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  • 1.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bergqvist, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuce2015In: Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality / Angewandte Botanik, ISSN 1613-9216, E-ISSN 1439-040X, Vol. 88, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lettuce grown in soil is found to contain high concentrations of arsenic (As). This paper investigates the uptake and speciation of As in lettuce as well as the influence of silicon (Si) on As uptake, since Si may decrease it. Lettuce plants were cultivated in nutrient solution containing arsenite or arsenate with or without silicate. The uptake and distribution of As between roots and shoots, As accumulation in cell walls, As speciation, and toxic effects on growth were analysed. Results indicate that arsenite was more toxic to lettuce than was arsenate. Silicate decreased arsenate toxicity but had little effect on arsenite toxicity. In contrast, Si decreased arsenite uptake more than arsenate uptake. The concentration of arsenate was higher than that of arsenite in the plants independent of the As species added. When arsenate was added, the As concentration in shoots was half of that in the roots and this distribution did not change with Si addition. When arsenite was added, approximately 10% of As was found in the shoots and 90% in the roots; this pattern changed in the presence of Si, and As became evenly distributed in the plant. In both roots and shoots, approximately 40% of the As was found in the cell wall fraction; when arsenite was added, the presence of Si increased this fraction to 47%, but only in the shoots. The extraction efficiency when analysing the As species was lower in shoots than in roots, especially in the presence of arsenite and Si. The opposite was found for As concentration in pellets after extraction. This indicated variation in the binding strength of arsenite and arsenate between roots and shoots and between Si- and non-Si-treated plants.

  • 2.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bergqvist, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Influence of silicon on arsenic uptake and toxicity in lettuceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lettuce grown in soil is found to contain high concentration of the toxic element arsenic (As). The aim was therefore to investigate uptake and speciation of As in lettuce as well as the influence of silicon (Si) on As uptake, since Si may diminish the As uptake. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solution containing arsenite or arsenate with or without silicate. Uptake and distribution of As between roots and shoots, As accumulation in cell walls, As speciation and toxic effect on biomass were analysed. Results show that arsenite was more toxic to lettuce than arsenate. Silicate decreased the toxicity to arsenate but very little of the arsenite toxicity was changed by Si. On the other hand, Si diminished the arsenite uptake more than the arsenate uptake. There was higher concentration of arsenate than of arsenite in the plant independent which As species added. When arsenate was added, the As concentration in shoot was half of that in the root and this distribution did not change with Si addition. When arsenite was added, about 10% of As was found in the shoots and 90% in the roots, but changed in the presence of Si to be evenly distributed in the plant. In both roots and shoot, about 40% of the As was found in the cell wall fraction, and only in the shoot when arsenite was added, Si increased this fraction to 47%. The extraction efficiency when analysing the As-species was lower in shoot than in roots, especially in the presence of arsenite and Si. The opposite was found for the As concentration in pellets after extraction. This pointed towards variations in the strength of binding of arsenite and arsenate between roots and shoots and between Si and non-Si treated plants.

  • 3.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kabir, Ahmad H.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Maity, Pooja J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Silicate reduces cadmium uptake into cells of wheat2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 211, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health threat all over the world and high Cd content in wheat causes high Cd intake. Silicon (Si) decreases cadmium content in wheat grains and shoot. This work investigates whether and how silicate (Si) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake at the cellular level in wheat. Wheat seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of Si with or without Cd. Cadmium, Si, and iron (Fe) accumulation in roots and shoots was analysed. Leaf protoplasts from plants grown without Cd were investigated for Cd uptake in the presence or absence of Si using the fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM. Roots and shoots of plants subjected to all four treatments were investigated regarding the expression of genes involved in the Cd uptake across the plasma membrane (i.e. LCT1) and efflux of Cd into apoplasm or vacuole from the cytosol (i.e. HMA2). In addition, phytochelatin (PC) content and PC gene (PCS1) expression were analysed. Expression of iron and metal transporter genes (IRT1 and NRAMP1) were also analysed. Results indicated that Si reduced Cd accumulation in plants, especially in shoot. Si reduced Cd transport into the cytoplasm when Si was added both directly during the uptake measurements and to the growth medium. Silicate downregulated LCT1 and HMA2 and upregulated PCS1. In addition, Si enhanced PC formation when Cd was present. The IRT1 gene, which was downregulated by Cd was upregulated by Si in root and shoot facilitating Fe transport in wheat. NRAMP1 was similarly expressed, though the effect was limited to roots. This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake on the cellular level.

  • 4.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Influence of Si on Cd in wheat.2008In: Scientific workshop on Contaminants and nutrients: availability, accumulation/exclusion and plant-microbia-soil interactions, COST Action 859 workshop, Smolenice, May 2008, 2008, p. 1-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains2015In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  • 6.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Rhizosphere interaction at Cd uptake by various wheat cultivars2007In: Scientific workshop on Phytotechnologies to promote sustainable land use and improve food safety, COST Action 859 workshop, Vilnius, June 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Role of rhizosphere mechanisms in Cd uptake by various wheat cultivars2008In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 312, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Greger, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Neuschütz, Clara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Göthberg, Agneta
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nyquist, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Dabrowska, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Phytoremediation and metal uptake in food plants2007In: ECO-TECH 2007, 2007, p. 513-522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews some of our resent findings on metal uptake in phytotechnology and food plants. The Cd concentration in wheat grains can be decreased by pytoextraction by Salix prior to wheat cultivation. Water spinach commonly grown in nutrient rich waste water are able to form methyl-Hg in new leaves, but high nutrient level in cultivation medium decreases the metal concentration in the plant. Wetland plants grown on mine tailings are able to decrease the formation of acid mine drainage from the tailings. Submerged plants can increase the retention of metals in wetlands treating metal polluted water, but the efficiency depends on the quality of the inlet water. Plants can be used to prevent leakage of metals and nutrients from dry covers containing sewage sludge on mine tailing impoundments. If the sealing layer below the cover layer consists of fly ash root penetration can be prevented while if it contains a mixture of sewage sludge and fly ash roots will grow into the sealing layer. Macro algae as fertilizers in agriculture increase the biomass production but also transfer Cd to the crop. Therefore, algae should be used in production of non food crops, however, not suitable for hemp cultivation.

  • 9.
    Landberg, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Jensen, P.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Strategies of cadmium and zinc resistance in willow by regulation of net accumulation2011In: Biologia plantarum, ISSN 0006-3134, E-ISSN 1573-8264, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was performed to find out if metal resistant clones of Salix viminalis L. are capable to achieve high resistance to the metals by regulating their net accumulation. Salix clones with low or high resistance in combination with low or high accumulation capacity of either Zn or Cd were cultivated from cuttings in nutrient solution. The investigation included leakage and uptake experiments using (65)Zn or (109)Cd and analysis of root cation exchange capacity (CEC). Some plants were pre-treated with unlabeled 0.5 mu M Cd or 2.5 mu M Zn 24 h prior to the experiments to induce possible tolerance mechanisms. To find out if the regulation was a metabolic process, experiments were also performed with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Clones with high resistance and low Cd accumulation had higher efflux of Cd compared to the other clones, in both untreated and Cd pre-treated plants. This indicates a constitutive property to lower Cd accumulation by high Cd leakage. Pre-treatment with 0.5 mu M Cd diminished the Cd net uptake to a level near zero in all clones, likely to be due to decreased the Cd uptake. In contrast, resistant clones with high Cd accumulation had the highest root CEC, which may be used to bind up Cd in the free space. No clear regulation of Zn net uptake was found in Zn-resistant clones. Pre-treatment with Zn decreased the uptake of Zn into the free space in Zn-resistant clones. The resistant high-accumulating clones, however, showed the highest leakage of Zn in both untreated and pre-treated plants, a constitutive process not related to high accumulation. Neither the influx nor the efflux of Cd or Zn was affected by DNP indicating passive transport across the plasma membrane.

  • 10.
    Mamboya, F.A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Lyimo, T.J.
    University of Dar es Salaam.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Björk, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Influence of combined changes in salinity and copper modulation on growth and copper uptake in the tropical green macroalga Ulva reticulata.2009In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 326-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of salinity on growth and Cu uptake in the green macroalga Ulva reticulata collected from the intertidal area in the Western Indian Ocean was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure concentrations ranged from 5 to 500 μg Cu l−1 at five salinities (ranging 20–40). The accumulation of Cu increased with decreasing salinity, so that the uptake at 500 μg Cu l−1 was approximately 2.7, 2.4 and 2.0 times higher at salinities of 20, 25, and 30 respectively, than uptake at salinity of 35, and with uptake being lowest at salinity of 40. Ulva maintained a positive growth rate over the whole salinity range (20–40), with highest rates at salinity of 35. When exposing to Cu at low salinities (20 and 25), the growth rate of Ulva was strongly inhibited suggesting an increase in toxicity of Cu with decreasing salinity. EC50 and NOEC increased with increase in salinity, implying a reduced Cu toxicity at high salinities. It was concluded that salinity needs to be considered when using macroalgae, such as U. reticulata, as a bioindicator of heavy metals in areas with heavy rainfall, underground fresh water intrusion or in estuaries, as they might accumulate more metals and be more negatively affected.

  • 11. Nazaralian, Sanam
    et al.
    Majd, Ahmad
    Irian, Saeed
    Najafi, Farzaneh
    Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek2017In: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris), ISSN 0981-9428, E-ISSN 1873-2690, Vol. 115, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO2-nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-Iyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium.

  • 12.
    Ohlsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Berglund, Torkel
    KTH.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtfysiologi.
    Increased metal tolerance in Salix by nicotinamide and nicotinic acid.2008In: Plant physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 46, p. 655-664Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Arsenic concentrations in local aromatic and high-yielding hybrid rice cultivars and the potential health risk: a study in an arsenic hotspot2017In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, no 4, article id 184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of high levels of arsenic (As) in rice fields has negative effects on the health of those consuming rice as their subsistence food. This study determined the variation in total As concentration in local aromatic rice (LAR) (kalijira) and two high-yielding varieties (HYVs) (BRRI dhan 32 and BRRI dhan 28) grown in paddy fields in Matlab, Bangladesh, an As hotspot with elevated As levels in groundwater. Mature rice grain samples and soil samples were collected from different paddy fields, and the As concentrations in both the de-husked grains and the husks of the three rice cultivars were analysed to identify the safest of the three cultivars for human consumption. The results showed that the total As concentration was higher (0.09-0.21 mg As kg(-1)) in the de-husked grains of LAR than in the husks, while the opposite was found for the HYVrice. Moreover, the As concentration in soil samples was 2 to 5-fold higher for the LAR than for the HYVs, but the As accumulation factor (AF) was lower in the LAR (0.2-0.4%) than in the HYVs (0.9-1%). Thus, LAR can be considered the safest of the three cultivars for human consumption owing to its low AF value. Furthermore, due to the low AF, growing LAR instead of HYVs in soils with slightly elevated As levels could help improve the food safety level in the food chain.

  • 14.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2018In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 237, p. 1098-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As) contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts. Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0-100 mu M arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 mu M arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts. Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 mu M arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 mu M As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 15. Vaculik, Marek
    et al.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Greger, Maria
    Luxova, Miroslava
    Stolarikova, Miroslava
    Lux, Alexander
    Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants2012In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 433-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 m Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of Cd-109 applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots.

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