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  • 1.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ecological stoichiometry and multi element transfer in a coastal ecosystem2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy (carbon) flows and element cycling are fundamental, interlinked principles explaining ecosystem processes. The element balance in components, interactions and processes in ecosystems (ecological stoichiometry; ES) has been used to study trophic dynamics and element cycling. This study extends ES beyond its usual limits of C, N, and P and examines the distribution and transfer of 48 elements in 16 components of a coastal ecosystem, using empirical and modeling approaches. Major differences in elemental composition were demonstrated between abiotic and biotic compartments and trophic levels due to differences in taxonomy and ecological function. Mass balance modeling for each element, based on carbon fluxes and element:C ratios, was satisfactory for 92.5% of all element similar to compartment combinations despite the complexity of the ecosystem model. Model imbalances could mostly be explained by ecological processes, such as increased element uptake during the spring algal bloom. Energy flows in ecosystems can thus realistically estimate element transfer in the environment, as modeled uptake is constrained by metabolic rates and elements available. The dataset also allowed us to examine one of the key concepts of ES, homeostasis, for more elements than is normally possible. The relative concentrations of elements in organisms compared to their resources did not provide support for the theory that autotrophs show weak homeostasis and showed that the strength of homeostasis by consumers depends on the type of element (for example, macroelement, trace element). Large-scale, multi-element ecosystem studies are essential to evaluate and advance the framework of ES and the importance of ecological processes.

  • 2.
    Ek, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Garbaras, Andrius
    Yu, Zhenyang
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Increase in stable isotope ratios driven by metabolic alterations in amphipods exposed to the beta-blocker propranolol2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 5, article id e0211304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic pressures, such as contaminant exposure, may affect stable isotope ratios in biota. These changes are driven by alterations in the nutrient allocation and metabolic pathways induced by specific stressors. In a controlled microcosm study with the amphipod Gammarus spp., we studied effects of the beta-blocker propranolol on stable isotope signatures (delta N-15 and delta C-13), elemental composition (%C and %N), and growth (protein content and body size) as well as biomarkers of oxidative status (antioxidant capacity, ORAC; lipid peroxidation, TBARS) and neurological activity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE). Based on the known effects of propranolol exposure on cellular functions, i.e., its mode of action (MOA), we expected to observe a lower scope for growth, accompanied by a decrease in protein deposition, oxidative processes and AChE inhibition, with a resulting increase in the isotopic signatures. The observed responses in growth, biochemical and elemental variables supported most of these predictions. In particular, an increase in %N was observed in the propranolol exposures, whereas both protein allocation and body size declined. Moreover, both ORAC and TBARS levels decreased with increasing propranolol concentration, with the decrease being more pronounced for TBARS, which indicates the prevalence of the antioxidative processes. These changes resulted in a significant increase of the delta N-15 and delta C-13 values in the propranolol-exposed animals compared to the control. These findings suggest that MOA of beta-blockers may be used to predict sublethal effects in non-target species, including inhibited AChE activity, improved oxidative balance, and elevated stable isotope ratios. The latter also indicates that metabolism-driven responses to environmental contaminants can alter stable isotope signatures, which should be taken into account when interpreting trophic interactions in the food webs.

  • 3.
    Ek, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yu, Zhenyang
    Garbaras, Andrius
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Metabolic alterations in Gammarus spp. exposed to the beta-blocker propranolol: what causes the increase in stable isotope ratios?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ericson, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Thorsen, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Physiological effects of diclofenac, ibuprofen and propranolol on Baltic Sea blue mussels2010In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are constantly dispersed into the environment and little is known of the effects on non-target organisms. This is an issue of growing concern. In this study, Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis trossulus, were exposed to diclofenac, ibuprofen and propranolol, three pharmaceuticals that are produced and sold in large quantities and have a widespread occurrence in aquatic environments. The mussels were exposed to pharmaceuticals in concentrations ranging from 1 to 10,000 mu g l(-1). The pharmaceuticals were added both separately and in combination. Mussels exposed to high concentrations of pharmaceuticals showed a clear response compared to controls. Firstly, they had a significantly lower scope for growth, which indicates that the organisms had a smaller part of their energy available for normal metabolism, and secondly, they had lower byssus strength and lower abundance of byssus threads, resulting in reduced ability to attach to the underlying substrate. Mussels exposed to lower concentrations showed tendencies of the same results. The concentration of diclofenac and propranolol was quantified in the mussels using both liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The measurements showed a significantly higher concentration in the organisms as compared to the water the mussels were exposed to; the uptake reached concentrations two orders of magnitudes higher than found in sewage treatment plant effluents. This study showed that common pharmaceuticals are taken up and negatively affect the physiology of a non-target species at levels of two to three orders of magnitudes higher than found in sewage treatment plant effluents.

  • 5.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Thorsen, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Behavioural and physiological responses to pharmaceutical exposure in macroalgae and grazers from a Baltic Sea littoral community2011In: Aquatic Biology, ISSN 1864-7782, E-ISSN 1864-7790, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gammarus spp. and Fucus vesiculosus from the Baltic Sea littoral community were exposed to 3 concentrations of the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and propranolol. Both physiological and behavioural parameters were measured to examine potential effects in the organisms. For Gammarus spp., respiration, feeding rate and activity with and without predator cues were measured, and gross production to respiration ratio (GP/R) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured for F. vesiculosus. The results showed that propranolol decreased the activity related to movement, and Gammarus spp. could not compensate for the reduced movement when subjected to predator cues. The feeding rates of Gammarus spp. exposed to propranolol were more than 2 times higher at all concentrations compared to the control. Ibuprofen did not significantly affect any of the measured parameters of Gammarus spp. The GP/R was lower in algae exposed to propranolol. The effects of propranolol on both behaviour and physiology of Gammarus spp., in combination with the stress responses in the algae, might cause unexpected indirect and cascade effects which eventually could have implications at both community and ecosystem scales.

  • 6.
    Haeggman, Marika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Alternative pest management programs and the need for farmer education in Zanzibar, TanzaniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Konovalenko, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kautsky, U.
    Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data2014In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 133, p. 48-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Oregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water uptake pathways and processes such as assimilation and excretion, (ii) the possibility to extrapolate within element groups (a common requirement in many risk assessments when initial model parameters are scarce) and (iii) predictions of radionuclide uptake in the ecosystem after changes in ecosystem structure or environmental conditions. These features are important for the longterm (>1000 year) risk assessments that need to be considered for a deep nuclear waste repository.

  • 8.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea: Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (Kd) of 48 elements2008Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College.
    Bioaccumulation of Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 in Baltic Sea benthos2005In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

    Bioaccumulation of radioisotopes in Baltic Sea benthos has important implications for contaminant transfer and exposure.

  • 10.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörns University College.
    Naeslund, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.
    An ecosystem model of the environmental transport and fate of carbon-14 in a bay of the Baltic Sea2003In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, Vol. 166, no 3, p. 193-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical discharge of radioactive 14C from the Swedish final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. It involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web of a bay in the Baltic Sea. In the model, 14C was introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the modelled ecosystem was assessed assuming a release of 51.3 MBq per year for 1000 years. The implications of changes of two parameters on the 14C fate were examined: route of 14C entry in the food web and water exchange. Modelling results were also used to estimate steady-state 14C-concentrations in biota, to investigate the time needed to reach steady-state and to calculate the ecological half-life of the radionuclide for the modelled compartments and the ecosystem. Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged 14C was flushed out of the system (99.8%), and diluted in a much larger recipient. However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers, which enabled subsequent transfer of 14C to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). In general, the highest 14C-concentrations were observed in benthic plants and benthic macrograzers followed by fish and other organisms. An assumption of 14C entry into the food web via benthic primary producers was found to lead to increased concentrations in biota (especially benthic organisms) and reduced rates of water exchange were also observed to significantly increase the 14C exposure of the organisms.

  • 11.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Effects of land-rise on the development of a coastal ecosystem of the Baltic Sea and its implications for the long-term fate of C-14 discharges2004In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, Vol. 514, no 1-3, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Palmer, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Response and recovery of Baltic Sea blue mussels from exposure to pharmaceuticals2015In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 526, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological responses to, and recovery from, exposure to 3 concentrations of a pharmaceutical mixture (diclofenac and propranolol) were examined experimentally in Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus collected with increasing distance to a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) outlet. Respiration, absorption efficiency and consumption were measured, and also combined into scope for growth (SFG). The response and recovery patterns varied both between exposure concentrations and sampling site within the bay. After exposure, mussels exposed to the highest concentration (2000 mu g l(-1)) in general had lower SFG, and mussels from 2 (out of 3) sites exposed to the medium concentration (200 mu g l(-1)) had higher SFG than the controls. In general, mussels from the 2 sites nearest the WTP recovered from the exposure response, while individuals collected further from the WTP outlet were more affected by the exposure and did not recover to the same extent. The response pattern of consumption was mainly affected by exposure concentration, whereas respiration was affected by all 3 factors (concentration, time of measurement, sampling site). Absorption efficiency was not affected at all. The differences in responses and recovery patterns could possibly be explained by the mussels sampled closer to the WTP having a history of higher food availability, improving their general health status, and/or a history of pre-exposure to natural disturbances, as well as to the test substances, via the WTP effluent. Pre-exposure to stressors could have both positive and negative impact on a community by increasing the resilience towards some stressors, but may also reduce the adaptability when facing other stressors.

  • 13.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Söderbäck, B
    Löfgren, A
    Lindborg, T
    Wijnbladh, Erik
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Pools and fluxes of organic matter in a boreal landscape: Implications for a safety assessment of a repository for nuclear waste2006In: Ambio, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 496-504Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindh, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Effect studies of human pharmaceuticals on Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp2012In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 74, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments, the human pharmaceutical propranolol negatively affected the physiology of two test organisms, Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp. from a Baltic Sea littoral community in a concentration of 1000 mu g l(-1). Some effects were also observed for the lower, more ecologically relevant concentrations (10 mu g l(-1) and 100 mu g l(-1)). The effects on E vesiculosus not only increased with increasing concentration, but also with exposure time; while the effects on Gammarus spp. were more inconsistent over time. No clear effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen were observed for any of the organisms. Physiological parameters measured were GP:R-ratio, chlorophyll fluorescence and release of coloured dissolved organic matter, respiration and ammonium excretion. Pharmaceutical substances are repeatedly detected in the Baltic Sea which is the recipient for SIP effluents from more than 85 million people living in the catchment area, but the knowledge of their effects on non-target organisms is still very limited.

  • 15.
    Oskarsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Ann-Kristin Eriksson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Danielsson, Gabriela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Community Interactions Modify the Effects of Pharmaceutical Exposure: A Microcosm Study on Responses to Propranolol in Baltic Sea Coastal Organisms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e93774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mussels (Mytilus edulis trossulus), amphipods (Gammarus spp.), water and sediment. The most sensitive species, the mussel, was affected to the same extent as in previous single species studies, while the effects on the amphipod and alga were smaller or even positive compared to experiments performed in less complex test systems. The observed cascade of beneficial effects was a result of inter-specific species interactions that buffered for more severe effects. The poor condition of the mussel led to a feeding shift from alga to mussel by the amphipods. The better food quality, due to the dietary shift, counteracted the effects of the exposure. Less amphipod grazing, together with increased levels of nutrients in the water was favourable for the alga, despite the negative effects of propranolol. This microcosm study showed effects on organisms on different organizational levels as well as interactions among the different components resulting in indirect exposure effects of both functional and structural nature. The combination of both direct and indirect effects would not have been detected using simpler single- or even two-species study designs. The observed structural changes would in the natural environment have a long-term influence on ecosystem function, especially in a low-biodiversity ecosystem like the Baltic Sea.

  • 16. Rydin, Emil
    et al.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Capturing past eutrophication in coastal sediments - Towards water-quality goals2019In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 221, p. 184-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bjornofjarden is a semi-enclosed brackish bay located in the Stockholm archipelago (Baltic Sea, Sweden). Anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loading to the bay over the past century has overwhelmed the largely unchanged natural supply of elements and compounds that permanently sequester P in sediments. At the same time, eutrophication has shifted surface sediments from oxic to anoxic conditions and reduced their P-retention capacity. Consequently, the release of P from anoxic sediments has become the main P source to the water column. Here we report on a long-term remediation program to reverse eutrophication in Bjornofjarden. After the implementation of measures that reduced the land-based external load to the bay, sediment-P retention was increased by mixing a solution of aluminum (Al) chloride into the anoxic and azoic sediments (> 6 m water depth) at a dose of 50 g Al/m(2), a first in a brackish environment. As a result, P accumulation in the surface sediment reached 2.0 gP/m(2) after 14 years, corresponding to 1.6 mg P/m(2)-day. This is the first time that the P accumulation rate has been determined in aquatic sediments following the addition of P-sequestering material, such as Al. The P that accumulated was dissolved P that mainly migrated from below the layer of P accumulation. The aim of the Al-addition was to sequester legacy P that had accumulated during the past century and to return Bjornofjarden to a low productivity regime, which would allow the surface sediment to become oxic and enable natural P binding by iron.

  • 17. Sandberg, Johannes
    et al.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. marin ekotoxikologi.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Can ECOPATH with ECOSIM enhance models of radionuclide flows in food webs? – An example for C-14 in a coastal food web in the Baltic Sea2007In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 92, p. 96-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Mmochi, Aviti
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Weak Governmental Institutions Impair the Managementof Pesticide Import and Sales in Zanzibar2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor pesticide handling practices and risk awarenessamong African farmers puts human health and the environment at risk. To investigate information availableto farmers in Zanzibar (Tanzania), an interview study was conducted with retailers, and governmental pesticideimportation to Zanzibar was examined. Pesticide retailersin Zanzibar did not have the necessary knowledge to safelyhandle or to advise farmers on proper use of pesticides.Licensed shop owners were rarely found in the shops;instead, untrained personnel were employed to sell thepesticides. Implementation of the legislation was weak,mainly due to lack of surveillance by governmental institutions.Poor governmental importation practices andunregulated private imports indicate serious weakness inthe management of pesticide importation in Zanzibar. The situation calls for increased attention on the monitoring ofpesticide importation and sales to protect the health offarmers and retailers, as well as the environment.

  • 19.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Mmochi, Aviti
    Sonja, Dobo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gyllbäck, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania2011In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 641-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an interview study conducted among smallholder rice farmers in Rufiji, Tanzania coastal mainland, and in Cheju, Zanzibar, farmer’s pesticide use and risk awareness were assessed. The farmers generally lacked knowledge or possibilities to manage the pesticides as prescribed by the manufacturers. Few farmers knew what kind of pesticides they were using and had never seen the original packages, as pesticides were usually sold per weight or already diluted without labeling. Protective equipment was rarely used since they were not aware of risks associated with pesticides or did not know where to purchase protective gear. Only half of the farmers were aware of pesticides’ health hazards and few associated pesticides with environmental problems. The pesticide use was relatively low, but based on farmers’ pesticide handling and application practices, health risks were a major concern. Most farmers did not believe in successful rice cultivation without using pesticides to control pests. However, estimated yields did not differ between pesticide users or farmers using conventional methods or neem tree extract. To avoid negative effects on human health and the environment, the farmers need basic education and better assistance in their farming practices and pesticide management.

  • 20.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mmochi, Aviti
    Wallner, Sieglind
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Pesticide governance in Zanzibar (Tanzania): compromising sustainable agricultural developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Ericson, Hanna
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Quantification of human pharmaceuticals in Baltic Sea blue mussels2009In: Abstracts / 12th EuCheMS International conference on chemistry and the environment: 14-17 June 2009, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009, p. Ana P62-Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Jönsson, Bror Fredrik
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: Using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem2006In: Ambio, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 484-495Article in journal (Refereed)
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