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  • 1.
    Agné, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Does stakeholder involvement foster democratic legitimacy in international organizations? An empirical assessment of a normative theory2015In: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 465-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of non-state organizations in global governance is widely seen as an important step toward global democracy. Proponents of "stakeholder democracy" argue that stakeholder organizations, such as civil society groups and other non-state actors, may represent people significantly affected by global decisions better than elected governments. In this article we identify a particularly promising sociological variant of this argument, test it against new evidence from a large-scale survey among stakeholder organizations with varying levels of involvement in international organizations (IOs), and find that the suggested stakeholder mechanism for producing democratic legitimacy in global governance does not work. Stakeholder involvement is unproductive for democratic legitimacy in IOs as perceived by stakeholders themselves. We suggest alternative explanations of this finding and argue that empirical analysis is useful for adjudicating normative arguments on the viability of stakeholder democracy in global governance.

  • 2. Chalmers, Adam William
    et al.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fiscal redistribution and public support for European integration2015In: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 386-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to existing debates on public opinion toward European integration by examining when and why fiscal transfers and public support are systematically related. Drawing on economic and identity-related theories, we develop and test hypotheses about the links between European Union fiscal transfers among countries and subnational jurisdictions, and citizens' support for European integration. Using a three-level analysis of residents in 143 regions in 16 European Union member states, we find a positive effect of European Union transfers among both countries and subnational jurisdictions on support for European integration among those with a European communal identity. We also find that this effect increases the more politically aware individuals are. The article sketches the broader implications of our findings for public opinion research on regional integration beyond the European Union.

  • 3.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.
    Advocacy group effects in global governance: Populations, strategies, and political opportunity structures2019In: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 255-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global governance is no longer a matter of state cooperation or bureaucratic politics. Since the end of the cold war, advocacy groups have proliferated and enjoyed increasing access to global governance institutions such as the European Union, World Trade Organization, and the United Nations climate conferences. This special issue seeks to push theories of interest groups and international non-governmental organizations forward. We argue that the advocacy group effects on global governance institutions are best understood by examining how groups use and shape domestic and global political opportunity structures. The individual articles examine how, when, and why domestic and global political opportunity structures shape advocacy group effects in global governance, across global institutions, levels of government, advocacy organizations, issue areas, and over time. As special interests are becoming increasingly involved in global governance, we need to better understand how advocacy organizations may impact global public goods provision.

  • 4.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Chalmers, Adam W.
    All spending is not equal: European Union public spending, policy feedback and citizens’ support for the EU2018In: European Journal of Political Research, ISSN 0304-4130, E-ISSN 1475-6765, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While public support is central to the problem-solving capacity of the European Union (EU), we know little about when and why the EU can increase its citizens’ support through spending. Extensive research finds that citizens living in countries that are net beneficiaries of the EU budget are more supportive of the EU, assuming that citizens care equally about all forms of spending. We argue, however, that the amount of spending is only part of the story. Understanding the effects of spending on support requires a consideration of how transfers are spent. Drawing on policy feedback theories in comparative politics, we argue that support for the EU is a function of the fit between EU spending and regional need targeted by spending. Results from a statistical analysis of EU spending on human capital, infrastructure, agriculture, energy, and environmental protection in 126 EU regions over the period 2001- 2011 corroborate our argument. As the EU and other international organizations become increasingly publicly contested, the organizations themselves may increasingly try to shore up public support through spending, but they will only be successful under specific conditions.

  • 5.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gustafsson, Maria-Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bremberg, Niklas
    Mobjörk, Malin
    Intergovernmental organizations and climate security: advancing the research agenda2018In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 9, no 1, article id e496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-related security challenges are transnational in character, leading states to increasingly rely on intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) – such as the European Union and the North-Atlantic Treaty Organization – for policy solutions. While climate security issues do typically not fit comfortably within the mandates of existing IGOs, recent decades have seen increasing efforts by IGOs to link climate change and security. This article reviews existing studies on IGOs’ responses to climate security challenges. It draws together research from several bodies of literature spanning political science, international relations, and environmental social science, identifying an emerging field of research revolving around IGOs and climate security. We observe significant advancement in this young field, with scholars extending and enriching our understanding of how and why IGOs address climate security challenges. Yet we still know little about the conditions under which IGOs respond to climate security challenges and when they do so effectively. This article discusses the main gaps in current work and makes some suggestions about how these gaps may be usefully addressed in future research. A better understanding of the conditions under which IGOs respond (effectively) to climate security challenges would contribute to broader debates on climate security, institutional change, and effectiveness in international relations and environmental social science, and may facilitate crafting effective global solutions to society’s most intractable climate security challenges.

  • 6.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Legitimacy has risks and benefits for effective international marine management2019In: Predicting Future Oceans: Sustainability of Ocean and Human Systems Amidst Global Environmental Change / [ed] Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, William W.L. Cheung, Yoshitaka Ota, Elsevier, 2019, p. 437-451Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability scientists have long studied what drives effective marine management. This chapter provides an assessment of a largely understudied factor that can alleviate compliance problems in marine management: the legitimacy of marine institutions, defined as stakeholder beliefs in the appropriate use of power by these institutions. This chapter describes the legitimacy of 19 international institutions dealing with marine issues, including the Arctic Council, European Union, and United Nations Environment, in the eyes of different types of stakeholders. The chapter then discusses how challenges arising from these legitimacy patterns could be managed to effectively address compliance problems. Insights from political science help understand that legitimacy can contribute to compliance among stakeholders, but that increased legitimacy may also entail the risk of declining public scrutiny and interest group capture. Based on this assessment, the chapter outlines a research agenda on legitimacy and effectiveness for sustainability scholars.

  • 7.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The knowledge gap in world politics: Assessing the sources of citizen awareness of the United Nations Security Council2016In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 673-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decades have seen a significant expansion in the scope and authority of international organisations (IOs), raising questions about who participates and is represented in the public contestation of IOs. An important precondition for citizens to become critically involved in the public debate about an IO is that they are aware of the politics of that IO. This article sheds light on this largely unexplored issue, asking why some citizens are more aware of IOs than others. This question is examined in the context of a powerful international organization, the United Nations Security Council. A multilevel analysis of citizens in seventeen Asian and European countries suggests that citizen knowledge about the Council is shaped by citizens’ individual income, cosmopolitan identity, and income inequality. Higher levels of knowledge are found among the wealthier, and there is some evidence that income inequality depresses knowledge among poorer citizens. Furthermore, citizens identifying with groups or individuals across nation-state borders are more likely to be aware of the Council. The article sketches broader implications for the study of the politicization of IOs and citizen representation in the public contestation of IOs.

  • 8.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Schlipphak, Bernd
    Legitimacy beliefs towards global governance institutions: a research agenda2019In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy is central to the functioning of global governance institutions (GGIs) such as the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. There is a vibrant debate about legitimacy in International Relations, and a burgeoning literature in comparative politics on public attitudes towards the EU. Yet, these literatures rarely speak to each other, which has resulted in missed opportunities for theoretical advancements on the sources and consequences of citizens’ legitimacy beliefs vis-à-vis GGIs. To assist researchers in advancing on this state of the art, this research note develops a conceptualization of popular legitimacy as a multidimensional belief system including both moral convictions and self-interest. A statistical analysis of public attitudes towards the EU from 1973 to 2012 suggests that commonly used survey measures capture self-interest rather than moral beliefs. This note concludes by suggesting a research agenda intended to push theory and survey research on legitimacy beliefs towards GGIs forward.

  • 9.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Scholte, Jan Aart
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutional sources of legitimacy for international organisations: Beyond procedure versus performance2019In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 627-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a significant gap in the literature on legitimacy in global governance, exploring whether, in what ways, and to what extent institutional qualities of international organisations (IOs) matter for popular legitimacy beliefs towards these bodies. The study assesses the causal significance of procedure and performance as sources of legitimacy, unpacks these dimensions into specific institutional qualities, and offers a comparative analysis across IOs in three issue areas of global governance. Theoretically, the article disaggregates institutional sources of legitimacy to consider democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of procedure and performance. Empirically, it examines the effects of these institutional qualities through a population-based survey experiment in four countries in different world regions with respect to IOs in economic, security, and climate governance. The findings demonstrate that both procedure- and performance-related aspects of IO policymaking matter for popular legitimacy beliefs. This result holds across democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of IO procedure and performance. Disaggregating the results by issue area indicates that a broader scope of institutional qualities are important for legitimacy beliefs in economic governance compared to security governance and, especially, climate governance. These findings suggest that propositions to reduce the institutional sources of IO legitimacy to single specific qualities would be misguided.

  • 10.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Schraff, Dominik
    Stoffel, Michael F.
    Distributive Politics, Electoral Institutions and European Structural and Investment Funding: Evidence from Italy and France2017In: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 275-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive research suggests that political factors bias the domestic allocation of the European Structural and Investment Funds (SIF) in ways that may not be in line with EU goals. This article offers the first systematic and comparative analysis of the role of electoral institutions in shaping county-level allocations of SIF. Drawing on theories of distributive politics and federalism, this article argues that electoral institutions provide politicians in the executive branch of national government with incentives to use at least a part of the SIF to buy votes in NUTS 3-level counties, whereby vote-buying is more common under majority voting than under proportional representation. The results of a statistical analysis of SIF allocations across 202 Italian and French NUTS 3-level counties during 2007–13 confirm this argument. The article concludes by discussing the findings and their implications for future research on EU budgetary implementation and cohesion policy.

  • 11.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Stoffel, Michael F.
    Distributive politics and intergovernmental transfers: The local allocation of European Union structural funds2012In: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 413-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union budget is distributed primarily in the form of intergovernmental grants to sub-state governments, which invest the grants in local projects. Transfers are allocated under the auspices of the European structural funds. This article assesses the causal links between electoral incentives on the recipient side, European funding goals, and local grant allocation. Tobit regressions of the allocation patterns in 419 local districts in Germany for the period 2000–6 suggest the following: although recipient sub-state governments enjoy substantial discretion in selecting projects, their distributive choices are largely in accord with European goals. As theoretically predicted, however, there is robust evidence that sub-state governments’ electoral concerns distort the local allocation of structural funds.

  • 12.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Advocacy Strategies in Global Governance: Inside versus Outside Lobbying2017In: Political Studies, ISSN 0032-3217, E-ISSN 1467-9248, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 705-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As political authority shifts to the global level, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) increasingly attempt to influence policy-making within international organisations (IOs). This article examines the nature and sources of non-governmental organisations’ advocacy strategies in global governance. We advance a twofold theoretical argument. First, non-governmental organisation advocacy can be described in terms of inside and outside strategies, similar to interest group lobbying in American and European politics. Second, non-governmental organisations’ chosen combination of inside and outside strategies can be explained by their organisational goals and membership base. Empirically, this argument is corroborated through a large-n analysis of original data from structured interviews with 303 non-governmental organisation representatives active in relation to the United Nations (UN), complemented by 19 semi-structured interviews with UN and state officials. The article’s findings have implications for the theory and practice of non-governmental organisation involvement in global governance.

  • 13.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The social legitimacy of international organisations: Interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation in the United Nations2015In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 451-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social legitimacy is central to the effectiveness of international organisations (IOs). Yet, so far, we have little systematic knowledge about what drives citizens to support or oppose IOs. In this article, we isolate and assess three alternative explanations of social legiti- macy in global governance, privileging interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation. We test these theories in a multilevel analysis of citizen confidence in the United Nations (UN) using World Values Survey and European Values Study data, sup- plemented by contextual measures. The results grant support to the arguments that institu- tional performance and confidence extrapolation shape popular confidence in the UN, while offering little support for the explanation of interest representation. These findings challenge the predominant understanding that more democratic procedures lead to greater social legitimacy for IOs. Instead, the UN case suggests that the social legitimacy of IOs is based primarily on the organisations’ capacity to deliver, as well as on citizens’ general confidence in political institutions, which IOs may have little to do with and can do little to change.

  • 14.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Why national and international legitimacy beliefs are linked: Social trust as an antecedent factor2018In: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent public opinion research has established an empirical regularity of unusual stability and strength: citizen beliefs in the legitimacy of national and international institutions are highly linked. The dominant interpretation of this link holds that citizens draw on their perceptions of national institutions as a heuristic when forming opinions about international institutions. This article proposes an alternative mechanism, privileging social trust as an antecedent factor contributing to both national and international legitimacy beliefs. Using original survey data on citizen attitudes toward four international institutions in three countries, the article provides evidence for social trust as an antecedent factor, while granting no support for the dominant interpretation. The article suggests three broader implications: social trust has more far-reaching consequences for international cooperation than previously understood; political efforts to affect the legitimacy of international institutions are constrained by individual predispositions; and a comparative approach is central to the study of public attitudes toward international institutions.

  • 15.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bailer, Stefanie
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Târlea, Silvana
    Bargaining success in the reform of the Eurozone2019In: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 65-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a systematic assessment of bargaining success in the reform of the Eurozone 2010 to 2015. Theoretically, we develop an argument about preferences and institutions as determinants of bargaining success and contrast this argument with an alternative account privileging states’ power resources. Empirically, we conduct a statistical analysis of new data covering all key reform proposals. Our findings are three-fold. First, contrary to a conventional narrative of German dominance, the negotiations produced no clear winners and losers. Second, while power resources were of limited importance, holding preferences that were centrist or close to the European Commission favored bargaining success—particularly when adoption only required the support of a qualified majority. Third, these descriptive and explanatory results reflect dynamics of compromise and reciprocity.

  • 16.
    Petersson, Matilda Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns and trends in non-state actor participation in regional fisheries management organizations2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 104, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors (NSAs) have proliferated in number and are increasingly acknowledged to matter for global governance of natural resources. This has generated considerable scholarly interest, but there is surprisingly little systematic knowledge about patterns and trends of NSA participation in global fisheries institutions. This article addresses this gap by studying NSA populations, considering more than 500 actors attending commission meetings, in the five tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (tuna RFMOs) between 2004 and 2011. It constructs a theoretical framework drawing on previous insights from population ecology and global governance literature. The articles finds that multiple NSAs participate in tuna RFMOs, but there is no general trend towards increasing proportions of NSAs compared to state participants. Representational diversity was found to be relatively limited, as NSA participants were predominately representing industry interests and from high income countries. Volatility of NSAs varied across RFMOs, but it was clear that industry representatives were frequently repeat participants, while civil society organizations (CSOs) participated only in occasional meetings. Finally, industry representatives were found to participate as part of member state delegations, while CSOs generally participated as observers. The article discusses the implications of the variation in NSA populations across RFMOs, and over time, and in relation to important concerns in the broader scholarly debates on access, influence, representation, and effectiveness in global environmental governance.

  • 17. Sahlin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Wijkström, Filip
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Einarsson, Torbjörn
    Oberg, Achim
    The 'Milky Way' of intermediary organizations: A transnational field of university governance2015In: Policy and politics (Print), ISSN 0305-5736, E-ISSN 1470-8442, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 407-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on transnational intermediary organizations in higher education and research. We conceive of intermediaries as organizations that are actively involved in transnational university governance without having formal access to or control over policy or governmental funding. Such intermediary organizations have in previous research been shown to play central roles in the development and circulation of new themes and ideas for how to manage universities and measure university performance. Intermediaries link different types of actors and act as translators of global themes. In this respect, they are decisive in policy formulation. While the expansion of such transnational intermediaries is well documented in earlier research, we know little about who they are and how they interact. The article is the first to map transnational intermediaries concerned with higher education and research, as well as their linkages with each other. Through an original web-crawling technique, we identify a large number of transnational intermediaries that are actively linked to each other. These intermediaries exhibit a dense and stretched-out pattern with no obvious single center of gravitation. Instead, the field consists of several smaller and clearly distinguished constellations, resembling the structure of the Milky Way. Using these data, we advance two main arguments. First, transnational university intermediaries form an organized field of their own, vouching for their importance for the scaling up of governance networks and the development of collaborative governance arrangements. Second, within this field, there are several clusters where certain intermediaries occupy a more central position in the field than others. In all, this article contributes to the existing literature on governance networks, sketching the consequences of intensified global activities among intermediaries for how new themes and ideas about university management travel and translate, highlighting the significance of intermediary organizations for national university systems and individual universities.

  • 18.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Agné, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    NGO Influence in International Organizations: Information, Access, and Exchange2018In: British Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0007-1234, E-ISSN 1469-2112, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 213-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is broad consensus that non-governmental organizations (NGOs) sometimes succeed in influencing policy-making within international organizations (IOs), there is much less agreement on the factors and conditions that make NGO lobbying effective. In this article, we make two contributions to this debate. First, we examine the determinants of influence among NGOs active in different IOs, issue areas, and policy phases. The analysis builds on original survey data of more than 400 NGOs involved in five different IOs, complemented by elite interviews with IO and state officials. Second, we advance a specific argument about how the strategic exchange of information and access between NGOs and IOs increases NGO influence in IOs. We contrast this argument, derived from theories of lobbying in American and European politics, with three alternative explanations of NGO influence, privileging material resources, transnational networks, and public-opinion mobilization, and sketch the broader implications of our results for research on NGOs in global governance.

  • 19. Târlea, Silvana
    et al.
    Bailer, Stefanie
    Degner, Hanno
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Leuffen, Dirk
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wasserfallen, Fabio
    Explaining governmental preferences on Economic and Monetary Union Reform2019In: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 24-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the extent to which economic or political factors shaped government preferences in the reform of the Economic Monetary Union. A multilevel analysis of European Union member governments’ preferences on 40 EMU reform issues negotiated between 2010 and 2015 suggests that countries’ financial sector exposure has significant explanatory power. Seeking to minimize the risk of costly bailouts, countries with highly exposed financial sectors were more likely to support solutions involving high degrees of European integration. In contrast, political factors had no systematic impact. These findings help to enhance our understanding of preference formation in the European Union and the viability of future EMU reform.

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