakgrund har studien även visat att flyttningar och förhållanden på kommunala arbetsmarknader är faktorer som alla förtjänar att beaktas. Strategier som syftar till att förbättra invandrades etablering på arbetsmarknaden behöver ta hänsyn till alla dessa faktorer.

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