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  • 1. Becnel, Jaime
    et al.
    Johnson, Oralee
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nichols, Charles D.
    The Serotonin 5-HT(7)Dro Receptor Is Expressed in the Brain of Drosophila, and Is Essential for Normal Courtship and Mating2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, p. e20800-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 5-HT(7) receptor remains one of the less well characterized serotonin receptors. Although it has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood, sleep, and circadian rhythms, as well as relaxation of vascular smooth muscles in mammals, the precise mechanisms underlying these functions remain largely unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an attractive model organism to study neuropharmacological, molecular, and behavioral processes that are largely conserved with mammals. Drosophila express a homolog of the mammalian 5-HT(7) receptor, as well as homologs for the mammalian 5-HT(1A), and 5-HT(2), receptors. Each fly receptor couples to the same effector pathway as their mammalian counterpart and have been demonstrated to mediate similar behavioral responses. Here, we report on the expression and function of the 5-HT(7)Dro receptor in Drosophila. In the larval central nervous system, expression is detected postsynaptically in discreet cells and neuronal circuits. In the adult brain there is strong expression in all large-field R neurons that innervate the ellipsoid body, as well as in a small group of cells that cluster with the PDF-positive LNvs neurons that mediate circadian activity. Following both pharmacological and genetic approaches, we have found that 5-HT(7)Dro activity is essential for normal courtship and mating behaviors in the fly, where it appears to mediate levels of interest in both males and females. This is the first reported evidence of direct involvement of a particular serotonin receptor subtype in courtship and mating in the fly.

  • 2.
    Birse, Ryan T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Söderberg, Jeannette A. E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Winther, Åsa M. E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Regulation of insulin-producing cells in the adult Drosophila brain via the tachykinin peptide receptor DTKR2011In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 214, p. 4201-4208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) play important hormonal roles in the regulation of metabolic carbohydrates and lipids, but also in reproduction, growth, stress resistance and aging. In spite of intense studies of insulin signaling in Drosophilag the regulation of DILP production and release in adult fruit flies is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Drosophila tachykinin-related peptides (DTKs) and their receptors, DTKR and NKD, in the regulation of brain insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and aspects of DILP signaling. First, we show DTK-immunoreactive axon terminations close to the presumed dendrites of the IPCs, and DTKR immunolabeling in these cells. Second, we utilized targeted RNA interference to knock down expression of the DTK receptor, DTKR, in IPCs and monitored the effects on Dilp transcript levels in the brains of fed and starved flies. Dilp2 and Dilp3, but not Dilp5, transcripts were significantly affected by DTKR knockdown in IPCs, both in fed and starved flies. Both Dilp2 and Dilp3 transcripts increased in fed flies with DTKR diminished in IPCs whereas at starvation the Dilp3 transcript plummeted and Dilp2 increased. We also measured trehalose and lipid levels as well as survival in transgene flies at starvation. Knockdown of DTKR in IPCs leads to increased lifespan and a faster decrease of trehalose at starvation but has no significant effect on lipid levels. Finally, we targeted the IPCs with RNAi or ectopic expression of the other DTK receptor, NKD, but found no effect on survival at starvation. Our results suggest that DTK signaling, via DTKR, regulates the brain IPCs.

  • 3.
    Kapan, Neval
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Lushchak, Oleh V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Identified peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila brain regulate insulin-producing cells, stress responses and metabolism by coexpressed short neuropeptide F and corazonin2012In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), ISSN 1420-682X, E-ISSN 1420-9071, Vol. 69, no 23, p. 4051-4066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin/IGF-like signaling regulates the development, growth, fecundity, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and lifespan in worms, flies and mammals. Eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are found in Drosophila. Three of these (DILP2, 3 and 5) are produced by a set of median neurosecretory cells (insulin-producing cells, IPCs) in the brain. Activity in the IPCs of adult flies is regulated by glucose and several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. One of these, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), regulates food intake, growth and Dilp transcript levels in IPCs via the sNPF receptor (sNPFR1) expressed on IPCs. Here we identify a set of brain neurons that utilizes sNPF to activate the IPCs. These sNPF-expressing neurons (dorsal lateral peptidergic neurons, DLPs) also produce the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) and have axon terminations impinging on IPCs. Knockdown of either sNPF or CRZ in DLPs extends survival in flies exposed to starvation and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Expression of sNPF in DLPs in the sNPF mutant background is sufficient to rescue wild-type metabolism and response to starvation. Since CRZ receptor RNAi in IPCs affects starvation resistance and metabolism, similar to peptide knockdown in DLPs, it is likely that also CRZ targets the IPCs. Knockdown of sNPF, but not CRZ in DLPs decreases transcription of Dilp2 and 5 in the brain, suggesting different mechanisms of action on IPCs of the two co-released peptides. Our findings indicate that sNPF and CRZ co-released from a small set of neurons regulate IPCs, stress resistance and metabolism in adult Drosophila.

  • 4.
    Liu, Yiting
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Carlsson, Mikael A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Serotonin and insulin-like peptides modulate leucokinin-producing neurons that affect feeding and water homeostasis in Drosophila2015In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 523, no 12, p. 1840-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic homeostasis and water balance is maintained by tight hormonal and neuronal regulation. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILPs) are key regulators of metabolism, and the neuropeptide leucokinin (LK) is a diuretic hormone that also modulates feeding. However, it is not known whether LK and DILPs act together to regulate feeding and water homeostasis. Because LK neurons express the insulin receptor (dInR), we tested functional links between DILP and LK signaling in feeding and water balance. Thus, we performed constitutive and conditional manipulations of activity in LK neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in adult flies and monitored food intake, responses to desiccation, and peptide expression levels. We also measured in vivo changes in LK and DILP levels in neurons in response to desiccation and drinking. Our data show that activated LK cells stimulate diuresis in vivo, and that LK and IPC signaling affect food intake in opposite directions. Overexpression of the dInR in LK neurons decreases the LK peptide levels, but only caused a subtle decrease in feeding, and had no effect on water balance. Next we demonstrated that LK neurons express the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B. Knockdown of this receptor in LK neurons diminished LK expression, increased desiccation resistance, and diminished food intake. Live calcium imaging indicates that serotonin inhibits spontaneous activity in abdominal LK neurons. Our results suggest that serotonin via 5-HT1B diminishes activity in the LK neurons and thereby modulates functions regulated by LK peptide, but the action of the dInR in these neurons remains less clear.

  • 5.
    Liu, Yiting
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Multiple effects of the transcription factor Dimmed and the insulin receptor on growth and differentiation vary among neuron types and developmental stages in DrosophilaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Liu, Yiting
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage2016In: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5099, Vol. 9, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dlnR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Down function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dlnR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dlnR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dlnR mediated cell growth in the OHS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dlnR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dlnR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dlnR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance of neurons which might lead to blocked apoptosis.

  • 7.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Regulation of insulin signaling and its developmental and functional roles on peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are produced and secreted in different locations. They regulate many aspects of development and physiology, such as organism growth, metabolic homeostasis, reproduction, stress resistance and life span. DILP2, 3 and 5 are mainly produced by a cluster of median neurosecretory cells in the brain known as insulin producing cells (IPCs). Here we showed that IPCs are under tight regulation of two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), serotonin receptor 5-HT1A and octopamine receptor OAMB. Genetic manipulations of these two receptors in IPCs affected transcription levels of DILPs, hence altered feeding, carbohydrate levels, and resistance to stress (Paper I and II). Moreover, we showed that the insulin receptor (dInR) is strongly expressed in leucokininergic neurons (LK neurons), and selectively regulates growth of around 300 neuropeptidergic neurons expressing the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED. Overexpression of dInR in DIMM-positive neurons led to substantial neuronal growth, including cell body size, golgi apparatus and nuclear size, while knockdown of dInR had the opposite effect (Paper III). Manipulations of components in the insulin signaling pathway in LK neurons resulted in the similar cell size phenotypes. Furthermore, dInR regulated size scaling of DIMM-postive neurons is nutrient-dependent and partially requires the presence of DIMM (Paper III). Finally, we investigated the roles of DILPs (2, 3, 5 and 7) and LK neurons in regulation of feeding and diuresis at the adult stage (Paper IV).  In summary, we have identified two more regulators for IPC activity and demonstrated developmental roles of  DILPs and dInR in regulating neuronal size. Moreover, DILPs regulate water homeostasis together with a diuretic hormone leucokinin and as a consequence affects feeding behavior.

  • 8.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Becnel, Jaime
    Nichols, Charles D
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Insulin-producing cells in the brain of adult Drosophila are regulated by the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor.2012In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), ISSN 1420-682X, E-ISSN 1420-9071, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 471-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin signaling regulates lifespan, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, and resistance to stress in the adult organism. In Drosophila, there are seven insulin-like peptides (DILP1-7). Three of these (DILP2, 3 and 5) are produced in median neurosecretory cells of the brain, designated IPCs. Previous work has suggested that production or release of DILPs in IPCs can be regulated by a factor secreted from the fat body as well as by neuronal GABA or short neuropeptide F. There is also evidence that serotonergic neurons may regulate IPCs. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which serotonin may regulate the IPCs. We show that the IPCs in adult flies express the 5-HT(1A), but not the 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(7) receptors, and that processes of serotonergic neurons impinge on the IPC branches. Knockdown of 5-HT(1A) in IPCs by targeted RNA interference (RNAi) leads to increased sensitivity to heat, prolonged recovery after cold knockdown and decreased resistance to starvation. Lipid metabolism is also affected, but no effect on growth was seen. Furthermore, we show that DILP2-immunolevels in IPCs increase after 5-HT(1A) knockdown; this is accentuated by starvation. Heterozygous 5-HT(1A) mutant flies display the same phenotype in all assays, as seen after targeted 5-HT(1A) RNAi, and flies fed the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY100635 display reduced lifespan at starvation. Our findings suggest that serotonin acts on brain IPCs via the 5-HT(1A) receptor, thereby affecting their activity and probably insulin signaling. Thus, we have identified a second inhibitory pathway regulating IPC activity in the Drosophila brain.

  • 9.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liu, Yiting
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Roles of insulin-like peptides and leucokinin in feeding and water homeostasis in DrosophilaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liu, Yiting
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Insulin/IGF-Regulated Size Scaling of Neuroendocrine Cells Expressing the bHLH Transcription Factor Dimmed in Drosophila2013In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 9, no 12, article id e1004052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurons and other cells display a large variation in size in an organism. Thus, a fundamental question is how growth of individual cells and their organelles is regulated. Is size scaling of individual neurons regulated post-mitotically, independent of growth of the entire CNS? Although the role of insulin/IGF-signaling (IIS) in growth of tissues and whole organisms is well established, it is not known whether it regulates the size of individual neurons. We therefore studied the role of IIS in the size scaling of neurons in the Drosophila CNS. By targeted genetic manipulations of insulin receptor (dInR) expression in a variety of neuron types we demonstrate that the cell size is affected only in neuroendocrine cells specified by the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED (DIMM). Several populations of DIMM-positive neurons tested displayed enlarged cell bodies after overexpression of the dInR, as well as PI3 kinase and Akt1 (protein kinase B), whereas DIMM-negative neurons did not respond to dInR manipulations. Knockdown of these components produce the opposite phenotype. Increased growth can also be induced by targeted overexpression of nutrient-dependent TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling components, such as Rheb (small GTPase), TOR and S6K (S6 kinase). After Dimm-knockdown in neuroendocrine cells manipulations of dInR expression have significantly less effects on cell size. We also show that dInR expression in neuroendocrine cells can be altered by up or down-regulation of Dimm. This novel dInR-regulated size scaling is seen during postembryonic development, continues in the aging adult and is diet dependent. The increase in cell size includes cell body, axon terminations, nucleus and Golgi apparatus. We suggest that the dInR-mediated scaling of neuroendocrine cells is part of a plasticity that adapts the secretory capacity to changing physiological conditions and nutrient-dependent organismal growth.

  • 11.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liu, Yiting
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Transcriptional Reorganization of Drosophila Motor Neurons and Their Muscular Junctions toward a Neuroendocrine Phenotype by the bHLH Protein Dimmed2017In: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5099, Vol. 10, article id 260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroendocrine cells store and secrete bulk amounts of neuropeptides, and display morphological and molecular characteristics distinct from neurons signaling with classical neurotransmitters. In Drosophila the transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm), is a prime organizer of neuroendocrine capacity in a majority of the peptidergic neurons. These neurons display large cell bodies and extensive axon terminations that commonly do not form regular synapses. We ask which molecular compartments of a neuron are affected by Dimm to generate these morphological features. Thus, we ectopically expressed Dimm in glutamatergic, Dimm-negative, motor neurons and analyzed their characteristics in the central nervous system and the neuromuscular junction. Ectopic Dimm results in motor neurons with enlarged cell bodies, diminished dendrites, larger axon terminations and boutons, as well as reduced expression of synaptic proteins both pre and post-synaptically. Furthermore, the neurons display diminished vesicular glutamate transporter, and signaling components known to sustain interactions between the developing axon termination and muscle, such as wingless and frizzled are down regulated. Ectopic co-expression of Dimm and the insulin receptor augments most of the above effects on the motor neurons. In summary, ectopic Dimm expression alters the glutamatergic motor neuron phenotype toward a neuroendocrine one, both pre- and post-synaptically. Thus, Dimm is a key organizer of both secretory capacity and morphological features characteristic of neuroendocrine cells, and this transcription factor affects also post- synaptic proteins.

  • 12.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lushchak, Oleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nässel, Dick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Insulin producing cells are differentially regulated by serotonin and octopamine receptorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lushchak, Oleh V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Goergen, Philip
    Williams, Michael J.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Drosophila Insulin-Producing Cells Are Differentially Modulated by Serotonin and Octopamine Receptors and Affect Social Behavior2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99732-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of 14 insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produces three insulin-like peptides (DILP2, 3 and 5). Activity in IPCs and release of DILPs is nutrient dependent and controlled by multiple factors such as fat body-derived proteins, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Two monoamine receptors, the octopamine receptor OAMB and the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A, are expressed by the IPCs. These receptors may act antagonistically on adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the action of the two receptors on activity in and output from the IPCs. Knockdown of OAMB by targeted RNAi led to elevated Dilp3 transcript levels in the brain, whereas 5-HT1A knockdown resulted in increases of Dilp2 and 5. OAMB-RNAi in IPCs leads to extended survival of starved flies and increased food intake, whereas 5-HT1A-RNAi produces the opposite phenotypes. However, knockdown of either OAMB or 5-HT1A in IPCs both lead to increased resistance to oxidative stress. In assays of carbohydrate levels we found that 5-HT1A knockdown in IPCs resulted in elevated hemolymph glucose, body glycogen and body trehalose levels, while no effects were seen after OAMB knockdown. We also found that manipulations of the two receptors in IPCs affected male aggressive behavior in different ways and 5-HT1A-RNAi reduced courtship latency. Our observations suggest that activation of 5-HT1A and OAMB signaling in IPCs generates differential effects on Dilp transcription, fly physiology, metabolism and social interactions. However the findings do not support an antagonistic action of the two monoamines and their receptors in this particular system.

  • 14.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kubrak, Olga I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liu, Yiting
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lushchak, Oleh V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Factors that regulate insulin producing cells and their output in Drosophila2013In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 4, article id 252Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and growth factors (IGFs) not only regulate development, growth, reproduction, metabolism, stress resistance, and lifespan, but also certain behaviors and cognitive functions. ILPs, IGFs, their tyrosine kinase receptors and downstream signaling components have been largely conserved over animal evolution. Eight ILPs have been identified in Drosophila (DILP1-8) and they display cell and stage-specific expression patterns. Only one insulin receptor, dInR, is known in Drosophila and most other invertebrates. Nevertheless, the different DILPs are independently regulated transcriptionally and appear to have distinct functions, although some functional redundancy has been revealed. This review summarizes what is known about regulation of production and release of DILPs in Drosophila with focus on insulin signaling in the daily life of the fly. Under what conditions are DILP-producing cells (IPCs) activated and which factors have been identified in control of IPC activity in larvae and adult flies? The brain IPCs that produce DILP2, 3 and 5 are indirectly targeted by DILP6 and a leptin-like factor from the fat body, as well as directly by a few neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Serotonin, octopamine, GABA, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), corazonin and tachykinin-related peptide have been identified in Drosophila as regulators of IPCs. The GABAergic cells that inhibit IPCs and DILP release are in turn targeted by a leptin-like peptide (unpaired 2) from the fat body, and the IPC-stimulating corazonin/sNPF neurons may be targeted by gut-derived peptides. We also discuss physiological conditions under which IPC activity may be regulated, including nutritional states, stress and diapause induction.

  • 15.
    Nässel, Dick R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Liu, Yiting
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Luo, Jiangnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Insulin/IGF signaling and its regulation in Drosophila2015In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 221, p. 255-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking advantage of Drosophila as a genetically tractable experimental animal much progress has been made in our understanding of how the insulin/IGF signaling (IS) pathway regulates development, growth, metabolism, stress responses and lifespan. The role of IIS in regulation of neuronal activity and behavior has also become apparent from experiments in Drosophila. This review briefly summarizes these functional roles of IIS, and also how the insulin producing cells (IPCs) are regulated in the fly. Furthermore, we discuss functional aspects of the spatio-temporal production of eight different insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) that are thought to act on one known receptor (dInR) in Drosophila.

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