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  • 1. Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 2. Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Interrelations Between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study2010In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components - simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and working memory (WM) - at age 5 and 6 as well as their predictive relations to ADHD symptoms at age 7. The results showed that simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 independently predicted complex inhibition and WM at age 6. In addition, EFs primarily predicted symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity even at this young age. Finally, age 6 complex inhibition was shown to act as a mediator in the relations between simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 and symptoms of inattention at age 7. These findings provide novel longitudinal support for the theory that fundamental EF components show a progression with age toward more complex executive control (see Garon et al. Psychological Bulletin 134(1):31-60 2008). Further, complex inhibition, implicating both inhibition and WM, seems to be a particularly strong correlate of ADHD symptoms in young children and should as such be the focus of future studies examining the relation between cognitive function and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

  • 3.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Olsson, Tina
    Sedem, Mina
    Ginnner Hau, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Herkner, Birgitta
    Domitrovic, Celene
    Culture and Young Children’s Social EmotionalCompetence: Findings and Implications for the Cultural Adaptation of Interventions2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment2016In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 371-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  • 5. Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillman, Carin M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and ODD behaviors. Method: A sample of 120 adolescents from the general population was assessed on various cognitive tasks. ADHD and ODD behaviors were measured through parental and teacher ratings based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria. Parents and adolescents provided information regarding measures of family risk factors. Results: The results show that only cognitive functioning was associated with ADHD behaviors, and family risk factors were, independent of cognitive functioning, associated with ODD behaviors. Conclusion: These results suggest that cognitive performance bears a specific significance for ADHD behaviors, whereas family risk factors have specific importance for ODD behaviors.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Tina M.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis2014In: New Directions for Youth Development, ISSN 1533-8916, E-ISSN 1537-5781, Vol. 2014, no 141, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis.

  • 7.
    Tillman, Carin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forssman, Linda
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    The Relation Between Working Memory Components and ADHD Symptoms From a Developmental Perspective2011In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

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