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  • 1. Hall, Matthew L.
    et al.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Spellun, Arielle
    Failure to Distinguish Among Competing Hypotheses2017In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 140, no 5, article id e20172655CArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Deaf lecturers’ translanguaging in a higher education setting. A multimodal multilingual perspective2018In: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN 1868-6303, E-ISSN 1868-6311, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a few universities around the world courses are offered where the primary language of instruction is a national sign language. Many of these courses are given by bilingual/multilingual deaf lecturers, skilled in both national sign language(s) and spoken/written language(s). Research on such deaf-led practices in higher education are lacking, and this study will contribute to a greater understanding of these practices. Drawing on ethnographically created data from a higher education setting in Sweden, this case study examines the use of different languages and modalities by three deaf lecturers when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students in theoretic subjects. The analysis is based on video-recordings of the deaf lecturers during classroom activities at a basic university level in which Swedish Sign Language (SSL) is used as the primary language. The results illustrate how these deaf lecturers creatively use diverse semiotic resources in several modes when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students, which creates practices of translanguaging. This is illustrated by classroom activities in which the deaf lecturers use different language and modal varieties, including sign languages SSL and ASL as well as Swedish, and English, along with PowerPoint and whiteboard notes. The characteristics of these multimodal-multilingual resources and the usage of them will be closely presented in this article.

  • 3.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Resources for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream schools in Sweden: A survey2017In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However, the functions of these resources and how these relate to deaf students’ learning is currently unknown. Thus, the present study examines public school resources, including the function of a profession called a hörselpedagog (HP, a kind of pedagogue that is responsible for hard-of-hearing students). In particular, the HPs’ perspectives on the functioning and learning of deaf students in public schools were examined. Data were collected via (i) two questionnaires: one quantitative (n = 290) and one qualitative (n = 26), and (ii) in-depth interviews (n = 9). These show that the resources provided to deaf children and their efficacy are highly varied across the country, which holds implications for the language situations and learning of deaf students.

  • 4.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Shifts in attitudes towards ‘sign bilingualism’ due to a demographic change: The case of deaf education in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘sign bilingual’ education was implemented across Sweden for deaf children in 1983, entailing a visually-oriented bilingual modal wherein the languages of instruction were Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and Swedish (in the subsequent national curriculum revision in 1996, this became framed as SSL and written-Swedish). As one of the first countries in the world with such a curriculum, Sweden gained attention internationally. During the subsequent decades, a large majority of deaf children were enrolled in deaf schools with such a ‘sign bilingual’ instruction. However, since the 2000’s, a demographic change has occurred within the deaf community, due to increased rates of early cochlear implantation (CI) of young deaf children. As a consequence, deaf children (with CIs or other hearing aids) are no longer primarily placed in deaf schools; they are commonly placed in mainstream public schools or in schools with special programs for hard-of-hearing students, where Swedish monolingualism and speech instruction are the norm. These increased expectations regarding the children’s hearing and speaking abilities have led to a conviction that they should function according to hearing majority norms of society, rather than align to a minority approach, i.e. visually-oriented bilingualism with SSL and Swedish.

    Through the lens of postcolonial theory, this presentation examines the changing patterns in deaf education in Sweden, and is built on empirical data from i) semi-structured interviews with teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students, and ii) ethnographic created archival data from three NGOs’ periodicals. The focus is on changes in DHH students’ language and communication, and attitudes toward visually-oriented education over time. 

    Among other things, our results reveal that DHH students’ language use and skills have changed from being primarily visually-oriented previously to becoming more orally-oriented during the last decade. The students also vary in their preferred communication forms and knowledge of Swedish and SSL. This has brought new challenges to the different schools and their teachers who are required to teach a highly heterogenous group. In general, this demographic change has challenged the idea of ‘sign bilingualism’ within deaf education in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Vilken kunskap och kompetens finns hos Sveriges kommuner avseende hörselskadade elever i grundskolan?2016In: DHB-dialog, ISSN 0281-3106, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Visuella strategier2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Interaktionen i klassrummet har stor betydelse för elevers lärande och utveckling. Det gäller såväl språk som kunskapsinnehåll i olika ämnen. Ofta framställs talad kommunikation som grundläggande för denna interaktion och ses som en bro mot skriftspråket. Gibbons (2006) menar till exempel att den mesta tiden i skolan används till att tala och att detta tal är av stor betydelse för att eleverna ska kunna bygga upp ett skolrelaterat språk och bygga vidare på tidigare erfarenheter i samspel med lärare och klasskamrater. Genom praktiska uppgifter, övningar eller experiment i undervisningen kan eleverna få en bättre förståelse av ämnesrelaterade begrepp och genom att samtala om dessa stärks eleverna och breddar sina kunskaper både avseende språk och innehåll. Detta ligger sedan till grund då de utvecklar sina kunskaper att läsa och skriva inom olika ämnen. För elever som hör gäller detta såväl när undervisningen sker på elevernas förstaspråk som på deras andraspråk.

  • 7.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Visuellt-orienterat transspråkande i högre utbildning2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A second language learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work on an ongoing learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). The purpose of this learner corpus is to provide a solid database for second language research in SSL, as there is a lack of research regarding how adults learn a signed language as a second language, and the availability of such a corpus for research would ultimately lead to new insights in the field. Work on this SSL learner corpus started in 2013 (Schönström & Mesch, 2014), and it now contains longitudinal data collected from 2013 to 2016. The corpus consists of data from two groups of learners. Data collection for the first group was completed in 2014 and contains 9:06 hours of data from a total of 18 learners. Data collection from the second group is ongoing.

    The longitudinal data collection consisted of interviews as well as picture and video retellings recorded on four occasions over a period of 1.5 years. The learners consisted of students from a sign language interpreter program at university level. The first collection began one month after course onset, and the second one 1.5 years after onset. The aim was to obtain a wider range of data illustrating the learners’ different developmental stages. The recorded material has been annotated and transcribed in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN using current SSL annotation conventions, especially for annotation of glosses as well as a special annotation schema for L2 analysis according to our particular research objectives.

    For those who are learning SSL, we hypothesize that simultaneous and spatial structures in a gestural-visual modality are challenging to learn (cf. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). Earlier we began analyzing the mouth actions of L2 learners (Mesch, Schönström, Riemer-Kankkonen & Wallin, 2016). Data was annotated according to annotation tiers for mouthing categories, such as mouth movements borrowed from Swedish (mouthing without sound), and mouth gestures, as well as L2 tiers. The next step is to analyze a set of complex sign categories (i.e. signs modified according to meaning and space). We are interested in how learners acquire depicting signs as well as other complex sign categories, i.e. modified signs and indicating signs. This overlaps partly with the use of space for meaning and reference, which is a challenge to annotate. In our presentation, we will show our annotation scheme and discuss the challenges of annotating these structures in an L2 context. 

  • 9.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    From Design and Collection to Annotation of a Learner Corpus of Sign Language2018In: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, Paris: European Language Resources Association, 2018, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present part of the project “From Speech to Sign – learning Swedish Sign Language as a second language” which include a learner corpus that is based on data produced by hearing adult L2 signers. The paper describes the design of corpus building and the collection of data for the Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2). Another component of ongoing work is the creation of a specialized annotation scheme for SSLC-L2, one that differs somewhat from the annotation work in Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC), where the data is based on performance by L1 signers. Also, we will account for and discuss the methodology used to annotate L2 structures.

  • 10.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives2014In: Teaching and Learning Signed Languages: International Perspectives and Practices / [ed] David McKee, Russell S. Rosen & Rachel McKee, Basingstoke: Palgrave , 2014, p. 11-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides historical perspective on the teaching and learning of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2).We describe the development of teaching of SSL,and then discuss groups learning SSL as L2: interpreters, hearing parents of deaf children, hearing-impaired (HI) persons, and children with cochlear implants (CI). We provide early results from a pilot study regarding SSL use in the HI and CI group from a L2 perspective. The chapter shows how the context for SSL learning is changing: the number of deaf people acquiring SSL as L1 is decreasing, while the number of people learning SSL as L2 is increasing. We consider implications for the future of SSL and SSL teaching in a changing society.

  • 12.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Gustafson-Capková, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    SWE-CLARIN partner presentation: Natural Language Processing Resources from the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University2014In: The first Swedish national SWE-CLARIN workshop: LT-based e-HSS in Sweden – taking stock and looking ahead / [ed] Lars Borin, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the CLARIN Research Infrastructure and SWE-CLARIN is to facilitate for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access primary data in the form of natural language, and to provide tools for exploring, annotating and analysing these data. This paper gives an overview of the resources and tools developed at the Department of Linguistics at Stockholm University planned to be made available within the SWE-CLARIN project. The paper also outlines our collaborations with neighbouring areas in the humanities and social sciences where these resources and tools will be put to use.

  • 13.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Academic Writing of Deaf Students in Higher Education: Processing and Improving2006In: The Deaf Way II Reader: Perspectives from the Second International Conference on Deaf Culture, 2006, p. 4-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Adaptation of a sign language test into Swedish Sign Language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Adaptation of sign language tests2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Bilingual development in school-aged Deaf children: A processability approach2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk presents results from a study (Schönström, 2010) that concerns the bilingual development of Swedish school-aged deaf children in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and written Swedish. More precisely, the development of Swedish as an L2 in school-aged deaf children is investigated as well as the interdependence between Swedish (L2) and SSL (L1) proficiencies.

     

    The study is cross-sectional and contains data from up to 38 informants. All informants are from a school for the deaf and hearing-impaired (grades 5 and 10). Data is based on 1) retellings in written Swedish, and 2) videotaped free stories in SSL.

     

    For the analysis of the written Swedish data, Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998) was applied as theory and method. As PT has never before been applied to deaf L2 learners, this presents us with the important issue of whether it is possible to apply this theory to deaf L2 learners. For the analysis of the interdependence between Swedish and SSL, narrative skills of SSL texts were compared with the PT skills of Swedish texts.

     

    The results from the Swedish part of the study show that there is an implicational order in the informants’ development of Swedish following the predicted grammatical learning order as described by PT. It therefore suggests that PT is applicable also to deaf L2 learners of Swedish. Regarding the analysis of interdependence between the two languages, among other things, it shows that analyzing SSL skills is not always unproblematic. Despite this, the results show that there is a correlation between the proficiency in SSL and Swedish in the deaf learners, supporting earlier findings in the area (Strong & Prinz, 2000, Chamberlain & Mayberry, 2008). 

  • 17.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Early Bilingual Education for the deaf and hard-of-hearing: The times are a-changing2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Svenskt teckenspråk som andraspråk: ett nytt och aktuellt forskningsområde2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenskt teckenspråk är sedan 1981 erkänt som språk i Sverige och omfattas även sedan 2009 av den svenska språklagen. Man uppskattar att det finns ca 10 000 teckenspråkiga döva och gravt hörselskadade i Sverige. Till det tillkommer cirka 80 000-100 000 hörande teckenspråkiga.

    Riksdagens erkännande av döva som tvåspråkiga 1981 har bidragit till att döva haft tillgång till tvåspråkig undervisning – med teckenspråk som L1 och svenska som L2 – i skolan under 3 decennier. I internationell kontext betraktas den svenska situationen som unik.

    Tack vare teckenspråkets ställning i Sverige lär sig många hörande teckenspråk som andraspråk framförallt det döva barnets familj men också andra hörande som lär språket av yrkesmässiga skäl, t.ex. för att bli teckenspråkstolkar eller lärare. Forskningen om inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk hos hörande är dock i stort sett obefintlig, trots relativt lång undervisningstradition av teckenspråk till hörande.

    Samtidigt växer det upp en ny generation av döva och hörselskadade som får ett cochlea implantat – ett avancerat hörselhjälpmedel som opereras in i hörselsnäckan – vid tidig ålder. Graden av funktionell hörsel och talutvecklingen hos dessa varierar dock. Som en konsekvens av detta antas gruppen med teckenspråk som L1 ha minskat. Istället antas att antalet som tillägnar sig teckenspråk som L2 växa.

    I min presentation kommer jag att redogöra för området och beskriva forskningsbehoven kring teckenspråk som L2 för både den hörande och döva/hörselskadade gruppen. Frågan är intressant utifrån ett språkinlärningsperspektiv, inte minst för att det handlar om två språk med skilda modaliteter.

  • 19.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    The development of written language as an L2 in deaf bimodal-bilingual children2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to, for instance, studies of reading, there are very few studies that have investigated the written production of bimodal-bilingual deaf children. However, we need more empirical studies in how these children learn and develop different written languages, e.g. in order to provide a basis for sign bilingual education of the deaf.

     

    My study concerning bilingual deaf children’s development in a written language – Swedish – will be presented. In the study, the written production of Swedish in deaf children was carried out, using a general L2 theory – Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998). PT is an L2 grammatical developmental theory predicting an L2 learner’s grammar development. PT has been cross-linguistically confirmed for a number of languages including English as L2 and Swedish as L2. PT has, however, previously never been applied to deaf L2 learners of any written language. It gives an opportunity to use a theoretical framework that is cross-linguistically and empirically proven.

     

    Data from 38 bilingual deaf children were analyzed according to PT. Data consisted of elicited written production collected from a sign bilingual school for the deaf. The deaf learners’ interlanguage outcomes were analyzed on morphological and syntactical level, including use of inflections, word order etc. The individual results were summarized in stages following PT’s five developmental stages.

     

    The results suggest that the children follow a development routine similar to hearing L2 learners of Swedish. The PT stages, in which certain grammar structures are defined for every stage, were acquired in a matter similar to hearing L2 learners of Swedish. I will present the results and explain the findings. By the end, I will discuss how the method and results provide cross-linguistic comparisons and discuss the implications from this study for e.g. sign bilingual education of the deaf. 

  • 20.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tvåspråkighet hos döva skolelever: Processbarhet i svenska och narrativ struktur i svenska och svenskt teckenspråk2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the language proficiency of school-aged deaf pupils from a bilingual perspective. The first aim of the study is to investigate the Swedish L2 skills of the pupils. This includes testing the validity of the Processability Theory on deaf learners of Swedish as an L2. The second aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between proficiency in Swedish and Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as suggested in earlier research on deaf bilingualism.

    This study is cross-sectional and contains data from 38 pupils (grades 5 and 10) from a school for deaf and hearing-impaired pupils in Sweden. The data consists of retellings of a cartoon in written Swedish and of free stories in SSL. For the first part of the study, the Swedish data has been analyzed according to Processability Theory (PT).  For the second part of the study, narrative structure in both the Swedish and SSL data has been analyzed. As a theoretical framework, Labov’s narrative model is applied.

    The results show that there is an implicational order in the informants’ development of Swedish following the predicted grammatical learning order described by PT. The results therefore suggest that PT is a valid theory also for deaf learners of L2 Swedish.

    The conclusions regarding SSL proficiency suggest that more research about sign language as such is needed to get a deeper understanding of SSL proficiency. The results show that one narrative component of Labov’s model - Evaluation - is an important component in SSL proficiency.

    The results from the comparative analysis show that there is a positive statistical correlation between some Swedish and SSL variables used in this study, suggesting that skills in Swedish correlate with skills in SSL. This means that a well-developed sign language is important for the deaf to learn any written language as a second language.

  • 21.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Visual acquisition of Swedish in deaf children: An L2 processability approach2014In: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 61-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Swedish L2 development of deaf children by testing the validity of Processability Theory on deaf learners of Swedish as an L2. The study is cross-sectional and includes written data from 38 pupils (grades 5 and 10) from a school for deaf and hearing-impaired pupils in Sweden. The primary language used by the pupils is Swedish Sign Language with Swedish being considered their L2. The Swedish data have been analyzed through the lens of Processability Theory (PT). The results show that the grammatical development of deaf learners is similar to hearing learners of Swedish as an L2. The results therefore suggest that PT is applicable even for deaf learners of L2 Swedish.

  • 22.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dye, Matthew
    Leeson, Lorraine
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Building up L2 Corpora in Different Signed Languages: SSL, ISL and ASL2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Att arbeta tvåspråkigt med texter i alla ämnen2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av grundskoleutbildningensfrämsta mål är att alla elever ska utveckla sin läs-och skrivförmåga i svenska i enlighet med läroplanen. För teckenspråkigaelever som är döva eller hörselskadadekan detta innebära en utmaning, särskilt för de som företrädesvis tillägnar sig svenska i skriven form. Det finns en avsevärd mängd forskning kring elevers läs-och skrivutveckling som lärare kan hämta kunskaper från, men den utgår främst från att elevernahar en fullgod hörsel. Det kan därför vara svårt att hitta tillvägagångssätt och metoder som främjar just döva och hörselskadade elevers möten med texter inom alla ämnen. Syftet med den här artikeln är därför att lyfta fram hur man i undervisningen kan arbeta tvåspråkigt med bådesvensktteckenspråk och svenska för att främja elevernas språkutveckling.Artikeln tar avstamp i genrebaserad språkundervisningoch visar exempel på hur läraren kan arbeta med olika slags texter inom olika ämnen för att stötta elevernas språk-och kunskapsutveckling i både teckenspråkoch svenska, detvill säga deras litteracitetsutveckling. Med litteracitetmenas läs-och skrivlärande, vilket isynnerhetär kopplat till skolspråket (se del 1). Även om detta i första hand avsersvenska så kan också teckenspråkräknas in i litteracitetsutvecklingentrots att detta språksaknar ettskriftspråk. Eleverna behöver gesmöjlighet att utveckla både sin svenskaoch sitt teckenspråk, särskilt med tankepå att gruppen elever som har teckenspråk som förstaspråk har minskat och många elever idag istället har språketsom sitt andraspråk. Sådan utveckling kan ske genom att man arbetar med olika typer av texter inom olika ämnen.Genom att samtala omolika ämnestexter på både teckenspråk och svenska kan eleverna utveckla både sina ämneskunskaper och sin litteracitet. Tack varedet gemensamma samtalet på teckenspråk i nära anslutning till elevernas läsande och skrivande kan deta viktiga steg i sin utveckling mot att bli tvåspråkiga individer.

  • 24.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dövas svenska - ett tvåspråkigt perspektiv2015In: LiSetten, ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Elicited imitation tasks (EITs) as a tool for measuring sign language proficiency in L1 and L2 signers2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 6-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous literature, elicited imitation tasks (EITs) have been discussed with regard to the effect that memory skills have on performing tasks. More recent studies have shown, however, that EITs are a reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for L1 users and L2 learners (Klem et al., 2015; Gaillard & Tremblay, 2016). There have also been recommendations for minimizing the negative impacts of poor memory skills, for example, by shortening sentence structures.

    In contrast to spoken languages, which are merely linear in structure, sign languages operate in the gestural-visual mode, which relies on a visual pattern that allows for a degree of simultaneity in production. For instance, when signing a single lexical sign, the shape, movement and location of the hand combine to express phonological properties at the same time. Additionally, there are more complex signs with internal morphological structures that involve multiple handshapes, movements and locations. Such features need to be taken into account when valid and reliable EITs are developed for signed languages, and in recent years, there have been a growing number of sign language tests developed within the framework of EITs, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al., 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström, 2014).

    In this talk, we will discuss sentence structure as well as the scoring method of the tests we have developed on two EITs for Swedish Sign Language: SSL-SRT, which is targeted for L1 signers, and SignRepL2, targeted for L2 signers. We found that for the L2 group, complex (single) signs can be used as test items, and there are qualitative differences related to the linguistic properties of signs. We will also describe different scoring paradigms for the respective tests. Our results will be presented and discussed in relation to the EIT theoretical framework.

  • 26.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Kontrastivt arbetssätt med texter på teckenspråk och svenska2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I specialskolans kursplan i svenska för döva och hörselskadade står det att eleverna, förutom att utveckla kunskaper om det svenska språket och dess språkbruk, ska ges möjligheter att...

    utveckla kunskaper för att kunna göra jämförelser mellan svenskan och teckenspråket och urskilja likheter och olikheter mellan språken. På så sätt ska undervisningen bidra till att stärka elevernas medvetenhet om, och tilltro till, den egna språkliga och kommunikativa förmågan.(Lspec 11)

    Även kursplanen i teckenspråk för döva och hörselskadade innehåller en liknande formulering. Genom jämförelser mellan språken ska elevernas tvåspråkighet stärkas. Denna fördjupningsartikel syftar till att belysa det här kontrastiva arbetssättet och ger exempel på hur det kan användas i klassrummet när eleverna möter skolans textvärld.

  • 27.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gesture, signs and L2/M2 acquisition corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of L2/M2 acquisition in signed languages is contributing toour understanding of human languages in various ways. What are the challenges oflearning a new language that is manifested in a different modality? Is there anymodality-specific component, as well as language-specific component, that is harder toacquire than others? And how does this relate to questions concerning the acquisition ofsigned modalities in light of gesture-language discussions (Kendon, 2014)? For example,it has been shown in earlier research that a gesture “strategy” can be advantageous aswell as disadvantageous for the L2 learners of any signed language (Ortega & Morgan,2015). In light of this, our paper will present some preliminary notes from the analysis of an L2learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language that consists of longitudinal data (1.5 years) from hearing adult students learning SSL in an SSL interpreting program at theuniversity level. The learner corpus in SSL, which was started in 2013, so far contains approximately 14 hours of data from a total of 26 learners and is still expanding. We also collected data from a control group consisting of three L1 learners. Additionally, part of the corpus has been annotated with tiers for sign glosses and an L2 relatedanalysis. We conducted a qualitative analysis that included a performance analysis on the sign vocabulary on annotated data in the SSL as L2 corpus and compared the outcomes with the L1 control group. In our analysis, we adopted an applied view, dividing up thevocabulary into the three main sign types proposed by (Hodge & Johnston, 2014): 1) lexical signs; 2) partly lexical signs; and 3) non-lexical signs. In our study, we are specifically interested in how L2 learners acquire “partly lexical signs”, i.e. pointing signs (pronouns, indexing signs) and depicting signs (classifier constructions, polycomponential signs). We hypothesized that learning a language in a modality thatallows for a high degree of iconically motivated vocabulary makes it possible forlearners to, in fact, imitate the tasks or events from a stimulus in an elicited narrative task. But what are the error types, and how should the differences between depicting signs by L1 and L2 signers be described? Is there a gesture strategy used here, and is it linked to a typical L2/M2 strategy? Our results showed qualitative differences between L2 and L1 learners regarding theuse of depicting signs. In the L2 group, depicting signs describing size and shape were used less frequently than in the L1 group, while the L2 group varied more in depicting signs representing handle (agentive) classifiers. Furthermore, the learners also relied onother strategies, e.g. fingerspellings and mouthings. The results will be discussed froman acquisition view as well in light of the gesture-language discussion.

  • 28.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Use of nonmanuals by adult L2 signers in Swedish Sign Language – Annotating the nonmanuals2014In: Beyond the Manual Channel: Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch, 2014, p. 153-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonmanuals serve as important grammatical markers for different syntactic constructions, e.g. marking clause types. To account for the acquisition of syntax by L2 SSL learners, therefore, we need to have the ability to annotate and analyze nonmanual signals. Despite their significance, however, these signals have yet to be the topic of research in the area of SSL as an L2. In this paper, we will provide suggestions for annotating the nonmanuals in L2 SSL learners. Data is based on a new SSL as L2 corpus from our ongoing project entitled "L2 Corpus in Swedish Sign Language." In this paper, the combination of our work in grammatical analysis and in the creation of annotating standards for L2 nonmanuals, as well as preliminary results from the project, will be presented.

  • 29.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Assessment of signing skills in school-aged deaf students in Sweden2003In: EDDE: European Days of Deaf Education, 2003, p. 88-95Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 29 of 29
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