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  • 1. Drewnick, Frank
    et al.
    Schneider, Johannes
    Hings, Silke S.
    Hock, Nele
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Targino, Admir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Weimer, Silke
    Borrmann, Stephan
    Measurement of ambient, interstitial, and residual aerosol particles on a mountaintop site in central Sweden using an aerosol mass spectrometer and a CVI2007In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was coupled with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) for the first time to measure cloud droplet residuals of warm tropospheric clouds on Mt. Areskutan in central Sweden in July 2003. Operating the CVI in different operational modes generated mass concentration and species-resolved mass distribution data for non-refractory species of the ambient, interstitial, and residual aerosol. The ambient aerosol measurements revealed that the aerosol at the site was mainly influenced by long-range transport and regional photochemical generation of nitrate and organic aerosol components. Four different major air masses were identified for the time interval of the experiment. While two air masses that approached the site from northeastern Europe via Finland showed very similar aerosol composition, the other two air masses from polar regions and the British Islands had a significantly different composition. During cloud events the larger aerosol particles were found to be activated into cloud droplets. On a mass basis the activation cut-off diameter was approximately 150 nm for nitrate and organics dominated particles and 200 nm for sulfate dominated particles. Generally nitrate and organics were found to be activated into cloud droplets with higher efficiency than sulfate. While a significant fraction of the nitrate in ambient particles was organic nitrates or nitrogen-containing organic species, the nitrate found in the cloud droplet residuals was mainly ammonium nitrate. After passage of clouds the ambient aerosol size distribution had shifted to smaller particle sizes due to the predominantly activation of larger aerosol particles without a significant change in the relative composition of the ambient aerosol.

  • 2.
    Gonzalez, Nelida J. D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Artaxo, P.
    Guenther, A.
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Noziere, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Primary and secondary organics in the tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: chiral analysis of 2-methyltetraols2014In: Environmental Science Processes and Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1413-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the application of a new method to facilitate the distinction between biologically produced (primary) and atmospherically produced (secondary) organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chirality. The compounds chosen for this analysis were the stereomers of 2-methyltetraols, (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-methylerythritol, (L- and D-form, respectively), and (2S, 3S)- and (2R, 3R)-methylthreitol (L- and D-form), shown previously to display some enantiomeric excesses in atmospheric aerosols, thus to have at least a partial biological origin. In this work PM10 aerosol fractions were collected in a remote tropical rainforest environment near Manaus, Brazil, between June 2008 and June 2009 and analysed. Both 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol displayed a net excess of one enantiomer (either the L- or the D-form) in 60 to 72% of these samples. These net enantiomeric excesses corresponded to compounds entirely biological but accounted for only about 5% of the total 2-methyltetrol mass in all the samples. Further analysis showed that, in addition, a large mass of the racemic fractions (equal mixtures of D- and L-forms) was also biological. Estimating the contribution of secondary reactions from the isomeric ratios measured in the samples (=ratios 2-methylthreitol over 2-methylerythritol), the mass fraction of secondary methyltetrols in these samples was estimated to a maximum of 31% and their primary fraction to a minimum of 69%. Such large primary fractions could have been expected in PM10 aerosols, largely influenced by biological emissions, and would now need to be investigated in finer aerosols. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of chiral and isomeric analyses as the first direct tool to assess the primary and secondary fractions of organic aerosols.

  • 3.
    Leung, Wing -Y. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Savre, J.
    Bender, Frida A. -M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Komppula, M.
    Portin, H.
    Romakkaniemi, S.
    Sedlar, J.
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Sensitivity of a continental night-time stratocumulus-topped boundary layer to varying environmental conditions2016In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 142, no 700, p. 2911-2924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-eddy simulation of a nocturnal stratocumulus-topped boundary layer in a continental midlatitude environment has been performed to examine the sensitivity of the cloud to a number of different environmental parameters. The simulations showed that the stratocumulus cloud was strongly affected by the presence of an overlying free tropospheric cirrus cloud (FTC), in agreement with previous studies of marine nighttime stratocumulus. When introducing an FTC with an optical thickness of 2, stratocumulus liquid water path decreased by 30%. Enhancing the optical thickness of the FTC to 8 further decreased the liquid water path by almost 10%. The presence of an FTC decreased the cloud-top radiative cooling which decreased the turbulent mixing in the boundary layer, so that the liquid water content and cloud depth were reduced. The sensitivity of the stratocumulus cloud to an overlying FTC was found to be affected by the moisture content in the free troposphere. When a clear positive or negative moisture gradient above the inversion was imposed, and an overlying FTC with an optical thickness of 8 was introduced, the stratocumulus cloud LWP decreased by more than 40%. Furthermore, the effect of changes in free tropospheric moisture content and an overlying FTC on the stratocumulus cloud properties was found to be nonlinear; the combined response was in general weaker than the two responses added together. The modeled response to changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations was found to be non-significant, unless the CCN concentrations were so low that drizzle was induced (similar to 50 cm(-3))

  • 4. Modini, R. L.
    et al.
    Frossard, A. A.
    Ahlm, L.
    Russell, L. M.
    Corrigan, C. E.
    Roberts, G. C.
    Hawkins, L. N.
    Schroder, J. C.
    Bertram, A. K.
    Zhao, R.
    Lee, A. K. Y.
    Abbatt, J. P. D.
    Lin, J.
    Nenes, A.
    Wang, Z.
    Wonaschuetz, A.
    Sorooshian, A.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, H.
    Seinfeld, J. H.
    Toom-Sauntry, D.
    Macdonald, A. M.
    Leaitch, W. R.
    Primary marine aerosol-cloud interactions off the coast of California2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 4282-4303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary marine aerosol (PMA)-cloud interactions off the coast of California were investigated using observations of marine aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and stratocumulus clouds during the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies. Based on recently reported measurements of PMA size distributions, a constrained lognormal-mode-fitting procedure was devised to isolate PMA number size distributions from total aerosol size distributions and applied to E-PEACE measurements. During the 12 day E-PEACE cruise on the R/V Point Sur, PMA typically contributed less than 15% of total particle concentrations. PMA number concentrations averaged 12 cm(-3) during a relatively calmer period (average wind speed 12m/s(1)) lasting 8 days, and 71cm(-3) during a period of higher wind speeds (average 16m/s(1)) lasting 5 days. On average, PMA contributed less than 10% of total CCN at supersaturations up to 0.9% during the calmer period; however, during the higher wind speed period, PMA comprised 5-63% of CCN (average 16-28%) at supersaturations less than 0.3%. Sea salt was measured directly in the dried residuals of cloud droplets during the SOLEDAD study. The mass fractions of sea salt in the residuals averaged 12 to 24% during three cloud events. Comparing the marine stratocumulus clouds sampled in the two campaigns, measured peak supersaturations were 0.20.04% during E-PEACE and 0.05-0.1% during SOLEDAD. The available measurements show that cloud droplet number concentrations increased with >100 nm particles in E-PEACE but decreased in the three SOLEDAD cloud events.

  • 5. Nobre, Carlos
    et al.
    Brasseur, Guy P.
    Shapiro, Melvyn A.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Brunet, Gilbert
    Busalacchi, Antonio J.
    Hibbard, Kathy
    Seitzinger, Sybil
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ometto, Jean P.
    ADDRESSING THE COMPLEXITY OF THE EARTH SYSTEM2010In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1389-1396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    de Wit, Chynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Constanza, Robert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Constanza, Robert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A safe operating space for humanity2009In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 461, no 24 Sept, p. 472-475Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Sanchez, K. J.
    et al.
    Russell, L. M.
    Modini, R. L.
    Frossard, A. A.
    Ahlm, L.
    Corrigan, C. E.
    Roberts, G. C.
    Hawkins, L. N.
    Schroder, J. C.
    Bertram, A. K.
    Zhao, R.
    Lee, A. K. Y.
    Lin, J. J.
    Nenes, A.
    Wang, Z.
    Wonaschuetz, A.
    Sorooshian, A.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jonsson, H.
    Toom, D.
    Macdonald, A. M.
    Leaitch, W. R.
    Seinfeld, J. H.
    Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 4142-4161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (<0.01), except for cargo ship and smoke plumes, which increased CR by 0.02 and 0.07, respectively, owing to their high organic mass fraction. Organic hygroscopicity had larger effects on droplet concentrations for cases with higher aerosol concentrations near the critical diameter (namely, polluted cases with a modal peak near 0.1 mu m). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  • 9. Schroder, J. C.
    et al.
    Hanna, S. J.
    Modini, R. L.
    Corrigan, A. L.
    Kreidenwies, S. M.
    Macdonald, A. M.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Russell, L. M.
    Leaitch, W. R.
    Bertram, A. K.
    Size-resolved observations of refractory black carbon particles in cloud droplets at a marine boundary layer site2015In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1367-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Size-resolved observations of aerosol particles and cloud droplet residuals were studied at a marine boundary layer site (251ma.m.s.l.) in La Jolla, San Diego, California, during 2012. A counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used as the inlet to sample cloud residuals while a total inlet was used to sample both cloud residuals and interstitial particles. Two cloud events totaling 10 h of in-cloud sampling were analyzed. Based on bulk aerosol particle concentrations, mass concentrations of refractory black carbon (rBC), and back trajectories, the two air masses sampled were classified as polluted marine air. Since the fraction of cloud droplets sampled by the CVI was less than 100 %, the measured activated fractions of rBC should be considered as lower limits to the total fraction of rBC activated during the two cloud events. Size distributions of rBC and a coating analysis showed that sub-100 nm rBC cores with relatively thick coatings were incorporated into the cloud droplets (i.e., 95 nm rBC cores with median coating thicknesses of at least 65 nm were incorporated into the cloud droplets). Measurements also show that the coating volume fraction of rBC cores is relatively large for sub-100 nm rBC cores. For example, the median coating volume fraction of 95 nm rBC cores incorporated into cloud droplets was at least 0.9, a result that is consistent with kappa-Kohler theory. Measurements of the total diameter of the rBC-containing particles (rBC core and coating) suggest that the total diameter of rBC-containing particles needed to be at least 165 nm to be incorporated into cloud droplets when the core rBC diameter is >= 85 nm. This result is consistent with previous work that has shown that particle diameter is important for activation of non-rBC particles. The activated fractions of rBC determined from the measurements ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 for core rBC diameters ranging from 70 to 220 nm. This type of data is useful for constraining models used for predicting rBC concentrations in the atmosphere.

  • 10.
    Struthers, Hamish
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Ekman, Annica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Glantz, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Iversen, T.
    Kirkevag, A.
    Seland, O.
    Mårtensson, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nilsson, E. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Climate-induced changes in sea salt aerosol number emissions: 1870 to 21002013In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, ISSN 2169-897X, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 670-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate model output is combined with an emission parameterization to estimate the change in the global and regional sea salt aerosol number emission from 1870 to 2100. Global average results suggest a general increase in sea salt aerosol number emission due to increasing surface wind speed. However, the emission changes are not uniform over the aerosol size spectrum due to an increase in sea surface temperature. From 1870 to 2100 the emission of coarse mode particles (dry diameter D-P > 655 nm) increase by approximately 10 % (global average), whereas no significant change in the emission of ultrafine mode aerosols (dry diameter D-p < 76 nm) was found over the same period. Significant regional differences in the number emission trends were also found. Based on CAM-Oslo global climate model output, no straight-forward relationship was found between the change in the number emissions and changes in the sea salt aerosol burden or optical thickness. This is attributed to a change in the simulated residence time of the sea salt aerosol. For the 21st century, a decrease in the residence time leads to a weaker sea salt aerosol-climate feedback that what would be inferred based on changes in number emissions alone. Finally, quantifying any potential impact on marine stratocumulus cloud microphysical and radiative properties due to changes in sea salt aerosol number emissions is likely to be complicated by commensurate changes in anthropogenic aerosol emissions and changes in meteorology.

  • 11.
    Targino, Admir Créso
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Airborne in situ characterization of dry urban aerosol optical properties around complex topography2006In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 148-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ data from the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study—NARSTO2 were used to describe the aerosol optical properties in an urban area whose aerosol distribution is modified as the aerosols are advected over the surrounding topography. The data consist of measurements made with a nephelometer and absorption photometer onboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Pelican aircraft. The cases investigated in this study include vertical profiles flown over coastal sites as well as sites located along some important mountain ranges in southern California.

    The vertical distribution of the aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin showed a complex configuration, directly related with the local meteorological circulations and the surrounding topography. High spatial and temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations within a relatively small area was found, as indicated by the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data. The results suggest that in areas with such complex terrain, a high spatial resolution is required in order to adequately describe the aerosol optical quantities.

    Principal components analysis (PCA) has been applied to aerosol chemical samples in order to identify the major aerosol types in the Los Angeles Basin. The technique yielded four components that accounted for 78% of the variance in the data set. These were indicative of marine aerosols, urban aerosols, trace elements and secondary aerosol components of traffic emissions and agricultural activities.

    A Monte Carlo radiation transfer model has been employed to simulate the effects that different aerosol vertical profiles have on the attenuation of solar energy. The cases examined were selected using the results of the PCA and in situ data were used to describe the atmospheric optical properties in the model. These investigations comprise a number of sensitivity tests to evaluate the effects on the results of the location of the aerosol layers as well as the vertical resolution of the Monte Carlo model.

  • 12.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Achtert, Peggy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glantz, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds2016In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 12016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks.

  • 13. Zhao, R.
    et al.
    Lee, A. K. Y.
    Wentzell, J. J. B.
    Mcdonald, A. M.
    Toom-Sauntry, D.
    Leaitch, W. R.
    Modini, R. L.
    Corrigan, A. L.
    Russell, L. M.
    Noone, Kevin J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Schroder, J. C.
    Bertram, A. K.
    Hawkins, L. N.
    Abbatt, J. P. D.
    Liggio, J.
    Cloud partitioning of isocyanic acid (HNCO) and evidence of secondary source of HNCO in ambient air2014In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 41, no 19, p. 6962-6969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although isocyanic acid (HNCO) may cause a variety of health issues via protein carbamylation and has been proposed as a key compound in smoke-related health issues, our understanding of the atmospheric sources and fate of this toxic compound is currently incomplete. To address these issues, a field study was conducted at Mount Soledad, La Jolla, CA, to investigate partitioning of HNCO to clouds and fogs using an Acetate Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer coupled to a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor. The first field evidence of cloud partitioning of HNCO is presented, demonstrating that HNCO is dissolved in cloudwater more efficiently than expected based on the effective Henry's law solubility. The measurements also indicate evidence for a secondary, photochemical source of HNCO in ambient air at this site.

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