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  • 1.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood2011In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 950-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program entitled Individual Development and Adaptation. In line with previous research, task persistence was found to be related to changes in grades between age 13 and age 16, over and above other childhood factors. Task persistence at age 13 was also a significant predictor of both income and occupational level in middle adulthood for the men, controlling for a number of childhood factors (including intelligence), and even when educational attainment in adulthood was taken into account. Finally, task persistence was related to educational attainment in adulthood. The authors suggest that task persistence is a second fundamental factor besides general mental ability, influencing attainment within the area of working life and education. The influence of task persistence is discussed in form of personality environment selection mechanisms.

  • 2. Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Importance of High Competence in Adolescence for Career Outcomes in Midlife2014In: RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 204-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have indicated the importance of IQ, educational aspirations, school grades, and task persistence during childhood and adolescence for later educational and vocational attainment. In this study, these characteristics were studied from a person-oriented perspective, identifying typical competence profiles using cluster analysis. The aim was to investigate a potential career bonus for adolescents with a highly positive competence profile for later educational and occupational success. Data were analyzed from the longitudinal Swedish Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA) study (N = 1326) with career outcomes measured in midlife (age 43-47). Results showed that having a highly positive competence profile predicted higher income and increased the probability of having a high occupational level, controlling for the separate competence components. The effects were only significant for males. Taken together, our findings support the idea that adolescent boys with a highly positive competence profile are optimized for career success to a larger extent than could be expected from the competence components considered separately.

  • 3. Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pathways to educational attainment in middle adulthood: the role of gender and parental educational expectations in adolescence2014In: Gender Differences in Aspirations and Attainment: A Life Course Perspective / [ed] Schoon, I.; Eccles, J. S., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 389-411Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we apply the expectancy-value model of motivation, particularly the family socialization aspect of the model (Eccles (Parsons) et al., 1983; Eccles, 1994, 2007; Wigfield & Eccles, 2002) to address a number of key questions regarding gender differences in adult attainment, in particular educational attainment. When some individuals in the work force of today were children, what kinds of expectations did they have for themselves? What expectations did their parents have for them? Did these expectations vary for girls and boys? Were parents' expectations about their children's future education related to the actual education that these adolescents later attained in midlife? How did the child's academic ability and characteristics of the family figure into this picture? We present original empirical findings, drawing on data collected for a Swedish longitudinal study that spans from childhood to middle adulthood. In line with the expectancy-value model of motivation, the family's socioeconomic status (SES) was identified as an important predictor of several outcomes. Consistent with the model, for both genders, the family's SES and parental educational expectations in middle adolescence predicted middle adult educational attainment. The importance of grades differed by gender in that the mathematics grade was a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment for males, while for females grades in Swedish were a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment. In this chapter, we situated these study findings in the wider pertinent scholarly literature and discussed the implications of our results as they might relate to efforts to promote equitable and optimal life chances for the current generation of European girls and boys.

  • 4. Benzies, K.M.
    et al.
    Wångby, Margit
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and change in health-related behaviors of midlife Swedish women2008In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 997-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the dimensions and stability in health-related behaviors (HRBs) among midlife Swedish women, and the factors that predicted change in those behaviors. At age 43, 569 women from a representative longitudinal sample completed questionnaires about lifestyle (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol) and participated in medical screening. Four years later we mailed a follow-up questionnaire. HRBs clustered in two dimensions: healthy eating and addictions. There was a high degree of stability in HRBs; all women slightly increased their HRBs over time. After controlling for previous HRBs, education, marital status, and having children at home were significant predictors of HRBs 4 years later.

  • 5.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Advancing Developmental Science: Some Challenges and Obstacles2012In: International Journal of Developmental Science, ISSN 2192-001X, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 41-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental science (DS) is defined somewhat differently by different researchers. In the present essay DS is defined as (1) it concerns understanding individual development, partly in contrast to group development, (2) DS is cross-disciplinary, and (3) the individual is regarded as a “functioning whole”, engaged in a developmental process in context, characterized by interactions. Empirical research carried out within a DS framework must pay attention to many issues such as: (1) The translation of a specific DS theory into informative hypotheses. (2) The integration of DS findings with the research literature. (3) Making the findings interpretable as addressing individual development. Finally, it was pointed out that to maximally advance DS research a shared general theoretical framework and set of central concepts are necessary.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mediation and causality at the individual level2009In: Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, ISSN 1932-4502, E-ISSN 1936-3567, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 248-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a person-oriented research paradigm the focus is on individuals characterized by patterns of information that are regarded as indivisible wholes. It is then not sufficient to carry out standard variable-oriented mediation analysis. The procedure suggested by von Eye, Mun, and Mair (2009) for pattern-oriented mediation analysis is much better aligned to this person-oriented framework. An important new feature in their approach is that it can detect mediator configurations that prohibit predictor and outcome connections at a pattern level. Two extensions of their procedure are suggested, namely (1) the use of cluster analysis to arrive at the categories and (2) the use of other models for estimating the expected frequencies. It is pointed out that in their context a functional relations perspective might be more relevant than the standard causality perspective.

  • 7.
    Bergman, Lars R
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interpretation of single observational units' measurements.2010In: Official statistics: methodology and applications in honour of Daniel Thorburn / [ed] Michael Carlson, Hans Nyquist, and Mattias Villani, Stockholm: Department of Statistics, Stockholm University , 2010, p. 37-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In official statistics the interpretation of measurements of single observational units is usually not central; instead the focus is most often on producing estimates of population parameters. However, from a psychometric framework it is argued that more attention should be paid to the task of constructing measurements that are interpretable at the individual level and to the task of improving the measurement of central concepts by forming scales consisting of many single variables. The usefulness of such endeavors within official statistics is discussed, both from the viewpoint of improving the data that are used for producing standard estimates and from the viewpoint of increasing the possibilities to use data from official statistics systems for other purposes.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro universitet.
    Predictors and outcomes of persistent or age-limited registered criminal behavior: a 30-year longitudinal study of a Swedish urban population2009In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 164-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses data from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation, where an entire school-grade cohort of children in a middle-size Swedish city (n∼1.300) has been followed from ages 10 to 43 and 48 for women and men, respectively. Our findings indicate that the patterns of offending across the life-course differ between genders, where males seem to initiate their offending earlier than females. Further, there are very few women on a persistent offending-trajectory. Focusing on precursors to as well as consequences of offending as indexed in official registers, our results indicate that individuals in the persistent offender group have the most pronounced adjustment problems in school- as well as in middle age. Individual characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity, antisocial behavior) vary systematically between individuals with different developmental offending patterns. The combination of an unstable upbringing and own antisocial behavior seems to be especially predictive for criminality. For persistent offenders, the prevalence of alcohol and psychiatric problems at adult age is high for males and extremely high for females (nine out of ten and six out of ten for each of the two problem types for females). Further, the importance for adjustment of the two-dimensional variation in the number of crimes committed during adolescence and adult age seems to have been surprisingly well captured by the “crude” division into the four offender groups that were used.

  • 9.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro universitet.
    Types and continua in developmental psychopathology: problem behaviors in school and their relationship to later antisocial behavior2009In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 975-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of developmental psychopathology a dimensional, variable-oriented approach dominates over a typological approach. With the person-oriented research paradigm providing the metatheoretical framework, pros and cons of these two approaches are discussed, and it is pointed to different methodological realizations of the typological approach, and to the contexts where they might be appropriate. It is also pointed out that the two important and underused concepts of equifinality and multifinality with advantage can be incorporated in a person-oriented approach. An empirical example is given of the study of the structure of early adolescent problem behaviors and their relationship to later criminality where dimensional as well as typological analyses are carried out. The usefulness of the typological approach in studying the development and early manifestations of the personality disorder psychopathy is also discussed. It is concluded that the usefulness of a typological approach appears to be underestimated.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    The Person and the Variable in Developmental Psychology2010In: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie mit Zeitschrift fur angewandte Psychologie, ISSN 2190-8370, E-ISSN 2151-2604, Vol. 218, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief theoretical and methodological overview is given of the person-oriented and the variable-oriented approach, how these are commonly used in longitudinal research, and what one should take into consideration before choosing either approach. An empirical research example is also given where the association was studied between, on the one hand, attention control-activity level in early adolescence and, on the other hand, persistent versus adolescence-limited criminality. Key topics discussed include properties that variables must have to be suitable for the study of individual pattern development, the problem-method match, and prediction versus understanding.

  • 11.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Corovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Modig, K.
    High IQ in early adolescence and career success in adulthood: Findings from a Swedish longitudinal study2014In: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 165-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent do intellectually talented adolescents pursue educational and vocational careers that match their intellectual resources? Career outcomes were compared between groups within different IQ ranges with a focus on comparing those with high IQ (top 10%, IQ > 119) to those with average IQ. Data were analyzed from the longitudinal Swedish IDA study (N = 1,326) with career outcomes measured in midlife (age 43–47). To obtain at least a master’s degree was almost 10 times more common for those of high IQ than for those of average IQ. Still, the proportion of high-IQ adolescents who did this was not high (13% of females, 34% of males) and as much as 20% of them did not even graduate from 3-year high school. For men only, there was a graded raise in income by IQ group.Within the high-IQ group there was no significant relationship between parents’ socioeconomic status and income. For men, high IQ predicted a strongly increased income/vocational level in midlife beyond what was predicted from a linear model of the IQ-outcome relationship.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Lars R
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daukantaite, Daiva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of social circumstances for Swedish women's subjective wellbeing.2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of social circumstances for middle-age women's general subjective wellbeing (SWB) was investigated in a representative sample of Swedish women, aged 43 (N=369). The results showed non-existent to moderate relationships between a number of social circumstances variables and general SWB. The strongest relationship was found between marital status and global life satisfaction. Being off work because of illness and household income were the strongest predictors of negative affect. A moderate relationship was found between a cumulated social disadvantage index and SWB, indicating that extreme differences in this index were related to fairly large differences in SWB. In person-oriented analyses, social circumstances were compared between women with a typical profile of generalised low SWB and women with a typical profile of generalised above-average SWB. The results indicated stronger relationships between SWB and the cumulative disadvantage index and unemployment than was the case in the variable-oriented analyses. When personality factors were controlled for, they eliminated nearly all relationships between the social circumstances variables and SWB, except for those between global life satisfaction and marital status or unemployment.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daukantaitė, Daiva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability of Typical Patterns of Subjective Well–Being in Middle–Aged Swedish Women2007In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical patterns of general subjective well-being (SWB) were searched for in a representative longitudinal sample of Swedish women (N = 272) at age 43 and 49. Cluster analysis at each age separately resulted in a six-cluster solution at both ages. The two solutions were similar, indicating structural stability across 6 years. Five of the six clusters also showed significant individual stability. Among these clusters, a generalized positive typical pattern and two generalized negative typical patterns were found, one characterized by very high negative affect and one characterized by very low global life satisfaction. A cluster characterized by above average positive and negative affect was also found as well as one characterized by low positive affect. A strong relationship was found between membership in an extreme cluster and the values in certain SWB-related variables, supporting the validity of the typical patterns found. Further, it was shown that cluster membership contributed to the prediction of some validation variables above the prediction achieved by using only SWB components entered as continuous variables, suggesting the presence of interactions and nonlinearities in the SWB area.

  • 14.
    Bergman, Lars R
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    El-Khouri, Bassam M
    The application of a person-oriented approach in longitudinal research on individual development.2005In: Supplement to International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, Vol. 29, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article gives an overview of person-oriented methods in longitudinal research on individual development. Theoretical and research strategic fundaments of the person-oriented approach are reviewed and this approach is contrasted to the ordinary variable-oriented approach. The importance of a balanced representation of core variables of the system under study is emphasized as is their representation in the form of relevant patterns in the methodological realization of the approach. One basic and robust method to carry out a person-oriented study is presented, namely LICUR. In LICUR, longitudinal data with the same variable pattern measured at the different ages are used. First a residue of "unclassifiable" objects is removed (usually 1-3% of the observations), then cross-sectional classifications are performed at each age separately, and, finally, the different classifications are linked across age. In this way, both structural and individual stability and change can be studied. Finally, future perspectives are discussed, focusing on the development of new methods based on a paradigm taken from the study of nonlinear dynamical systems.

  • 15.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrative summary and future research2014In: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 237-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a summary and treatment of the wider implications of the findings reported in four empirical articles, in which the importance for outcomes in midlife of having a high IQ was studied. All studies were based on data from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (N = 1,326, born 1955). Some highlights from the studies include the identification of a nonlinear relationship between IQ and a number of adult outcomes, suggesting that nonlinear IQ-outcome relationships might not be rare. In common with numerous studies of IQ-outcome relationships, parents’ socioeconomic status was found to be a moderately strong predictor of vocational outcomes when the whole sample was studied. However, within the high-IQ group no significant relationship existed. In adolescence, the adjustment for those of high IQ was often better than for those of average IQ, but in midlife this positive difference often disappeared and was in some cases reversed. Intellectually talented women as compared to intellectually talented men often had considerably less successful careers, especially vocational careers. Underachieving women as compared to women who did not underachieve also tended to have more adjustment roblems in midlife. It was concluded that schools and their personnel must be adequately supported to “make good on” society’s obligation to further the potential of students that show early intellectual talent. Given past and current inequalities of opportunity, this seems especially important for bright girls and women.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Implications of High IQ in Early Adolescence for Education, Career, and Adjustment in Midlife: Findings from a Swedish Longitudinal Study2014In: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inquiry into what intellectual talent is and how social institutions can support intellectually talented youth are historic, internationally held concerns. This article provides an introduction to a special issue that deals with the implications of high IQ in early adolescence for several important midlife outcomes. From a societal perspective, it is vital to know the extent to which intellectually talented youth attain an advanced education and become engaged in qualified occupations. Studies in this issue document a diversity of midlife outcomes for a large, reasonably representative urban cohort of intellectually talented Swedish adolescents, as well as consider the importance of gender and social class for these outcomes.

  • 17.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zukauskiene, Rita
    Career outcomes of adolescents with below average IQ: Who succeeds against the odds?2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 52, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational and vocational careers of adolescents with below average IQ were studied in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 1326), born in 1955 and followed from early adolescence to midlife. Compared to those with average IQ, the level of education and occupational status achieved by those with below average IQ were, generally, considerably lower. This was the case, in particular, for female participants in the lowest IQ group. No significant relationships were found between parents' socioeconomic status and educational level, income, or occupational status in midlife for adolescents with low IQ (lowest 20%). When those with a successful educational or vocational career were compared to others on a number of competence factors, own educational aspirations stood out as the factor that differed most within each IQ group between those who succeeded and those who did not. The differences were largest for those of low IQ (effect sizes 0.4–1.6). These findings were consistent with results from multiple regression analyses, which, for instance, showed that, within the low IQ group and controlling for confounders, the only significant predictor of career outcomes was educational aspirations.

  • 18.
    Bergman, Lars R
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Perspectives on determinants of social welfare.2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, no 15, p. 1-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of International Journal of Social Welfare deals with sociological and psychological perspectives on determinants of social welfare to which invited leading researchers in psychology, sociology, social policy, and public health have contributed. In all articles the outcome variables are important factors related to social welfare and psychological or sociological factors are trated as explanatory variables. In the introduction, Lars Bergman and Olle Lundberg overview the issues and contents of the issue. The article by Johannes Siegrist deals with quality of work and health, partly from a sociological perspective. S.V. Subramanian and Ichiro Kawachi study the importance of income for health and they develop a typology of income-health relationships. Income is regarded at both the individual and community level and the importance of a multilevel framework is emphasized.The article by Daiva Daukantaite and Rita Zukauskiene deals with Swedish and Lithuanian women's subjective well-being and Alexander von Eye and Anne Bogat report on mental health in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Ulf Lundberg in his article describes the main physiological stress responses and analyze under which conditions these responses promote or damage health and he also discusses how objective and subjective health are related. Finally, Lars Bergman and Olle Lundberg provide a commentary on the issues raised by the articles.

  • 19.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Studying patterns of individual development by I-States as Objects Analysis (ISOA)2010In: International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development Bulletin, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I-States-as-Objects-Analysis (ISOA) is a methodology for studying short-term developmental stability and change in patterns of variable values. The theoretical rationale for this methodology is the person-oriented research paradigm. A key concept is the <i>i-state,</i> defined as a person's pattern of variable values at a specific time point. Hence, if there are k time points, each person is characterized by k i-states. All i-states are first subjected to a classification analysis that results in each person being characterized at each time point by a class membership in the time-invariant classification system. Then, the individuals' sequences of typical i-state belongingness are analyzed with regard to structural and individual stability and change.

  • 20.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    von Eye, Alexander A.
    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA): Extensions of an approach to studying short-term developmental processes by analyzing typical patterns2012In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA) is a person-oriented methodology for studying short-term developmental stability and change in patterns of variable values. ISOA is based on longitudinal data with the same set of variables measured at all measurement occasions. A key concept is the i-state, defined as a person's pattern of variable values at a specific time point. All i-states are first subjected to a classification analysis that results in a time-invariant classification characterized by a number of typical i-states. Each person is then characterized at each time point by the typical i-state he/she belongs to. Then the person's sequences of typical i-states are analyzed with regard to structural and individual stability and change. Extensions of ISOA are presented where: (1) some methods for checking the assumption of a time-invariant classification are indicated; (2) information about the degree of dissimilarity between typical i-states is used as an aid in interpreting the findings; and (3) attention is given to closed paths-that is, typical i-state sequences that do not occur at all. To demonstrate the methods, an empirical example is given that concerns the development of children's achievement-intelligence patterns between ages 10 and 13.

  • 21.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The person-oriented versus the variable-oriented approach: Are they complementary, opposities, or exploring different worlds?2006In: Merrill-Palmer quarterly, ISSN 0272-930X, E-ISSN 1535-0266, Vol. 52, no 3, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present commentary gives a brief overview of the person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches, how they are commonly used in longitudinal research, and what one should take into consideration before using either approach. In addition to presenting an empirical example on girls' adjustment problems using both approaches, this commentary uses the contributions in the present issue of the Merrill Palmer Quarterly illustrate some of the main issues surrounding these two perspectives. Special attention is also given to the contrast between the person-oriented and variable oriented approaches in terms of aggregation and disaggregation, model appropriateness and usefulness, and prediction as a goal. Future directions with regard to implementing a person-oriented approach are discussed, including the importance of conceptual clarity, practical and theoretical training, and method development.

  • 22.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vargha, Andras
    Matching method to problem: a developmental science perspective2013In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developmental research there is quite often a mismatch between the scientific problem and the methods used to address it. In this article we discuss what this mismatch is about and we suggest some remedies. Our discussion is confined to typical matching situations that arise within a developmental science (DS) theoretical framework. A number of measurement issues are brought up including variable standardization and how to measure change. It is argued that to study individual development precise measurements are necessary and that, for this purpose, most measures currently used in developmental research are not sufficiently reliable. Further, we discuss the choice of a statistical method suitable for analysis within a DS framework and it is concluded that increased use should be made of person-oriented methods and methods developed for studying nonlinear dynamic systems. Finally, causality issues are discussed and a distinction is made between the study of average and individual causality.

  • 23.
    Bergman, Lars R
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Eye, A
    Magnusson, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Person-oriented research strategies in developmental psychopathology.2006In: Developmental psychopathology.: Vol. 1: Theory and method., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ , 2006, p. 850-888Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, person-oriented research strategies in developmental psychopathology are reviewed. By "person-oriented", we mean research strategies where the focus is on the individual and not on the variable. The information about each individual is regarded, as far as possible, as an indivisible unit, both conceptually and in the empirical analyses. It usually implies that individuals are studied on the basis of their pattern of information in relevant variables at the appropriate level. This approach is in contrast to the standard variable-oriented approach where the variable is the main conceptual and methodological unit. In the person-oriented approach, most commonly the variable alone has no importance. Only in combination with other variables in an information pattern does it achieve meaning. These fundamental conceptual and theoretical issues are discussed in the chapter. Common person-oriented research methods are presented and discussed in the context of studying individual development.

  • 24.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using Stranger Rapists' Pre-Assault and Initial-Attack Behaviors to Predict Likely Offender CharacteristicsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    From Crime Scene Actions in Stranger Rape to Prediction of Rapist Type: Single-Victim or Serial Rapist?2012In: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 764-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling.

  • 26. Kiuru, Noona
    et al.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    Zettergren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Best friends in adolescence show similar educational careers in early adulthood2012In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N = 476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational expectations and academic achievement at age 16. The results revealed that adolescent best friends ended up pursuing similar educational careers in adulthood. Furthermore, three kinds of partner-effects were found when adolescents' prior career behaviors were controlled for: (1) best friends' intelligence predicted adolescents' later academic performance; (2) best friends' parental education predicted adolescents' educational expectations; and (3) best friends' educational expectations predicted adolescents' educational attainment in early adulthood.

  • 27. Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Bergman, Lars R
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Studying Individual Aging in an Interindividual Context: Typical Paths of Age-Related, Dementia-Related, and Mortality-Related Cognitive Development in Old Age2005In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 303-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has 2 objectives: (a) to explore typical paths of cognitive development associated with aging, terminal decline, and dementia and (b) to promote and illustrate an individual-oriented approach to the study of cognitive aging based on longitudinal panel data from a population-based sample (N = 500; age range-sub(T1)= 60-80, where T refers to time) tested at 3 occasions 5 years apart. Results document interindividual differences in multivariate patterns of change. Although cognitive changes generally covary, the present study indicates that subgroups of individuals develop along different paths characterized by selective changes in subsets of cognitive functions. Typical progression of dementia followed a developmental cascade from low declarative memory, via low functioning across all observed cognitive measures, to dementia diagnosis, and finally, death.

  • 28. Marion, Donna
    et al.
    Laursen, Brett
    Zettergren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting Life Satisfaction During Middle Adulthood from Peer Relationships During Mid-Adolescence2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1299-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immediate advantages of adolescent friendships and disadvantages of peer rejection are well documented, but there is little evidence that these effects extend into adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that peer relationships during adolescence predict life satisfaction during middle adulthood, using data from a 30-year prospective longitudinal study. Participants included 996 (49.5 % female) 8th grade students from a community sample of Swedish youth. Self-reports of friendship and peer reports of rejection were obtained when participants were age 15. Self-reports of global life satisfaction and perceived relationship quality were collected at age 43 for women and age 48 for men. Path analyses tested a direct-effects model that examined links from adolescent friendship participation and peer rejection to middle adulthood outcomes, and a buffered-effects model that examined links from adolescent peer rejection to middle adulthood outcomes, separately for those with and without friends during adolescence. Strong support emerged for the buffered-effects model but not the direct-effects model. Adolescent friendship participation moderated associations between adolescent peer rejection and adult global life satisfaction and between adolescent peer rejection and adult perceived relationship quality such that peer rejection predicted poorer adult outcomes for youth without friends but not for youth with friends. The findings suggest that the risks of peer rejection-and benefits of friendship-extend from adolescence well into middle age.

  • 29. Modig, Karin
    et al.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between intelligence in adolescence and indicators of health and health behaviors in midlife in a cohort of Swedish women2012In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369 participated (77% participation rate). We performed correlations of IQ and the continuous health variables and we estimated logistic regression models with dichotomous health variables as the dependent variables. No significant correlations were found between IQ and any of the continuous health variables. In unadjusted logistic regression models where the cut-off points were set based on standard health risk levels, four out of sixteen indicators of unfavorable health status and health behaviors showed significant negative associations with intelligence, meaning higher risk with decreasing IQ-score. After adjusting for educational level, two remained statistically significant: being obese, OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.08, 2.12) and having a high systolic blood pressure OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.03, 2.03). For all other health variables, this study finds no support for a sizable association between IQ in adolescence and indicators of health and health behavior in midlife among Swedish women.

  • 30. Modig-Wennerstad, K.
    et al.
    Silventoinen, K.
    Batty, D.
    Tynelius, P.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rasmussen, F.
    Association between offspring intelligence and parental mortality: A population-based cohort study of one million Swedish men and their parents2008In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 722-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An inverse association of IQ with mortality has been observed in previous studies. Analyses of associations between offspring's IQ and parental mortality in biological and non-biological family relations may shed light on genetic and environmental influences. Methods: In a target cohort of 1 235 375 Swedish men, 931 825 (75%) men had complete data on all variables used. IQ of offspring was measured at age 18 and mothers and fathers were followed, on average, for 21.2 years and 19.7 years, respectively, with respect to all-cause and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes). The analyses were conducted by proportional hazards regression with adjustment for parental occupation, education and income. Results: In adjusted analyses using IQ as a continuous variable over a standard nine-point scale, hazards ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 0.96 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.96) for fathers and 0.95 (0.95 to 0.95) for mothers. The corresponding HRs were 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00) for step-fathers and 0.97 (0.95 to 0.99) for step-mothers. In adjusted analyses, HRs for CVD mortality among fathers and mothers were 0.97 (0.96 to 0.97) and 0.94 (0.93 to 0.94) respectively. The corresponding HRs for diabetes mortality were 0.91 (0.89 to 0.92) among fathers and 0.85 (0.83 to 0.87) among mothers. Conclusions: The associations found in non-biological family relationships suggest shared environmental influences and/or assortative mating. Stronger IQ-mortality associations in biological than non-biological relationships suggest genetic influences. Stronger inverse offspring IQ-parental mortality associations in mothers than in fathers might be due to environmental factors or epigenetic mechanisms.

  • 31. Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the utility of Moffitt's typology trajectories in long-term perspective2010In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 521-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used a prospective longitudinal study to examine the utility of Moffitt's (1993) trajectories of antisocial behaviour. Data on registered criminality in three time periods - before age 15 (childhood), from 15 to 20 (adolescence) and from 21 to 35 (adulthood) - were used to construct life-course trajectories of offending for males. Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited groups were found. The life-course-persistent males had the most problematic upbringing conditions, school problems and adjustment difficulties in adolescence, and the highest social and mental health problems in middle age. Adolescence-limited offenders did not differ much from non-offenders. In these respects, Moffitt's typology was confirmed. However, there was an equally large childhood-onset desister group. They had many of the same problems as the life-course-persistent males up to age 15, but did not differ much from the non-registered males in mid-adolescence or at the middle-age follow-up. These males are not predicted from Moffitt's model, but cannot be ignored. There was also a group of males who started to offend in adolescence and continued in adulthood, who had about the same problematic upbringing conditions, mid-adolescent maladjustment, and middle-age social and mental health problems as the life-course-persistent group.

  • 32. Vargha, Andras
    et al.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaney, Harold D.
    Interpretation problems of the partial correlation with nonnormally distributed variables2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 3391-3402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial correlation is a commonly used measure for assessing the bivariate correlation of two quantitative variables after eliminating the influence of one or more other variables. The partial correlation is generally interpreted as the correlation that would result if the variables to be eliminated were fixed (not allowed to vary and influence the other variables), which is referred to in the statistical literature as conditional correlation. The present paper demonstrates, by means of theoretical derivations and practical examples, that when the assumption of multivariate normality is violated (e.g., as a result of nonlinear relationships among the variables investigated) the usual interpretation of the partial correlation coefficient will be basically incorrect. In extreme cases the value of the partial correlation coefficient may be strongly positive, close to 1, whereas the conditional correlation may have a large negative value. To solve this problem the paper suggests to partial out a certain function (in most cases the square) of the variables whose effects are to be eliminated if nonlinear relationships are likely to occur.

  • 33.
    Vargha, András
    et al.
    Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Budapest, Ungern.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Method to Maximize the Information of a Continuous Variable in Relation to a Dichotomous Grouping Variable: Cutpoint Analysis2012In: Hungarian Statistical Review, ISSN 0039-0690, Vol. 90, no Special number 16, p. 101-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In statistical analyses the researcher should normally use all the relevant information in the data. This argument has been used to advise against the habit of dichotomizing (approximately) continuous variables. However, if, for instance, a continuous variable is not normally distributed, it is possible that an optimal dichotomization can reveal relationships between variables otherwise obscured. Two analytical situations when this might apply were treated: 1. The study of the relationship between an independent dichotomous grouping variable and a dependent continuous variable and 2. the discrimination between two groups by identifying an optimal cutpoint in one or more continuous ariables, treated as the predictor(s). For these purposes, cutpoint analysis (CPA) is introduced as a method for finding an optimal categorization of a continuous variable together with a computer package (ROPstat) to carry out the analysis. Three empirical examples are given that show the usefulness of CPA as compared to conventional analyses.

  • 34.
    von Eye, Alexander
    et al.
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Person-orientation in person–situation research2009In: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 276-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on two tenets of person-oriented research and their implications for the person-situation integration in personality psychology. The first tenet states that development and structure of behavior are person-specific and the second that dimensional identity may not exist across individuals, time, or space. It is claimed that, if these tenets are accepted, they have far reaching implications for research strategy and the interpretation of findings in personality research. Two examples are given where the tenability of these tenets becomes crucial and where the uncritical use of standard methodology is called into question.

  • 35. Wennerstad, Karin Modig
    et al.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Tynelius, Per
    Bergman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Associations between IQ and cigarette smoking among Swedish male twins2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 575-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that certain health behaviours, such as smoking, may operate as mediators of the well-established inverse association between IQ and mortality risk. Previous research may be afflicted by unadjusted confounding by socioeconomic or psychosocial factors. Twin designs offer a unique possibility to take genetic and shared environmental factors into account. The aim of the present national twin Study was to determine the interrelations between IQ at age 18, childhood and attained social factors and smoking status in young adulthood and mid-life. We studied the association between IQ at age 18 and smoking in later life in a population of 11 589 male Swedish twins. IQ was measured at military conscription, and data on smoking and zygosity was obtained from the Swedish Twin Register. Information on social factors was extracted from censuses. Data on smoking was self-reported by the twins at the age of 22-47 years. Logistic regression models estimated with generalised estimating equations were used to explore possible associations between IQ and smoking among the twins as individuals as well as between-and within twin-pairs. A strong inverse association between IQ and smoking status emerged in unmatched analyses over the entire range of IQ distribution. In within-pair and between-pair analyses it transpired that shared environmental factors explained most of the inverse IQ-smoking relationship. In addition, these analyses indicated that non-shared and genetic factors contributed only slightly (and non-significantly) to the IQ-smoking association. Analysis of twin pairs discordant for IQ and smoking status displayed no evidence that non-shared factors contribute substantially to the association. The question of which shared environmental factors might explain the IQ-smoking association is an intriguing one for future research.

  • 36. Wennerstad, Karin Modig
    et al.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Tynelius, Per
    Bergman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Association between intelligence and type-specific stroke: a population-based cohort study of early fatal and non-fatal stroke in one million Swedish men2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 908-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Inverse associations between IQ and stroke have been reported in a few studies, but none have investigated subtypes of stroke, nor have they studied fatal and non-fatal stroke separately. Stroke is a heterogenic disease and strength of associations with IQ and putative causal pathways cannot be assumed to be identical for different subtypes. Methods IQ was measured for 1.1 million Swedish men, born 1951 to 1976. Data from several national registers were linked and the cohort followed until the end of 2006 for non-fatal, and 2004 for fatal stroke. HRs with 95% CIs adjusted for age, body mass index, blood pressure and socioeconomic factors were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Inverse associations were found between IQ and all stroke subtypes. The strength of the associations differed by subtype, with the strongest RR found for haemorrhagic stroke. In adjusted models using IQ as a continuous variable over a standard nine point scale, HR for mortality in all stroke was 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.93), that is an 11% decrease in stroke risk per unit increase in IQ. For non-fatal stroke, the corresponding HR was 0.92 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.93). The results were based on a rather young cohort, and results should therefore be generalised to early stroke events rather than the general population. Conclusions Inverse associations were found between IQ and all stroke subtypes, fatal and non-fatal. For all types of non-fatal stroke, the inverse associations with IQ remained after adjustments for childhood and adult socioeconomic position.

  • 37.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    General mental ability and satisfaction with school and work: A longitudinal study from ages 13 to 482009In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 398-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it has been proposed that general mental ability (GMA) may affect the adjustment process, few studies have examined the relation of mental ability to individuals' sense of satisfaction with school and work. The present study investigated the importance of mental ability for school and job satisfaction, using a Swedish sample of 298 men and 399 women, followed longitudinally from the age of 13 to middle age (43 years for women, and 48 years for men). Mental ability had a weak positive correlation with school satisfaction at age 13 but not at age 16, whereas a tendency was found for a negative relation to job satisfaction at the age of 26. Adolescent levels of mental ability were associated with greater intrinsic job satisfaction in middle age for both sexes, and greater extrinsic job satisfaction for men. Longitudinal structural equation modeling indicated that the effects of general mental ability on school and job satisfaction were mediated by school and work achievement, respectively. The same model fit both sexes.

  • 38. Wångby-Lundh, Margit
    et al.
    Klingstedt, Marie-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Mälardalens University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Swedish adolescent girls in special residential treatment: A person-oriented approach to the identification of problem syndromes2018In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 17-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this series of three cross-sectional studies was to identify typical syndromes of self-reported externalizing and internalizing problems, and examine their overlap, among adolescent girls and young women in Swedish special residential homes for young people (N = 713). The associations with some family background factors were also investigated. Data came from a research register at the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care and concerned structured interviews with all girls admitted to these homes from 1997 to 2001. An advanced clustering procedure was applied and significant syndrome structures were retrieved in both the externalizing and internalizing area. Among the nine externalizing syndromes were a low-problem syndrome and two multiple-problem syndromes, one combining aggressive behavior, alcohol use/abuse and criminality, and the other combining drug abuse with property/drug offenses. Among the seven internalizing syndromes were a low-problem syndrome, an anxiety/depression syndrome and a generalized internalizing syndrome with particularly high rates of physical and sexual abuse. Results supported the theoretical assumption, made within a holistic-interactionistic paradigm, that adjustment problems would co-occur in a limited number of syndromes. When the overlap between externalizing and internalizing syndromes was considered, good adjustment was generalized between the two areas, whereas there appeared to be an increased risk of having an internalizing syndrome among girls with externalizing syndromes related to aggressive behavior. It is of great importance to consider the full problem pattern of girls with externalizing adjustment problems, including internalizing problems and histories of physical and sexual abuse, when considering subgroups in need of different treatment regimes.

  • 39.
    Zettergren, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolescents With High IQ and Their Adjustment in Adolescence and Midlife2014In: RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 186-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychological and social adjustment of high-IQ adolescents (top 10%) were studied for a Swedish cohort born in 1955 (N = 1,326 with IQ data). The focus was on comparing high-IQ adolescents to adolescents of average IQ with regard to their adjustment in adolescence and 30 years later in midlife. The research design enabled us also to study linear and nonlinear relationships of high IQ to adjustment. In adolescence, those with high IQ had better adjustment than those of average IQ in most studied adjustment areas, most strongly so for school achievement, capacity to concentrate, and absence of unhappiness. Data from official records showed that higher IQ was related to less alcohol, criminal, and mental problems in childhood and young adulthood. In midlife, the adjustment differences between those of high IQ and those of average IQ were usually nonsignificant, but for some adjustment indicators, adjustment was moderately worse for the high-IQ group, for instance in global life satisfaction and in satisfaction with friend relations. Controlling for school achievement absorbed almost all significant IQ-adjustment associations, which supports the idea of school achievement as a mediator between IQ and adjustment.

  • 40.
    Zettergren, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wångby, Margit
    Girls' stable peer status and their adulthood adjustment: A longitudinal study from age 10 to age 43.2006In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected girls were at increased risks for criminal offending and especially alcohol abuse (two and eight times increased risk, respectively). In midlife, popular girls had achieved a more successful vocational career than average girls. However, for most midlife adjustment areas, like social relations and subjective well-being, there were no significant differences between the stable childhood clusters. To test an incidental explanatory model, childhood confounding variables (aggression, withdrawal, academic achievement, and SES) were introduced and explained some of the significant relations.

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