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  • 1.
    Allander, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Why is Prevention So Difficult and Slow?1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 25, no 3, 145-148 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of perceived 'possibilities' for prevention contrasts sharply with the difficulties that face preventive programmes. We argue that this situation has emerged from an incomplete understanding of the process of prevention, involving a mixture of biological factors, human decision making and time perspectives. Based on examples, an analysis of the factors in the prevention process is presented.

  • 2.
    Baltscheffsky, H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, C.
    Kungl. Tekniska högskolan.
    Liljenström, H.
    Kungl. Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, P.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    On the Origin and Evolution of Life: An Introduction1997In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 187, 453-459 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Blomberg, C.
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska högskolan.
    Liljenström, H.
    Kungl. Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, P.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mind and Matter: Essays from Biology, Physics and Philosophy: An Introduction1994In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 171, 1-5 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Butler, Ann B.
    et al.
    Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study.
    Manger, Paul R.
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Evolution of the Neural Basis of Consciousness: A Bird–Mammal Comparison2005In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 27, 923-936 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this essay is to validate some of the principal, currently competing, mammalian consciousness–brain theories by comparing these theories with data on both cognitive abilities and brain organization in birds. Our argument is that, given that multiple complex cognitive functions are correlated with presumed consciousness in mammals, this correlation holds for birds as well. Thus, the neuroanatomical features of the forebrain common to both birds and mammals may be those that are crucial to the generation of both complex cognition and consciousness. The general conclusion is that most of the consciousness–brain theories appear to be valid for the avian brain. Even though some specific homologies are unresolved, most of the critical structures presumed necessary for consciousness in mammalian brains have clear homologues in avian brains. Furthermore, considering the fact that the reptile–bird brain transition shows more structural continuity than the stem amniote–mammalian transition, the line drawn at the origin of mammals for consciousness by several of the theorists seems questionable. An equally important point is that consciousness cannot be ruled out in the absence of complex cognition; it may in fact be the case that consciousness is a necessary prerequisite for complex cognition.

  • 5.
    Hill, Russell
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Århem, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Origin of Life1994In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 371, 646- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Consciousness and Biological Evolution1997In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 187, 613-629 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind–brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C. D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  • 7.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Consciousness, Behavioural Patterns and the Direction of Biological Evolution: Implications for the Mind-Brain Problem2001In: Dimensions of Conscious Experience / [ed] Paavo Pylkkänen, Tere Vadén, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001, 73-99 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Health and Evolution2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 28, 309-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwinian medicine may shed new light on the notion of health and many current health problems. In this paper, health, as an ability to realize one’s own welfare, is compared with health as an ability — either being developed or actually present — to perform a reproductive function of one’s species. It is argued that knowledge about the conditions for health in the latter sense may enhance our efforts to promote health in the former sense.

  • 9.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Medical Ethics, History of Europe: Contemporary Period: VII. Nordic Countries2004In: Encyclopedia of bioethics. Vol. 3, I - M / [ed] Stephen G. Post, New York: Macmillan Reference USA , 2004, 3. uppl., 1639-1644 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Medical Ethics, History of: IV. Europe. D. Contemporary Period. 7. Nordic Countries1995In: Encyclopedia of bioethics. Vol. 3 / [ed] Warren Thomas Reich, New York: Macmillan , 1995, 2. uppl., 1589-1595 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Science Has Partly Outgrown Nobel's Vision of the Prizes1995In: The Scientist (Philadelphia, Pa.), ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, no November 13, 12- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Elzinga, Aant
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Welljams-Dorof, Alfred
    The Scientist, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Credit for Discoveries: Citation Data as a Basis for History of Science Analysis1998In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 19, 609-620 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citation data have become an increasingly significant source of information for historians, sociologists, and other researchers studying the evolution of science. In the past few decades elaborate methodologies have been developed for the use of citation data in the study of the modern history of science. This article focuses on how citation indexes make it possible to trace the background and development of discoveries as well as to assess the credit that publishing scientists assign to particular discoverers. Kuhn’s notion of discovery is discussed. The priority dispute over the discovery of the AIDS virus is used as an example.

  • 13.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Statistics Sweden.
    Multiple Cause-of-Death Data as a Tool for Detecting Artificial Trends in the Underlying Cause Statistics: A Methodological Study1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 22, no 2, 145-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were: (i) to identify trends in the underlying cause-of-death statistics that are due to changes in the coders’ selection and coding of causes, and (ii) to identify changes in the coders’ documented registration principles that can explain the observed trends in the statistics.

    31 Basic Tabulation List categories from the Swedish national cause-of-death register for 1970-1988 were studied. The coders’ tendency to register a condition as the underlying cause of death (the underlying cause ratio) was estimated by dividing the occurrence of the condition as underlying cause (the underlying cause rate) with the total registration of the condition (the multiple cause rate). When the development of the underlying cause rate series followed more closely the underlying cause ratio series than the multiple cause rate series, and a corresponding change in the registration rules could be found, rhe underlying cause rate trend was concluded to be due to changes in the coders’ tendency to register the condition.

    For thirteen categories (fourteen trends), the trends could be explained by changes in the coders’ interpretation practice: five upward, four insignificant, and five downward trends. In addition, for three categories the trends could be explained by new explicit ICD-9 rules.

  • 14.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, P.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mind as a Force Field: Comments on a New Interactionistic Hypothesis1994In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 171, 111-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival and development of consciousness in biological evolution call for an explanation. An interactionistic mind-brain theory seems to have the greatest explanatory value in this context.

    An interpretation of an interactionistic hypothesis, recently proposed by Karl Popper, is discussed both theoretically and based on recent experimental data. In the interpretation, the distinction between the conscious mind and the brain is seen as a division into what is subjective and what is objective, and not as an ontological distinction between something immaterial and something material. The interactionistic hypothesis is based on similarities between minds and physical forces. The conscious mind is understood to interact with randomly spontaneous spatio-temporal patterns of action potentials through an electromagnetic field. Consequences and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  • 15.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Mental Force Field Hypothesis: A Reply to Libet1996In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 178, 225-226 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Århem, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Relation Between the Conscious Mind and the Brain: A Reply to Beck1996In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 181, 95-96 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lindahl, B. Ingemar B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    On Causal Attribution2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation treats of the problem of attributing the occurrence of an individual event or state to a single cause — a problem commonly understood either as a question of distinguishing the cause from the mere conditions or as a matter of singling out, from several causes, one cause, as the cause. The main purpose of the study is to clarify some basic concepts, and some criteria of ascertainment of the cause, that may be discerned in the literature on causal attribution. Special attention is devoted to how the adequacy of causal attributions depends on pragmatic factors. The study begins with an analysis of J. S. Mill’s distinction in A System of Logic between a scientific and a common-parlance approach to the problem of causal attribution. Mill’s assumption that causal attribution in science always requires a universal-law subsumption is then examined in the context of a general discussion of the range of applicability of the covering-law model of explanation. Mill’s scientific and common-parlance notions of cause are compared with R. G. Collingwood’s historical (sense-I) and scientific (sense-II and -III) notions of cause. It is argued that there are purposes of inquiry for which Mill’s common-parlance approach is more relevant to causal attribution in natural science than his scientific approach. And, more generally, it is argued that although law subsumptions are necessary for the ascertainment of the causes, more is often required for explaining the effect. Samuel Gorovitz’s differentiating-factor analysis is discussed, and limitations of the model are identified. The relevance of Morton White’s abnormalistic approach to historical research is also examined. Further, a number of objectivistic approaches are discussed, and it is argued that objectivity is not attainable in causal attributions in a sense in which it always implies an improvement of our ability to attribute the occurrence of an individual event or state to a single cause.

  • 18. Nordenfelt, Lennart
    et al.
    Lindahl, B. Ingemar B.Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine1984Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Pembrey, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Saffery, Richard
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Australia.
    Bygren, Lars Olov
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Franks, Paul
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Åke
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kaati, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lumey, L. H.
    Columbia University, USA.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Nilsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research2014In: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 51, no 9, 563-572 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts.

  • 20.
    Århem, Peter
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    On Consciousness and Spontaneous Brain Activity1997In: Matter matters?: on the material basis of the cognitive activity of mind / [ed] Peter Århem, Hans Liljenström, Uno Svedin, Berlin: Springer, 1997, 235-253 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Århem, Peter
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindahl, B. I. B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Manger, Paul R.
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Butler, Ann B.
    The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study.
    On the Origin of Consciousness: Some Amniote Scenarios2008In: Consciousness Transitions: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic, and Physiological Aspects / [ed] Hans Liljenström, Peter Århem, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008, 77-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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