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  • 1. Adams, John
    et al.
    Pike, Tim
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Sacker, Amanda
    Glaser, Karen
    Price, Debora
    How do female lifecourses affect income in retirement?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Briefing Note examines the influence of various lifecourses on income in retirement. The primary focus of this note is to consider how women’s retirement income is affected by motherhood. This includes the impact of taking time out of work to care for children, as well as the implications of the Motherhood Penalty, which is the observation that mothers tend to have reduced incomes relative to women without children.

  • 2. Benson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Glaser, Karen
    Corna, Laurie M
    Platts, Loretta G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Worts, Diana
    Price, Debora
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Do work and family care histories predict health in older women?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1010-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social and policy changes in the last several decades have increased women's options for combining paid work with family care. We explored whether specific combinations of work and family care over the lifecourse are associated with variations in women's later life health.

    Methods: We used sequence analysis to group women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing according to their work histories and fertility. Using logistic regression, we tested for group differences in later life disability, depressive symptomology and mortality, while controlling for childhood health and socioeconomic position and a range of adult socio-economic circumstances and health behaviours.

    Results: Women who transitioned from family care to either part-time work after a short break from the labour force, or to full-time work, reported lower odds of having a disability compared with the reference group of women with children who were mostly employed full-time throughout. Women who shifted from family care to part-time work after a long career break had lower odds of mortality than the reference group. Depressive symptoms were not associated with women's work and family care histories.

    Conclusion: Women's work histories are predictive of their later life disability and mortality. This relationship may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at improving later life health. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms linking certain work histories to poorer later life health and to design interventions for those affected.

  • 3. Corna, Laurie M.
    et al.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Worts, Diana
    Price, Debora
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Glaser, Karen
    A sequence analysis approach to modelling the work and family histories of older adults in the UK2016Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Di Gessa, Giorgio
    et al.
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Price, Debora
    Glaser, Karen
    Is being in paid work beyond state pension age beneficial for health? Evidence from England using a life-course approach2017In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Given the current policy emphasis in many Western societies on extending working lives, we investigated the health effects of being in paid work beyond state pension age (SPA). Until now, work has largely focused on the health of those who exit the labour force early. Methods Our data come from waves 2-4 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, including the life history interview at wave 3. Using logistic and linear regression models, we assessed the longitudinal associations between being in paid work beyond SPA and 3 measures of health (depression, a latent measure of somatic health and sleep disturbance) among men aged 65-74 and women aged 60-69. Our analyses controlled for baseline health and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as for work histories and health in adulthood and childhood. Results Approximately a quarter of women and 15% of men were in paid work beyond SPA. Descriptive bivariate analyses suggested that men and women in paid work were more likely to report better health at follow-up. However, once baseline socioeconomic characteristics as well as adulthood and baseline health and labour market histories were accounted for, the health benefits of working beyond SPA were no longer significant. Conclusions Potential health benefits of working beyond SPA need to be considered in the light of the fact that those who report good health and are more socioeconomically advantaged are more likely to be working beyond SPA to begin with.

  • 5. Lu, Wentian
    et al.
    Benson, Rebecca
    Glaser, Karen
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Price, Debora
    Sacker, Amanda
    Relationship between employment histories and frailty trajectories in later life: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing2017In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 439-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Given the acceleration of population ageing and policy changes to extend working lives, evidence is needed on the ability of older adults to work for longer. To understand more about the health impacts of work, this study examined the relationship between employment histories before retirement and trajectories of frailty thereafter. Methods The sample comprised 2765 women and 1621 men from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We used gendered typologies of life-time employment and a frailty index (FI). Multilevel growth curve models were used to predict frailty trajectories by employment histories. Results Women who had a short break for family care, then did part-time work till 59 years had a lower FI after 60 years than those who undertook full-time work until 59 years. Women who were largely family carers or non-employed throughout adulthood, had higher levels of frailty at 60 years but experienced a slower decline with age. Men who worked full-time but early exited at either 49 or 60 years had a higher FI at 65 years than those who worked full-time up to 65 years. Interaction between employment histories and age indicated that men in full-time work who experienced an early exit at 49 tended to report slower declines. Conclusions For women, experiencing distinct periods throughout the lifecourse of either work or family care may be advantageous for lessening frailty risk in later life. For men, leaving paid employment before 65 years seems to be beneficial for decelerating increases in frailty thereafter. Continuous full-time work until retirement age conferred no long-term health benefits.

  • 6.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Tezpur University, India.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Rod, Naja H.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Stenholm, Sari
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Zins, Marie
    Head, Jenny
    Job strain and loss of healthy life years between ages 50 and 75 by sex and occupational position: analyses of 64 934 individuals from four prospective cohort studies2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 486-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Poor psychosocial working conditions increase the likelihood of various types of morbidity and may substantially limit quality of life and possibilities to remain in paid work. To date, however, no studies to our knowledge have quantified the extent to which poor psychosocial working conditions reduce healthy or chronic disease-free life expectancy, which was the focus of this study.

    Methods Data were derived from four cohorts with repeat data: the Finnish Public Sector Study (Finland), GAZEL (France), the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (Sweden) and Whitehall II (UK). Healthy (in good self-rated health) life expectancy (HLE) and chronic disease-free (free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes) life expectancy (CDFLE) was calculated from age 50 to 75 based on 64394 individuals with data on job strain (high demands in combination with low control) at baseline and health at baseline and follow-up.

    Results Multistate life table models showed that job strain was consistently related to shorter HLE (overall 1.7 years difference). The difference in HLE was more pronounced among men (2.0 years compared with 1.5 years for women) and participants in lower occupational positions (2.5 years among low-grade men compared with 1.7 years among high-grade men). Similar differences in HLE, although smaller, were observed among those in intermediate or high occupational positions. Job strain was additionally associated with shorter CDFLE, although this association was weaker and somewhat inconsistent.

    Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with job strain have a shorter health expectancy compared with those without job strain.

  • 7.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vajtera, J
    Rod, N
    Alexandersson, Kristina
    Goldberg, M
    Stenholm, S
    Platts, Loretta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Zins, M
    Head, J
    Loss of healthy life years between ages 50-75 years attributed to job strain: analyses of 64,533 individuals from four European cohort studies2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Pike, Tim
    et al.
    Adams, John
    Price, Debora
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Sacker, Amanda
    Glaser, Karen
    What difference does a year make?2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final Briefing Note from the PPI stream of the WHeRL project. The Briefing Note focuses on the impact of extending the working lives on income in retirement on two groups:    

    Women who take a career break; considering sensitivity to the timing and length of the period of their return to work following a career break   

    Men and women who exit the labour market early; considering sensitivity to the timing of their exit from the labour market before State Pension age (SPa).

  • 9.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    King's College London, UK; Imperial College London, UK.
    A prospective analysis of labour market status and self-rated health in the UK and Russia2015In: The Economics of Transition, ISSN 0967-0750, E-ISSN 1468-0351, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 343-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparing prospective data from the UK and Russia, this paper analyzes whether the association of labour market status, and particularly unemployment, with subsequent health varies by the level of state protection provided to the unemployed. While the UK’s unemployment welfare regime is classified as providing minimal protection, the Russian regime is sub-protective. Employing Cox duration analysis upon data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey and the British Household Panel Survey for the period 2000–2007, this study finds that labour market status and economic circumstances independently predicted individual-level declines in self-rated health and, contrary to expectations, the associations of unemployment with health decline were similarly sized in the two countries.

  • 10.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. King's College London, UK.
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Price, Debora
    Glaser, Karen
    Returns to work after retirement: a prospective study of unretirement in the United Kingdom2017In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the complexity of the retirement process, most research treats it as an abrupt and one-way transition. Our study takes a different approach by examining retirement reversals (unretirement) and their predictors. Using the British Household Panel Survey (1991–2008), and following participants into Understanding Society (2010–2015), we undertake a survival analysis to investigate retirement reversals among Britons aged 50–69 years who were born in 1920–1959 (N = 2,046). Unretirement was defined as: (a) reporting being retired and subsequently recommencing paid employment, or (b) beginning full-time work following partial retirement (the latter defined here as reporting being retired and working fewer than 30 hours per week). A cumulative proportion of around 25 per cent of participants experienced a retirement reversal after reporting being retired; about half of these reversals occurred within the first five years of retirement. Unretirement was more common for participants who were male, more educated, in better health, owned a house with a mortgage (compared to owning it outright) and whose partner was in paid work. However, unretirement rates were not higher for participants in greater financial need, whether measured as subjective assessment of finances or household income quintiles. These results suggest that unretirement is a strategy more often used by those who are already advantaged and that it has the potential to exacerbate income inequalities in later life.

  • 11.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gerry, Christopher J.
    Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of psychosocial, material and behavioural factors2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Methods: Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. Results: In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. Conclusions: The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty

  • 12.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny
    Stenholm, Sari
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Zins, Marie
    Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort2017In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease.

    Methods: The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50-75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989-2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade.

    Results: Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed.

    Conclusions: Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation.

  • 13.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Imperial College London, UK; ESRC International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and Health (ICLS), UK.
    Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan
    Webb, Elizabeth
    Zins, Marie
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Blane, David
    Wahrendorf, Morten
    Physical occupational exposures during working life and quality of life after labour market exit: results from the GAZEL study2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate variations in quality of life at older ages, we take a life course perspective to analyse long-term effects of physical working conditions upon quality of life after retirement. In doing so, we study to what extent these associations are explained by individuals' health at older ages.

    METHOD: We use administrative data and self-administered questionnaire responses from the French GAZEL cohort. Quality of life was assessed with CASP-19 in 2009 and related to three types of physical working conditions during previous working life: (1) ergonomic strain, (2) physical danger and (3) exposures to chemicals. Health was assessed in 2007 with the SF-36 Health Survey. Multiple regressions were calculated in retired men only, controlling for important confounders including social position.

    RESULTS: In contrast to men, few women were exposed to strenuous and dangerous working conditions in this cohort and were not included in subsequent analyses. Negative effects on retired men's quality of life were found for the physical occupational exposures of ergonomic strain and physical danger, but not for chemical exposures. Effects were attenuated after the introduction of physical and mental health to the models, indicating an indirect effect of physical working conditions upon quality of life via health.

    CONCLUSION: Adverse physical working conditions have long-term consequences for health and quality of life at older ages. Improvements to physical working conditions may improve individuals' quality of life over the long term.

  • 14.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    King's College London, UK; Imperial College London, UK.
    Webb, Elizabeth
    Zins, Marie
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan
    Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 634-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants' recent circumstances 2002-2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals' more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life.

  • 15. Sacco, Lawrence B.
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Informal care and sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work: Longitudinal analyses from a large community-based Swedish cohort study2018In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objectives

    To examine cross-sectionally and prospectively whether informal caregiving is related to sleep disturbance among caregivers in paid work.

    Methods

    Participants (N=21 604) in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sleeping problems were measured with a validated scale of sleep disturbance (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire). Random-effects modelling was used to examine the cross-sectional association between informal caregiving (self-reports: none, up to 5h per week, over 5h per week) and sleep disturbance. Potential socio-demographic and health confounders were controlled for and interactions between caregiving and gender included. Longitudinal random-effects modelling of the effects of changes in reported informal caregiving upon sleep disturbance and change in sleep disturbance were performed.

    Results

    In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographics, health factors and work hours, informal caregiving was associated cross-sectionally with sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship (compared to no caregiving, up to 5h of caregiving: β = .03; 95% CI: .01; .06, over 5h: β = .08; 95% CI: .02; .13), results which varied by gender. Cessation of caregiving was associated with reductions in sleep disturbance (β = -.08; 95% CI: -.13; -.04).

    Conclusions

    This study provides evidence for a causal association of provision of informal care upon subjective sleep disturbance. Even low intensity care provision was related to sleep disturbance among this sample of carers in paid work. The results highlight the importance of addressing sleep disturbance in caregivers.

  • 16.
    Seddigh, Aram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  • 17. Stenholm, Sari
    et al.
    Head, J.
    Aalto, V.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Kawachi, I.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Zaninotto, P.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, J.
    Body mass index as a predictor of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 769-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While many studies have shown associations between obesity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, little comparable information is available on how body mass index (BMI) impacts health expectancy. We examined associations of BMI with healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies.

    METHODS: Data were drawn from repeated waves of cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. BMI was categorized into four groups from normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)) to obesity class II (⩾35 kg m(-2)). Health expectancy was estimated with two health indicators: sub-optimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years for each BMI category.

    RESULTS: The proportion of life spent in good perceived health between ages 50 and 75 progressively decreased with increasing BMI from 81% in normal weight men and women to 53% in men and women with class II obesity which corresponds to an average 7-year difference in absolute terms. The proportion of life between ages 50 and 75 years without chronic diseases decreased from 62 and 65% in normal weight men and women and to 29 and 36% in men and women with class II obesity, respectively. This corresponds to an average 9 more years without chronic diseases in normal weight men and 7 more years in normal weight women between ages 50 and 75 years compared to class II obese men and women. No consistent differences were observed between cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Excess BMI is associated with substantially shorter healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy, suggesting that tackling obesity would increase years lived in good health in populations.

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