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  • 1.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Johansson, Victoria
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Spelling in Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing Children With Sign Language Knowledge2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do spelling errors look like in children with sign language knowledge but with variation in hearing background, and what strategies do these children rely on when they learn how to spell in written language? Earlier research suggests that the spelling of children with hearing loss is different, because of their lack of hearing, which requires them to rely on other strategies. In this study, we examine whether, and how, different variables such as hearing degree, sign language knowledge and bilingualism may affect the spelling strategies of children with Swedish sign language, Svenskt teckenspråk, (STS) knowledge, and whether these variables can be mirrored in these children’s spelling. The spelling process of nineteen children with STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9) with different hearing degrees, born into deaf families, is described and compared with a group of fourteen hearing children without STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9). Keystroke logging was used to investigate the participants’ writing process. The spelling behavior of the children was further analyzed and categorized into different spelling error categories. The results indicate that many children showed exceptionally few spelling errors compared to earlier studies, that may derive from their early exposure of STS, enabling them to use the fingerspelling strategy. All of the children also demonstrated similar typing skills. The deaf children showed a tendency to rely on a visual strategy during spelling, which may result in incorrect, but visually similar, words, i.e., a type of spelling errors not found in texts by hearing children with STS knowledge. The deaf children also showed direct transfer from STS in their spelling. It was found that hard-of-hearing children together with hearing children of deaf adults (CODAs), both with STS knowledge, used a sounding strategy, rather than a visual strategy. Overall, this study suggests that the ability to hear and to use sign language, together and respectively, play a significant role for the spelling patterns and spelling strategies used by the children with and without hearing loss.

  • 2. Hall, Matthew L.
    et al.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Spellun, Arielle
    Failure to Distinguish Among Competing Hypotheses2017In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 140, no 5, article id e20172655CArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Teckenspråksforskningen under 2000-talet: En översikt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många olika inriktningar inom teckenspråksforskningen idag och en avsevärd mängd studier utifrån olika perspektiv och på olika språkliga nivåer. I den här forskningsrapporten görs en översikt över svensk och internationell teckenspråksforskning under 2000-talet, med särskilt fokus på allmänspråkvetenskap. Rapporten berör dock även kognitiv lingvistik, psyko- och neurolingvistik samt sociolingvistik. Dessutom fokuseras i ett varsitt avsnitt barns teckenspråk och inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk. Det som tas upp är ett urval av den forskning som bedrivits och rapporten gör inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande, men ger utöver de översiktliga beskrivningarna också ett stort antal referenser för fortsatt egen läsning inom de olika områden som tas upp.

  • 4.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A note on phonological acquisition of novice/L2 signers through a sign repetition task2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has two aims. First, it presents the development of a sign repetition test for novice/L2 signers. The test was originally developed and used within the project Teaching Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language to interpreter students (UTL2) at Stockholm University, Sweden (Holmström 2018). Second, it provides a description of the signers’ phonological acquisition from a longitudinal perspective through a qualitative examination of the test outcomes.

    Studies on phonological acquisition of L2 signers confirm that phonology is a challenge to acquire among L2 signers (Bochner et al. 2011; Rosen 2004;). With this as a point of departure, in the project UTL2 we developed a sign repetition test, SignRepL2, targeted at L2 signers, with a focus on sign structure, i.e., phonological features of signs. Several recent studies have shown that repetition tests are an efficient and reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for both L1 users and L2 learners (Gaillard & Tremblay 2016; Klem et al. 2015). And sign languages seem to provide no exception, as in recent years there has been a growing number of sign language repetition tests, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al. 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström 2014).

    The procedure in the SignRepL2 test is that the test-taker is instructed to repeat the sign or the short sentences provided in the stimuli as exactly as possible during video recording. In version one, 50 test items were used: 30 single-sign sentences, 10 two-sign sentences and 10 three-sign sentences. However, while the test worked well for the novice signers, a ceiling effect could be observed after one semester. As a consequence, version two of the SignRepL2 was developed by reducing the single-sign sentences from 30 to 10 and by adding 10 new four-sign sentences, now totaling 40 test items.

    The scoring of results follows a five-point rating scale as inspired by Ortega (Ortega cited in Gaillard & Trembly 2016). Here, scores from 0 to 4 are used, depending on the degree of correctness of the test responses. If the whole sign or sentence is correctly produced, 4 points are given. If the manual signing is correct but with missing or wrong mouth action, 3 points are given. If at least half of the sign or sentence is correct, 2 points are given, and a correct rate less than half results in 1 point. If the whole sentence is missing or totally wrong, 0 points are given.

    To date, the SignRepL2 has been tested on 37 SSL L2 students using a longitudinal approach. The students are tested five times under a period of two years during their SSL interpreting education. The first time was before their first ever SSL instruction, the second session took place after approximately 100 hours of instruction, the third after 200 hours, the fourth after 400 hours, and the fifth after 600 hours. The first three times, the primary version of SignRepL2 was used, and in the last two instances, the second version was used. The whole test procedure takes 10-12 minutes to administer and 30 minutes to score.

    In this paper, we will present the test development including the item selection process, scoring and the test results, as well as provide a qualitative examination of the phonological features. In the first test session, it appears that the students primarily try to imitate the actor’s manual signs without understanding the meaning of them, and thereby also exclude the mouth movements. In the later test sessions, there is a gradual change from solely an imitation of form to an imitation of the signs connected to their meaning, revealed, e.g., through the increased use of mouth movements and through the errors made when they replace signs that the actor uses with synonyms that they themselves have mastered. The tests also provide opportunities for a deep analysis of phonological features in the students’ imitation of the signs, and different phonological errors can be revealed at the group level. For example, the primary results indicate that it is the type of movement that the students most often fail to produce correctly. The results from the five test sessions will be compared to each other and detected differences between them will be discussed.

    References

    Bochner, J. H., Christie, K., Hauser, P. C., & Searls, J. M. (2011). When is a difference really different? Learners’ discrimination of linguistic contrasts in American Sign Language. Language Learning, 61(4), 1302–1327. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00671.x

    Gaillard, S., & Tremblay, A. (2016). Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task. Language Learning, 1-29. http://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12157

    Hauser, P. C., Paludnevičiene, R., Supalla, T., & Bavelier, D. (2008). American Sign LanguageSentence Reproduction Test: Development and implications. In R. M. de Quadros (ed.), Sign Language: Spinning and unraveling the past, present and future (pp. 160-172). Petropolis, Brazil: Editora Arara Azul.

    Holmström, I. (2018). Teaching Swedish Sign Language as second language to interpreter students. Proceedings from the Nordic Seminar, Umeå, Sweden, 23-25 February 2018.

    Klem, M., Melby-Lervåg, M., G, M., Hagtvet, B., Lyster, S. A. H., Gustafsson, J. E., & Hulme, C. (2015). Sentence repetition is a measure of children’s language skills rather than working memory limitations. Developmental Science, 18(1), 146–154. http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12202

    Rosen, R. S. (2004). Beginning L2 production errors in ASL lexical phonology: A cognitive phonology model. Sign Language & Linguistics, 7(1), 31–61. http://doi.org/10.1075/sll.7.1.04beg

    Schönström, K. (2014). Swedish Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (SSL-SRT). Unpublished test, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics.

  • 5.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Deaf lecturers’ translanguaging in a higher education setting. A multimodal multilingual perspective2018In: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN 1868-6303, E-ISSN 1868-6311, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a few universities around the world courses are offered where the primary language of instruction is a national sign language. Many of these courses are given by bilingual/multilingual deaf lecturers, skilled in both national sign language(s) and spoken/written language(s). Research on such deaf-led practices in higher education are lacking, and this study will contribute to a greater understanding of these practices. Drawing on ethnographically created data from a higher education setting in Sweden, this case study examines the use of different languages and modalities by three deaf lecturers when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students in theoretic subjects. The analysis is based on video-recordings of the deaf lecturers during classroom activities at a basic university level in which Swedish Sign Language (SSL) is used as the primary language. The results illustrate how these deaf lecturers creatively use diverse semiotic resources in several modes when teaching deaf and hearing (signing) students, which creates practices of translanguaging. This is illustrated by classroom activities in which the deaf lecturers use different language and modal varieties, including sign languages SSL and ASL as well as Swedish, and English, along with PowerPoint and whiteboard notes. The characteristics of these multimodal-multilingual resources and the usage of them will be closely presented in this article.

  • 6.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Resources for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream schools in Sweden: A survey2017In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However, the functions of these resources and how these relate to deaf students’ learning is currently unknown. Thus, the present study examines public school resources, including the function of a profession called a hörselpedagog (HP, a kind of pedagogue that is responsible for hard-of-hearing students). In particular, the HPs’ perspectives on the functioning and learning of deaf students in public schools were examined. Data were collected via (i) two questionnaires: one quantitative (n = 290) and one qualitative (n = 26), and (ii) in-depth interviews (n = 9). These show that the resources provided to deaf children and their efficacy are highly varied across the country, which holds implications for the language situations and learning of deaf students.

  • 7.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Shifts in attitudes towards ‘sign bilingualism’ due to a demographic change: The case of deaf education in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘sign bilingual’ education was implemented across Sweden for deaf children in 1983, entailing a visually-oriented bilingual modal wherein the languages of instruction were Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and Swedish (in the subsequent national curriculum revision in 1996, this became framed as SSL and written-Swedish). As one of the first countries in the world with such a curriculum, Sweden gained attention internationally. During the subsequent decades, a large majority of deaf children were enrolled in deaf schools with such a ‘sign bilingual’ instruction. However, since the 2000’s, a demographic change has occurred within the deaf community, due to increased rates of early cochlear implantation (CI) of young deaf children. As a consequence, deaf children (with CIs or other hearing aids) are no longer primarily placed in deaf schools; they are commonly placed in mainstream public schools or in schools with special programs for hard-of-hearing students, where Swedish monolingualism and speech instruction are the norm. These increased expectations regarding the children’s hearing and speaking abilities have led to a conviction that they should function according to hearing majority norms of society, rather than align to a minority approach, i.e. visually-oriented bilingualism with SSL and Swedish.

    Through the lens of postcolonial theory, this presentation examines the changing patterns in deaf education in Sweden, and is built on empirical data from i) semi-structured interviews with teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students, and ii) ethnographic created archival data from three NGOs’ periodicals. The focus is on changes in DHH students’ language and communication, and attitudes toward visually-oriented education over time. 

    Among other things, our results reveal that DHH students’ language use and skills have changed from being primarily visually-oriented previously to becoming more orally-oriented during the last decade. The students also vary in their preferred communication forms and knowledge of Swedish and SSL. This has brought new challenges to the different schools and their teachers who are required to teach a highly heterogenous group. In general, this demographic change has challenged the idea of ‘sign bilingualism’ within deaf education in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Sign languages2020In: The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education / [ed] Sara Laviosa and Maria González-Davies, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 341-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, focus lie in translation as a language teaching practice in sign bilingual settings in deaf education. Due to limited or no access to sounds, many deaf pupils learn and use spoken languages primarily in their written form. Thus, in this translation practice, deaf pupils are translating between a written language and a sign language. The chapter focuses on translation practices in language teaching contexts and consider both experiences of using sign language translation as an approach in deaf education, sign language studies and translation studies, as well as (second) language teaching. Some concrete pedagogical examples of the application of translation as a pedagogical approach in sign language-based education at different levels, e.g. syllabus, classroom practice and assessment are provided. The chapter begins with an historical account of research on sign languages, sign language translation, and gives a brief account on the history of deaf education. A summary of key research approaches related to sign bilingual teaching with particular focus on translation as a method are also provided. Furthermore, some practical approaches and methods are presented with concrete examples from a sign bilingual classroom. The chapter ends with a conclusion and discussion about future directions.

  • 9.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Vilken kunskap och kompetens finns hos Sveriges kommuner avseende hörselskadade elever i grundskolan?2016In: DHB-dialog, ISSN 0281-3106, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Visuella strategier2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Interaktionen i klassrummet har stor betydelse för elevers lärande och utveckling. Det gäller såväl språk som kunskapsinnehåll i olika ämnen. Ofta framställs talad kommunikation som grundläggande för denna interaktion och ses som en bro mot skriftspråket. Gibbons (2006) menar till exempel att den mesta tiden i skolan används till att tala och att detta tal är av stor betydelse för att eleverna ska kunna bygga upp ett skolrelaterat språk och bygga vidare på tidigare erfarenheter i samspel med lärare och klasskamrater. Genom praktiska uppgifter, övningar eller experiment i undervisningen kan eleverna få en bättre förståelse av ämnesrelaterade begrepp och genom att samtala om dessa stärks eleverna och breddar sina kunskaper både avseende språk och innehåll. Detta ligger sedan till grund då de utvecklar sina kunskaper att läsa och skriva inom olika ämnen. För elever som hör gäller detta såväl när undervisningen sker på elevernas förstaspråk som på deras andraspråk.

  • 11.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Visuellt-orienterat transspråkande i högre utbildning2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A second language learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work on an ongoing learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). The purpose of this learner corpus is to provide a solid database for second language research in SSL, as there is a lack of research regarding how adults learn a signed language as a second language, and the availability of such a corpus for research would ultimately lead to new insights in the field. Work on this SSL learner corpus started in 2013 (Schönström & Mesch, 2014), and it now contains longitudinal data collected from 2013 to 2016. The corpus consists of data from two groups of learners. Data collection for the first group was completed in 2014 and contains 9:06 hours of data from a total of 18 learners. Data collection from the second group is ongoing.

    The longitudinal data collection consisted of interviews as well as picture and video retellings recorded on four occasions over a period of 1.5 years. The learners consisted of students from a sign language interpreter program at university level. The first collection began one month after course onset, and the second one 1.5 years after onset. The aim was to obtain a wider range of data illustrating the learners’ different developmental stages. The recorded material has been annotated and transcribed in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN using current SSL annotation conventions, especially for annotation of glosses as well as a special annotation schema for L2 analysis according to our particular research objectives.

    For those who are learning SSL, we hypothesize that simultaneous and spatial structures in a gestural-visual modality are challenging to learn (cf. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). Earlier we began analyzing the mouth actions of L2 learners (Mesch, Schönström, Riemer-Kankkonen & Wallin, 2016). Data was annotated according to annotation tiers for mouthing categories, such as mouth movements borrowed from Swedish (mouthing without sound), and mouth gestures, as well as L2 tiers. The next step is to analyze a set of complex sign categories (i.e. signs modified according to meaning and space). We are interested in how learners acquire depicting signs as well as other complex sign categories, i.e. modified signs and indicating signs. This overlaps partly with the use of space for meaning and reference, which is a challenge to annotate. In our presentation, we will show our annotation scheme and discuss the challenges of annotating these structures in an L2 context. 

  • 13.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    From Design and Collection to Annotation of a Learner Corpus of Sign Language2018In: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, European Language Resources Association, 2018, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present part of the project “From Speech to Sign – learning Swedish Sign Language as a second language” which include a learner corpus that is based on data produced by hearing adult L2 signers. The paper describes the design of corpus building and the collection of data for the Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2). Another component of ongoing work is the creation of a specialized annotation scheme for SSLC-L2, one that differs somewhat from the annotation work in Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC), where the data is based on performance by L1 signers. Also, we will account for and discuss the methodology used to annotate L2 structures.

  • 14.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Use of non-manual mouth actions in L1 and L2 signers based on data from two different SL corpora (SSLC and SSLC-L2)2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on non-manual mouth actions performed by deaf signers and adult second language (L2) learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The discussion of the linguistic status of mouth actions in the literature motivates our work and study. Based data from SSLC (Swedish Sign Language Corpus) (Mesch & Wallin 2015) and SSLC-L2 (L2 learner corpus in SSL) (Mesch & Schönström 2018), we compare the use of mouth actions in L1 as well as L2learners. The presentation will also describe the annotation work of non-manual mouth actions. The annotation and analysis depart from Crasborn et al.’s (2008) categories of mouth actions that have been applied to several sign languages. Distribution, frequency and spreading patterns of use of mouth actions are observed and described. The results reveal some similarities as well as differences in use of mouth actions between the groups. Furthermore, the analysis reveals qualitative differences related to the interaction and synchronization of mouth actions and hand movements among L2 learners of SSL. Challenges of annotating mouth actions will also be discussed. 

  • 15.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Use of ENTITY, HANDLE and DESCRIPTOR in L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language2018In: Sign CAFÉ 1: The first international workshop on cognitive and functional explorations in sign language linguistics, 2018, p. 27-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our paper, we describe the acquisition of classifier constructions of L2 learners of SSL. Previous studies show that learning a sign language, contributes a high degree of iconically motivated lexicon and enable L2 learners to gesturally imitate the tasks or events from stimulus in an elicited narrative task. However, despite of this “gestural advantage”, L2 learners have been reported to differ in the phonological structure of iconically motivated lexical signs (e.g. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). In addition, regarding the L2 acquisition of the classifier constructions, it has been shown that the location seems to be acquired before the handshape parameter (e.g. Marshall & Morgan, 2015). However, research on this area is limited, especially on authentic data, i.e. corpus-based studies on L2 acquisition. In our study, the use of classifier constructions by L2 learners at different developmental stages using SSL was investigated. The corpus consists of a set of longitudinal data of adult L2-learners’ signed production. In total, the corpus consists of 20:38 hours of data from 38 learners, along with a control cohort consisting of 9 L1 signers ( 01:22 hours). For this study, a sampled annotated data, consists of 05:55 hours of a video retelling of a movie clip “The plank” from 23 learners, at two phases i.e. six months after course onset (N=14), and 1.5 years after onset (N=9), was analyzed. Comparisons to an L1 cohort (9 fluent signers) was made. Specifically, three broad types of classifier constructions were analyzed: ENTITY (entity handshapes), HANDLE (handle handshapes), and DESCRIPTOR (size and shape descriptive handshapes) (c.f. Schembri, 2003). A total of 779 tokens were identified and analyzed. The results show that the L2 learners tend to differ in the use in comparison with the L1 signers. First, L1 signers use classifier constructions to a greater extent (Table 1). Second, there were some qualitative differences with the regard of use. For example, in respect of HANDLE, simultaneous use of two separate handshape units were more common in L1 signers. Concerning ENTITY, the handshapes were more identically used across the groups, apart fromthe handshape unit representing ‘human being’. The third type: DESCRIPTOR, was more identically used within the L1 group, whereas the use of handshapes and movements varied in the L2 group. The study assumes that this finding can be explained by the way L2 learners imitate task events in comparison to L1 signers. Implications for the acquisition of classifier constructions in terms of conventionalism and L2 acquisition will be discussed.

  • 16.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives2014In: Teaching and Learning Signed Languages: International Perspectives and Practices / [ed] David McKee, Russell S. Rosen & Rachel McKee, Basingstoke: Palgrave , 2014, p. 11-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides historical perspective on the teaching and learning of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2).We describe the development of teaching of SSL,and then discuss groups learning SSL as L2: interpreters, hearing parents of deaf children, hearing-impaired (HI) persons, and children with cochlear implants (CI). We provide early results from a pilot study regarding SSL use in the HI and CI group from a L2 perspective. The chapter shows how the context for SSL learning is changing: the number of deaf people acquiring SSL as L1 is decreasing, while the number of people learning SSL as L2 is increasing. We consider implications for the future of SSL and SSL teaching in a changing society.

  • 18.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Gustafson-Capková, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    SWE-CLARIN partner presentation: Natural Language Processing Resources from the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University2014In: The first Swedish national SWE-CLARIN workshop: LT-based e-HSS in Sweden – taking stock and looking ahead / [ed] Lars Borin, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the CLARIN Research Infrastructure and SWE-CLARIN is to facilitate for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access primary data in the form of natural language, and to provide tools for exploring, annotating and analysing these data. This paper gives an overview of the resources and tools developed at the Department of Linguistics at Stockholm University planned to be made available within the SWE-CLARIN project. The paper also outlines our collaborations with neighbouring areas in the humanities and social sciences where these resources and tools will be put to use.

  • 19.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Academic Writing of Deaf Students in Higher Education: Processing and Improving2006In: The Deaf Way II Reader: Perspectives from the Second International Conference on Deaf Culture, 2006, p. 4-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Adaptation of a sign language test into Swedish Sign Language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Adaptation of sign language tests2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Bilingual development in school-aged Deaf children: A processability approach2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk presents results from a study (Schönström, 2010) that concerns the bilingual development of Swedish school-aged deaf children in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and written Swedish. More precisely, the development of Swedish as an L2 in school-aged deaf children is investigated as well as the interdependence between Swedish (L2) and SSL (L1) proficiencies.

     

    The study is cross-sectional and contains data from up to 38 informants. All informants are from a school for the deaf and hearing-impaired (grades 5 and 10). Data is based on 1) retellings in written Swedish, and 2) videotaped free stories in SSL.

     

    For the analysis of the written Swedish data, Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998) was applied as theory and method. As PT has never before been applied to deaf L2 learners, this presents us with the important issue of whether it is possible to apply this theory to deaf L2 learners. For the analysis of the interdependence between Swedish and SSL, narrative skills of SSL texts were compared with the PT skills of Swedish texts.

     

    The results from the Swedish part of the study show that there is an implicational order in the informants’ development of Swedish following the predicted grammatical learning order as described by PT. It therefore suggests that PT is applicable also to deaf L2 learners of Swedish. Regarding the analysis of interdependence between the two languages, among other things, it shows that analyzing SSL skills is not always unproblematic. Despite this, the results show that there is a correlation between the proficiency in SSL and Swedish in the deaf learners, supporting earlier findings in the area (Strong & Prinz, 2000, Chamberlain & Mayberry, 2008). 

  • 23.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Early Bilingual Education for the deaf and hard-of-hearing: The times are a-changing2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Svenskt teckenspråk som andraspråk: ett nytt och aktuellt forskningsområde2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenskt teckenspråk är sedan 1981 erkänt som språk i Sverige och omfattas även sedan 2009 av den svenska språklagen. Man uppskattar att det finns ca 10 000 teckenspråkiga döva och gravt hörselskadade i Sverige. Till det tillkommer cirka 80 000-100 000 hörande teckenspråkiga.

    Riksdagens erkännande av döva som tvåspråkiga 1981 har bidragit till att döva haft tillgång till tvåspråkig undervisning – med teckenspråk som L1 och svenska som L2 – i skolan under 3 decennier. I internationell kontext betraktas den svenska situationen som unik.

    Tack vare teckenspråkets ställning i Sverige lär sig många hörande teckenspråk som andraspråk framförallt det döva barnets familj men också andra hörande som lär språket av yrkesmässiga skäl, t.ex. för att bli teckenspråkstolkar eller lärare. Forskningen om inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk hos hörande är dock i stort sett obefintlig, trots relativt lång undervisningstradition av teckenspråk till hörande.

    Samtidigt växer det upp en ny generation av döva och hörselskadade som får ett cochlea implantat – ett avancerat hörselhjälpmedel som opereras in i hörselsnäckan – vid tidig ålder. Graden av funktionell hörsel och talutvecklingen hos dessa varierar dock. Som en konsekvens av detta antas gruppen med teckenspråk som L1 ha minskat. Istället antas att antalet som tillägnar sig teckenspråk som L2 växa.

    I min presentation kommer jag att redogöra för området och beskriva forskningsbehoven kring teckenspråk som L2 för både den hörande och döva/hörselskadade gruppen. Frågan är intressant utifrån ett språkinlärningsperspektiv, inte minst för att det handlar om två språk med skilda modaliteter.

  • 25.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    The development of written language as an L2 in deaf bimodal-bilingual children2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to, for instance, studies of reading, there are very few studies that have investigated the written production of bimodal-bilingual deaf children. However, we need more empirical studies in how these children learn and develop different written languages, e.g. in order to provide a basis for sign bilingual education of the deaf.

     

    My study concerning bilingual deaf children’s development in a written language – Swedish – will be presented. In the study, the written production of Swedish in deaf children was carried out, using a general L2 theory – Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998). PT is an L2 grammatical developmental theory predicting an L2 learner’s grammar development. PT has been cross-linguistically confirmed for a number of languages including English as L2 and Swedish as L2. PT has, however, previously never been applied to deaf L2 learners of any written language. It gives an opportunity to use a theoretical framework that is cross-linguistically and empirically proven.

     

    Data from 38 bilingual deaf children were analyzed according to PT. Data consisted of elicited written production collected from a sign bilingual school for the deaf. The deaf learners’ interlanguage outcomes were analyzed on morphological and syntactical level, including use of inflections, word order etc. The individual results were summarized in stages following PT’s five developmental stages.

     

    The results suggest that the children follow a development routine similar to hearing L2 learners of Swedish. The PT stages, in which certain grammar structures are defined for every stage, were acquired in a matter similar to hearing L2 learners of Swedish. I will present the results and explain the findings. By the end, I will discuss how the method and results provide cross-linguistic comparisons and discuss the implications from this study for e.g. sign bilingual education of the deaf. 

  • 26.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tvåspråkighet hos döva skolelever: Processbarhet i svenska och narrativ struktur i svenska och svenskt teckenspråk2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the language proficiency of school-aged deaf pupils from a bilingual perspective. The first aim of the study is to investigate the Swedish L2 skills of the pupils. This includes testing the validity of the Processability Theory on deaf learners of Swedish as an L2. The second aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between proficiency in Swedish and Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as suggested in earlier research on deaf bilingualism.

    This study is cross-sectional and contains data from 38 pupils (grades 5 and 10) from a school for deaf and hearing-impaired pupils in Sweden. The data consists of retellings of a cartoon in written Swedish and of free stories in SSL. For the first part of the study, the Swedish data has been analyzed according to Processability Theory (PT).  For the second part of the study, narrative structure in both the Swedish and SSL data has been analyzed. As a theoretical framework, Labov’s narrative model is applied.

    The results show that there is an implicational order in the informants’ development of Swedish following the predicted grammatical learning order described by PT. The results therefore suggest that PT is a valid theory also for deaf learners of L2 Swedish.

    The conclusions regarding SSL proficiency suggest that more research about sign language as such is needed to get a deeper understanding of SSL proficiency. The results show that one narrative component of Labov’s model - Evaluation - is an important component in SSL proficiency.

    The results from the comparative analysis show that there is a positive statistical correlation between some Swedish and SSL variables used in this study, suggesting that skills in Swedish correlate with skills in SSL. This means that a well-developed sign language is important for the deaf to learn any written language as a second language.

  • 27.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Visual acquisition of Swedish in deaf children: An L2 processability approach2014In: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 61-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Swedish L2 development of deaf children by testing the validity of Processability Theory on deaf learners of Swedish as an L2. The study is cross-sectional and includes written data from 38 pupils (grades 5 and 10) from a school for deaf and hearing-impaired pupils in Sweden. The primary language used by the pupils is Swedish Sign Language with Swedish being considered their L2. The Swedish data have been analyzed through the lens of Processability Theory (PT). The results show that the grammatical development of deaf learners is similar to hearing learners of Swedish as an L2. The results therefore suggest that PT is applicable even for deaf learners of L2 Swedish.

  • 28.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dye, Matthew
    Leeson, Lorraine
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Building up L2 Corpora in Different Signed Languages: SSL, ISL and ASL2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Att arbeta tvåspråkigt med texter i alla ämnen2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av grundskoleutbildningensfrämsta mål är att alla elever ska utveckla sin läs-och skrivförmåga i svenska i enlighet med läroplanen. För teckenspråkigaelever som är döva eller hörselskadadekan detta innebära en utmaning, särskilt för de som företrädesvis tillägnar sig svenska i skriven form. Det finns en avsevärd mängd forskning kring elevers läs-och skrivutveckling som lärare kan hämta kunskaper från, men den utgår främst från att elevernahar en fullgod hörsel. Det kan därför vara svårt att hitta tillvägagångssätt och metoder som främjar just döva och hörselskadade elevers möten med texter inom alla ämnen. Syftet med den här artikeln är därför att lyfta fram hur man i undervisningen kan arbeta tvåspråkigt med bådesvensktteckenspråk och svenska för att främja elevernas språkutveckling.Artikeln tar avstamp i genrebaserad språkundervisningoch visar exempel på hur läraren kan arbeta med olika slags texter inom olika ämnen för att stötta elevernas språk-och kunskapsutveckling i både teckenspråkoch svenska, detvill säga deras litteracitetsutveckling. Med litteracitetmenas läs-och skrivlärande, vilket isynnerhetär kopplat till skolspråket (se del 1). Även om detta i första hand avsersvenska så kan också teckenspråkräknas in i litteracitetsutvecklingentrots att detta språksaknar ettskriftspråk. Eleverna behöver gesmöjlighet att utveckla både sin svenskaoch sitt teckenspråk, särskilt med tankepå att gruppen elever som har teckenspråk som förstaspråk har minskat och många elever idag istället har språketsom sitt andraspråk. Sådan utveckling kan ske genom att man arbetar med olika typer av texter inom olika ämnen.Genom att samtala omolika ämnestexter på både teckenspråk och svenska kan eleverna utveckla både sina ämneskunskaper och sin litteracitet. Tack varedet gemensamma samtalet på teckenspråk i nära anslutning till elevernas läsande och skrivande kan deta viktiga steg i sin utveckling mot att bli tvåspråkiga individer.

  • 30.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dövas svenska - ett tvåspråkigt perspektiv2015In: LiSetten, ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Elicited imitation tasks (EITs) as a tool for measuring sign language proficiency in L1 and L2 signers2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 6-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous literature, elicited imitation tasks (EITs) have been discussed with regard to the effect that memory skills have on performing tasks. More recent studies have shown, however, that EITs are a reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for L1 users and L2 learners (Klem et al., 2015; Gaillard & Tremblay, 2016). There have also been recommendations for minimizing the negative impacts of poor memory skills, for example, by shortening sentence structures.

    In contrast to spoken languages, which are merely linear in structure, sign languages operate in the gestural-visual mode, which relies on a visual pattern that allows for a degree of simultaneity in production. For instance, when signing a single lexical sign, the shape, movement and location of the hand combine to express phonological properties at the same time. Additionally, there are more complex signs with internal morphological structures that involve multiple handshapes, movements and locations. Such features need to be taken into account when valid and reliable EITs are developed for signed languages, and in recent years, there have been a growing number of sign language tests developed within the framework of EITs, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al., 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström, 2014).

    In this talk, we will discuss sentence structure as well as the scoring method of the tests we have developed on two EITs for Swedish Sign Language: SSL-SRT, which is targeted for L1 signers, and SignRepL2, targeted for L2 signers. We found that for the L2 group, complex (single) signs can be used as test items, and there are qualitative differences related to the linguistic properties of signs. We will also describe different scoring paradigms for the respective tests. Our results will be presented and discussed in relation to the EIT theoretical framework.

  • 32.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Kontrastivt arbetssätt med texter på teckenspråk och svenska2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I specialskolans kursplan i svenska för döva och hörselskadade står det att eleverna, förutom att utveckla kunskaper om det svenska språket och dess språkbruk, ska ges möjligheter att...

    utveckla kunskaper för att kunna göra jämförelser mellan svenskan och teckenspråket och urskilja likheter och olikheter mellan språken. På så sätt ska undervisningen bidra till att stärka elevernas medvetenhet om, och tilltro till, den egna språkliga och kommunikativa förmågan.(Lspec 11)

    Även kursplanen i teckenspråk för döva och hörselskadade innehåller en liknande formulering. Genom jämförelser mellan språken ska elevernas tvåspråkighet stärkas. Denna fördjupningsartikel syftar till att belysa det här kontrastiva arbetssättet och ger exempel på hur det kan användas i klassrummet när eleverna möter skolans textvärld.

  • 33.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Using L1 Sign Languages to Teach Writing2019In: The Routledge Handbook of Sign Language Pedagogy / [ed] Russell S. Rosen, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 73-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of the existing knowledge, methods, and practices in the use of sign language to teach writing to deaf learners who use sign language as their first language (L1). It proffers a theoretical background that lays the foundation for using L1 sign language as the language of instruction for teaching writing to the learners. Approaches and strategies in the teaching of writing through the use of sign language are exemplified, and practical issues are discussed. The chapter concludes with considerations for ongoing and future trends in the teaching of writing to deaf learners using their L1 sign languages.

  • 34.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2) – A Report2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013 we have been building up a learner corpusin Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). From 2017 this work has been funded by Riksbanken Jubileumsfond (RJ) for three years. In our presentation we will report on the work with the SSLC-L2. A short overview and some examples of the corpus design will be provided. The main scope of the talk, however, will be description of the annotation work of the L2 structures, i.e. the learners’ interlanguage. Here we discuss some challenges in annotating the L2 interlanguage. This include analysis ofspecific L2 structures and how to annotate them as well as examples on some preliminary results.

  • 35.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Frequency and distribution of signs and sign proficiency in second language (L2) signers – a longitudinal and comparative study2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of vocabulary is one of the essential components of language competence. However, no study has yet investigated the L2 acquisition of signs of any sign language in a broader sense. Such a study is motivated by the fact that vocabulary is a particularly interesting area in sign languages considering the categories of signs, i.e., sign types (see e.g. Johnston 2010). This paper examines the frequency and distribution of signs produced by L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language. In addition, we make an attempt to describe the sign proficiency and to track the development of L2 signs.

    Earlier research on L2 sign acquisition has mostly focused upon phonological structures of signs (e.g. Bochner et al. 2011; Ortega & Morgan 2015; Rosen 2004), with some studies on other structures e.g. classifier constructions (Marshall & Morgan 2015). Due to our corpus-based data we are able to attempt a description of the frequency and distribution of signs, as well as L2 analysis of signs used by the learners. Our L2 analysis has included phonological, morphological and lexical analysis according to the complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) framework (Housen & Kuiken 2009), i.e., L2 signers’ proficiency is accounted through three components: degree of complexity, degree of accuracy and degree of fluency.

    Sampled longitudinal corpus data from 16 adult L2 signers from the Swedish Sign Language as an L2 Corpus (SSLC-L2) (Schönström & Mesch 2017) was analyzed. Two kinds of data were included: dialogue data based on interviews, and retellings of a movie clip. This was compared with data from 9 L1 signers.

    We provide results outlining the distribution and frequency of signs in L2 signers at two different time points in their development as well a comparison with L1 signers with regard to distribution and frequency of (1) signs, (2) sign types and (3) parts of speech. For example, with regard to the verbs, it was revealed that the proportion of lexical verb signs increases with time while the proportion of depicting signs remains the same. We discuss this in light of the contributing role of gesture in L2 sign production, as the line between some depicting signs (e.g. handling handshapes) and gestures is not always crystal clear. With regard to sign proficiency according to the CAF framework, the results revealed, among other things, that phonological errors are common, and in line with results provided by earlier research which suggest a learning order in which location parameter is acquired before handshape and movement parameters.

  • 36.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gesture, signs and L2/M2 acquisition corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of L2/M2 acquisition in signed languages is contributing toour understanding of human languages in various ways. What are the challenges oflearning a new language that is manifested in a different modality? Is there anymodality-specific component, as well as language-specific component, that is harder toacquire than others? And how does this relate to questions concerning the acquisition ofsigned modalities in light of gesture-language discussions (Kendon, 2014)? For example,it has been shown in earlier research that a gesture “strategy” can be advantageous aswell as disadvantageous for the L2 learners of any signed language (Ortega & Morgan,2015). In light of this, our paper will present some preliminary notes from the analysis of an L2learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language that consists of longitudinal data (1.5 years) from hearing adult students learning SSL in an SSL interpreting program at theuniversity level. The learner corpus in SSL, which was started in 2013, so far contains approximately 14 hours of data from a total of 26 learners and is still expanding. We also collected data from a control group consisting of three L1 learners. Additionally, part of the corpus has been annotated with tiers for sign glosses and an L2 relatedanalysis. We conducted a qualitative analysis that included a performance analysis on the sign vocabulary on annotated data in the SSL as L2 corpus and compared the outcomes with the L1 control group. In our analysis, we adopted an applied view, dividing up thevocabulary into the three main sign types proposed by (Hodge & Johnston, 2014): 1) lexical signs; 2) partly lexical signs; and 3) non-lexical signs. In our study, we are specifically interested in how L2 learners acquire “partly lexical signs”, i.e. pointing signs (pronouns, indexing signs) and depicting signs (classifier constructions, polycomponential signs). We hypothesized that learning a language in a modality thatallows for a high degree of iconically motivated vocabulary makes it possible forlearners to, in fact, imitate the tasks or events from a stimulus in an elicited narrative task. But what are the error types, and how should the differences between depicting signs by L1 and L2 signers be described? Is there a gesture strategy used here, and is it linked to a typical L2/M2 strategy? Our results showed qualitative differences between L2 and L1 learners regarding theuse of depicting signs. In the L2 group, depicting signs describing size and shape were used less frequently than in the L1 group, while the L2 group varied more in depicting signs representing handle (agentive) classifiers. Furthermore, the learners also relied onother strategies, e.g. fingerspellings and mouthings. The results will be discussed froman acquisition view as well in light of the gesture-language discussion.

  • 37.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Use of nonmanuals by adult L2 signers in Swedish Sign Language – Annotating the nonmanuals2014In: 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Beyond the Manual Channel / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, 2014, p. 153-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonmanuals serve as important grammatical markers for different syntactic constructions, e.g. marking clause types. To account for the acquisition of syntax by L2 SSL learners, therefore, we need to have the ability to annotate and analyze nonmanual signals. Despite their significance, however, these signals have yet to be the topic of research in the area of SSL as an L2. In this paper, we will provide suggestions for annotating the nonmanuals in L2 SSL learners. Data is based on a new SSL as L2 corpus from our ongoing project entitled "L2 Corpus in Swedish Sign Language." In this paper, the combination of our work in grammatical analysis and in the creation of annotating standards for L2 nonmanuals, as well as preliminary results from the project, will be presented.

  • 38.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Assessment of signing skills in school-aged deaf students in Sweden2003In: EDDE: European Days of Deaf Education, 2003, p. 88-95Conference paper (Other academic)
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