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  • 1. Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Baird, Julia
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An Approach to Assess Learning Conditions, Effects and Outcomes in Environmental Governance2018In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We empirically examine relationships among the conditions that enable learning, learning effects and sustainability outcomes based on experiences in four biosphere reserves in Canada and Sweden. In doing so, we provide a novel approach to measure learning and address an important methodological and empirical challenge in assessments of learning processes in decision-making contexts. Findings from this study highlight the effectiveness of different measures of learning, and how to differentiate the factors that foster learning with the outcomes of learning. Our approach provides a useful reference point for future empirical studies of learning in different environment, resource and sustainability settings.

  • 2.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Biggs, Duan
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    BurnSilver, Shauna
    Cundill, Georgina
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Evans, Louisa S.
    Kotschy, Karen
    Leitch, Anne M.
    Meek, Chanda
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    Robards, Martin D.
    Schoon, Michael L.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Paul C.
    Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services2012In: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 37, p. 421-448Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the resilience of desired ES in the face of disturbance and ongoing change in social-ecological systems (SES). These principles are (P1) maintain diversity and redundancy, (P2) manage connectivity, (P3) manage slow variables and feedbacks, (P4) foster an understanding of SES as complex adaptive systems (CAS), (P5) encourage learning and experimentation, (P6) broaden participation, and (P7) promote polycentric governance systems. We briefly define each principle, review how and when it enhances the resilience of ES, and conclude with major research gaps. In practice, the principles often co-occur and are highly interdependent. Key future needs are to better understand these interdependencies and to operationalize and apply the principles in different policy and management contexts.

  • 3. Carpenter, Stephen R.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Agarwal, Bina
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Campbell, Bruce
    Carlos Castilla, Juan
    Cramer, Wolfgang
    DeFries, Ruth
    Eyzaguirre, Pablo
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Sanusi, Zainal
    Scholes, Robert
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Program on ecosystem change and society: an international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems2012In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality and poverty. The vision of PECS is a world where human actions have transformed to achieve sustainable stewardship of social-ecological systems. The goal of PECS is to generate the scientific and policy-relevant knowledge of social-ecological dynamics needed to enable such a shift, including mitigation of poverty. PECS is a coordinating body for diverse independently funded research projects, not a funder of research. PECS research employs a range of transdisciplinary approaches and methods, with comparative, place-based research that is international in scope at the core.

  • 4. Fabricius, C
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cundhill, G
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Powerless spectators, coping actors, and adaptive co-managers: a synthesis of the role of communities in ecosystem management2007In: Ecology and Society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of the papers in the Special Issue, the Communities Ecosystems and Livelihoods component of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), and other recent publications on the adaptive capacity of communities and their role in ecosystem management. Communities adapt because they face enormous challenges due to policies, conflicts, demographic factors, ecological change, and changes in their livelihood options, but the appropriateness of their responses varies. Based on our synthesis, three broad categories of adaptive communities are identified. “Powerless spectator” communities have a low adaptive capacity and weak capacity to govern, do not have financial or technological options, and lack natural resources, skills, institutions, and networks. “Coping actor” communities have the capacity to adapt, but are not managing social–ecological systems. They lack the capacity for governance because of lack of leadership, of vision, and of motivation, and their responses are typically short term. “Adaptive manager” communities have both adaptive capacity and governance capacity to sustain and internalize this adaptation. They invest in the long-term management of ecosystem services. Such communities are not only aware of the threats, but also take appropriate action for long-term sustainability. Adaptive co-management becomes possible through leadership and vision, the formation of knowledge networks, the existence or development of polycentric institutions, the establishment and maintenance of links between culture and management, the existence of enabling policies, and high levels of motivation in all role players. Adaptive co-managers are empowered, but empowerment is a consequence of the capacity for governance and the capacity to adapt, rather than a starting point. Communities that are able to enhance their adaptive capacity can deal with challenges such as conflicts, make difficult trade-offs between their short- and long-term well-being, and implement rules for ecosystem management. This improves the capacity of the ecosystem to continue providing services.

  • 5.
    Hahn, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, C.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social Networks as Sources of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems2008In: Complexity science for a sustainable future, Princeton University Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Mohedano Roldán, Alba
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Does Stakeholder Participation Increase the Legitimacy of Nature Reserves in Local Communities? Evidence from 92 Biosphere Reserves in 36 CountriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dannenberg, Astrid
    McCarney, Geoff
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    Diekert, Florian
    Engström, Gustav
    Fishman, Ram
    Gars, Johan
    Kyriakopoolou, Efthymia
    Manoussi, Vassiliki
    Meng, Kyle
    Metian, Marc
    Sanctuary, Mark
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schoon, Michael
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 8. Odom Green, Olivia
    et al.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nekoro, Marmar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Garmestani, Ahjond G.
    The Role of Bridging Organizations in Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Facilitating Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems2015In: Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems / [ed] Craig R. Allen, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 107-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nested nature of social-ecological systems across scales requires a multi-scale approach for monitoring and response. However, in many cases this flow is hindered by hierarchical structures and bureaucratic procedures. Recent research suggests that bridging organizations that facilitate collaboration and learning across sectors and scales are key to adaptive governance. Bridging organizations can facilitate cross-scale linkages, enabling formal management entities operating at discrete scales to improve communication channels and create opportunities for collaboration. This allows for management to set new target levels and modify policy to reach those target levels as new information is generated on scale-specific system attributes. Bridging organizations also incubate new ideas for environmental management, provide a forum for coming to agreement on contentious issues, and foster the capacity to manage for resilience of social-ecological systems and the provisioning of ecosystem services that are directly and indirectly important on a regional and international scale.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Galaz, Viktor
    Hahn, Thomas
    Schultz, Lisen
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Enhancing the fit through adaptive comanagement: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden2007In: Ecology and Society, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diagnosing adaptive comanagement across multiple cases2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive comanagement is at an important cross-road: different research paths forward are possible, and a diagnostic approach has been identified as a promising one. Accordingly, we operationalize a diagnostic approach, using a framework, to set a new direction for adaptive comanagement research. We set out three main first-tier variables: antecedents, process, and outcomes, and these main variables are situated within a fourth: the setting. Within each of these variables, significant depth of study may be achieved by investigating second-and third-tier variables. Causal relationships among variables, and particularly related to the outcomes of adaptive comanagement, may also be investigated at varying depths using the diagnostic framework and associated nomenclature. We believe that the diagnostic approach we describe offers a unifying methodological approach to advancing adaptive comanagement research as well as similar approaches. There are significant benefits to be gained, including building a database of case studies using this common framework, advancing theory, and ultimately, improving social and ecological outcomes.

  • 11.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Is Adaptive Co-management Delivering? Examining Relationships Between Collaboration, Learning and Outcomes in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 140, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines relationships among perceived processes and outcomes in four UNESCO biosphere reserves (BRs). BRs offer a unique opportunity to examine these relationships because they aim to foster more adaptive and collaborative forms of management, i.e. adaptive co-management (ACM). Accounting for the outcomes of ACM is a difficult task and little progress has been made to this end. However, we show here that ACM efforts in all four BRs had a myriad of positive results as well as ecological and livelihood effects. Process variables of collaboration and learning explained over half (54.6%) of the variability in results and over one third (35.1%) of the variability in effects. While the overall models for outcomes and subsequent process were not significant, the regressions revealed predictive potential for both process variables. Our analysis highlights that a better process is associated with more positive outcomes and that collaboration and learning make unique contributions to outcomes. Opportunities for quantitative techniques to be utilized in understanding, the dynamics of ACM are illustrated. Understanding relationships between process and outcomes (and vice versa) provides a sound basis to answer critiques, enhances accountability, and maximizes the potential of positive impacts for ecosystems and humans.

  • 12.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Baird, Julia
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Armitage, Derek
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How do environmental governance processes shape evaluation of outcomes by stakeholders? A causal pathways approach2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, article id e0185375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-stakeholder environmental management and governance processes are essential to realize social and ecological outcomes. Participation, collaboration, and learning are emphasized in these processes; to gain insights into how they influence stakeholders' evaluations of outcomes in relation to management and governance interventions we use a path analysis approach to examine their relationships in individuals in four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. We confirm a model showing that participation in more activities leads to greater ratings of process, and in turn, better evaluations of outcomes. We show the effects of participation in activities on evaluation of outcomes appear to be driven by learning more than collaboration. Original insights are offered as to how the evaluations of outcomes by stakeholders are shaped by their participation in activities and their experiences in management and governance processes. Understanding stakeholder perceptions about the processes in which they are involved and their evaluation of outcomes is imperative, and influences current and future levels of engagement. As such, the evaluation of outcomes themselves are an important tangible product from initiatives. Our research contributes to a future research agenda aimed at better understanding these pathways and their implications for engagement in stewardship and ultimately social and ecological outcomes, and to developing recommendations for practitioners engaged in environmental management and governance.

  • 13.
    Rönnbäck, P
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Macia, A
    Almqvist, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Schultz, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, M
    Do Penaeid shrimps have a preference for Mangrove habitats?: Distribution pattern analysis on Inhaca island, Mozambique2002In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 427-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique—Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin.

    P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat (P<0·001 and P=0·05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5·7–11·6 shrimps m−2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0·35 shrimps m−2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe (P<0·001). M. monoceros was significantly (P<0·01), more abundant in the sand flat (0·44–2·1 shrimps m−2) than in the mangrove fringe (0·04–0·61 shrimps m−2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages.

    The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

  • 14.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nurturing resilience in social-ecological systems: Lessons learned from bridging organizations2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly complex, rapidly changing world, the capacity to cope with, adapt to, and shape change is vital. This thesis investigates how natural resource management can be organized and practiced to nurture this capacity, referred to as resilience, in social-ecological systems. Based on case studies and large-N data sets from UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs) and the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), it analyzes actors and social processes involved in adaptive co-management on the ground. Papers I & II use Kristianstads Vattenrike BR to analyze the roles of local stewards and bridging organizations. Here, local stewards, e.g. farmers and bird watchers, provide on-site management, detailed, long-term monitoring, and local ecological knowledge, build public support for ecosystem management, and hold unique links to specialized networks. A bridging organization strengthens their initiatives. Building and drawing on multi-level networks, it gathers different types of ecological knowledge, builds moral, political, legal and financial support from institutions and organizations, and identifies windows of opportunity for projects. Paper III synthesizes the MA community-based assessments and points to the importance of bridging organizations, leadership and vision, knowledge networks, institutions nested across scales, enabling policies, and high motivation among actors for adaptive co-management. Paper IV explores learning processes catalyzed by bridging organizations in BRs. 79 of the 148 BRs analyzed bridge local and scientific knowledge in efforts to conserve biodiversity and foster sustainable development, provide learning platforms, support knowledge generation (research, monitoring and experimentation), and frame information and education to target groups. Paper V tests the effects of participation and adaptive co-management in BRs. Local participation is positively linked to local support, successful integration of conservation and development, and effectiveness in achieving developmental goals. Participation of scientists is linked to effectiveness in achieving ‘conventional’ conservation goals and policy-makers enhance the integration of conservation and development. Adaptive co-management, found in 46 BRs, is positively linked to self-evaluated effectiveness in achieving developmental goals, but not at the expense of conservation. The thesis concludes that adaptive collaboration and learning processes can nurture resilience in social-ecological systems. Such processes often need to be catalyzed, supported and protected to survive. Therefore, bridging organizations are crucial in adaptive co-management.

  • 15.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Participation and management performance in the World Network of Biosphere ReservesManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies that evaluate the effects of stakeholder participation on conservation outcomes and sustainability are rare. In this article we use the World Network of Biosphere Reserves to analyze the effects of participation and adaptive co-management in this context. Analyzing survey-responses from 146 Biosphere Reserves in 55 countries we investigate how different degrees of participation of a range of actors relate to management performance in reaching the objectives stated in UNESCO's Statutory framework for Biosphere Reserves. The analysis is based on survey respondents' self-evaluation of effectiveness. We also test to what extent stakeholder participation is linked to increased support for Biosphere Reserve objectives and management, and the effect of adaptive co-management on management performance. The analysis suggests that there is a weak, but significant linkage between the involvement of local inhabitants in decision making and implementation, and the support from people living in the Biosphere Reserve. No other effects of participation on support were found. Furthermore, involving local inhabitants in one additional implementation process increases the likelihood of finding a successful project that integrates conservation and development with about 1.4 times, and the participation of politicians and governmental administrators in one additional decision-making process increases the likelihood with about 1.3 times. No other effects of stakeholders' participation on successful integration were found. Turning to the issue of effectiveness, a factor analysis revealed two clusters among the objectives. One had strong loadings on effectiveness in conservation, research, monitoring and education, and was interpreted as related to 'conventional' biodiversity conservation. The other had strong loadings on fostering social and economic development, and facilitating dialogue, collaboration and integration of different objectives, and was interpreted as related to conservation for sustainable development. Conventional conservation was positively affected by participation of scientists, but negatively affected by participation of volunteers. Effectiveness in sustainable development goals was associated to participation by local inhabitants. Adaptive co-management practices were associated with a higher level of effectiveness in achieving developmental goals, and this higher effectiveness did not seem to be at the expense of biodiversity conservation. A total of 46 Biosphere Reserves fulfilled the adaptive co-management criteria and provide an interesting set of cases to follow systematically in the search for deeper understanding of social-ecological systems dynamics.

  • 16.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Participation, Adaptive Co-management, and Management Performance in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves2011In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 662-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing survey-responses from 146 Biosphere Reserves in 55 countries we investigate how stakeholder participation and adaptive co-management practices are linked to management performance. Effectiveness in conventional conservation was positively affected by participation of scientists, but negatively affected by participation of volunteers. Effectiveness in sustainable development goals was associated to participation by local inhabitants. Adaptive co-management practices were associated with a higher level of effectiveness in achieving development goals, and this higher effectiveness did not seem to be at the expense of biodiversity conservation.

  • 17.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Olsson, Per
    Enhancing ecosystem management through social-ecological inventories: lessons from Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden2007In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy increasingly emphasizes involvement of local users and land owners in ecosystem management, but conservation planning is still largely a bureaucratic-scientific endeavour of identifying biological values for protection. Neither biological inventories nor stakeholder analyses, that tend to focus on conflicting interests, capture human resources in the landscape or the social structures and processes underlying biological conservation values. Social-ecological inventories are therefore proposed during the preparation phase of conservation projects as a means to identify people with ecosystem knowledge that practise ecosystem management. The method presented here focuses on local steward groups acting outside official management plans. In a social-ecological inventory of a river basin of southern Sweden, local steward groups, their ecosystem management activities, motives and links to other actors involved in ecosystem management were identified through interviews, participatory observations and a review of documents and other written material. Several hundred active local stewards were organized in 10 local steward groups that managed and monitored a range of ecosystem services at different spatial scales. Contributions of local stewards included on-site ecosystem management, long-term and detailed monitoring of species and ecosystem dynamics, local ecological knowledge, public support for ecosystem management and specialized networks. Two conservation projects are used to illustrate how local steward groups came together in multi-level networks and collaborated around specific conservation issues. The projects have been linked to ecosystem management at the landscape level through a flexible municipality organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV). EKV has acted as a ‘bridging organization’, coordinating and connecting many of the local steward groups to organizations and institutions at other levels. The process has been guided by social capital and shared visions for the whole landscape. The study shows that ecosystem management likely relies on multi-level collaboration and social-ecological inventories may help identify actors that are fundamental in such management systems. Social-ecological inventories should be employed in any attempt to develop and implement ecosystem management.

  • 18.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7369-7374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  • 19.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning for resilience?: Exploring learning opportunities in Biosphere Reserves2010In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 16, no 5-6, p. 645-663Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

     

    The interdependence of society and nature, the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems, and the global deterioration of ecosystem services provide the rationale for a growing body of literature focusing on social-ecological resilience - the capacity to cope with, adapt to and shape change - for sustainable development. Processes of learning-by-doing and multiple-loop social learning across knowledge systems and different levels of decision-making are envisioned to strengthen this capacity, combined in the concept of adaptive governance. This study explores how learning for resilience is stimulated in practice; investigating learning opportunities provided in UNESCO-designated biosphere reserves (BRs). A global survey (N = 148) and qualitative interviews with key informants of selected BRs (N = 10) reveal that a subset (79) of the BRs serve as 'potential learning sites' and: (1) provide platforms for mutual and collective learning through face-to-face interactions; (2) coordinate and support the generation of new social-ecological knowledge through research, monitoring and experimentation; and (3) frame information and education to local stewards, resource-based businesses, policy-makers, disadvantaged groups, students and the public. We identify three BRs that seem to combine, in practice, the theoretically parallel research areas of environmental education and adaptive governance. We conclude that BRs have the potential to provide insights on the practical dimension of nurturing learning for social-ecological resilience. However, for their full potential as learning sites for sustainability to be realized, both capacity and incentives for evaluation and communication of lessons learned need to be strengthened.

  • 20.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plummer, R.
    Purdy, Samantha
    Applying a social-ecological inventory: a workbook for finding key actors and engaging them2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A new workbook module describes a method for social-ecological inventories (SEI). Ideally this would be done before embarking on a full resilience assessment. SEI is a generic tool to identify existing knowledge and activities already underway in a region, as well as the key actors involved.

  • 21.
    Schultz, Lisen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bourke, Alba Juarez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    d'Armengol, Laia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrents, Pau
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hardardottir, Hildur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jansson, Annie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Roldan, Alba Mohedano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Learning to live with social-ecological complexity: An interpretive analysis of learning in 11 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 50, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered a means to achieve sustainability in practice and has become a prominent goal of sustainability interventions. In this paper we explore how learning for sustainability is shaped by meaning, interpretation and experience, in the context of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs). The World Network of Biosphere Reserves brings environmental conservation, socio-economic development and research together in 'learning sites for sustainable development.' The World Network is globally significant, with 669 BRs in 120 countries, but as with many paradigmatic sustainability interventions BRs are perceived to suffer from a 'concept-reality gap.' We explore this gap from an interpretive perspective, focusing on participant interpretations of the meaning of BRs and their experiences of working with the concept - with the aim of painting a richer picture of learning for sustainability and the ways in which BRs might fulfil their role as learning sites. We provide a cross-case analysis of learning in 11 BRs around the world, drawing on interviews with 177 participants, and ask: How is the BR concept interpreted and enacted by people involved with BR work? What learning emerges through BR work, as described by those involved? We find that the BR concept is interpreted differently in each location, producing distinct expectations, practices and institutional designs. Learning occurs around common themes - human environment relationships, actors and governance arrangements, and skills to navigate BR work - but is expressed very differently in each BR. The position of BRs 'in between' social, ecological and economic goals; local places and global networks; and government, private and civil society sectors, provides a valuable space for participants to learn to live with social-ecological complexity. We discuss our results in terms of their contribution to three pressing concerns in sustainability science: (i) power and politics in learning for sustainability, (ii) intermediaries and bridging organizations in multi-level governance, and (iii) reflexivity and knowledge action relationships. Our comparative hermeneutic approach makes a novel methodological contribution to interpretive studies of sustainability policy and governance.

  • 22. Stoll-Kleemann, S.
    et al.
    De la Vega-Leinert, A. C.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The role of community participation in the effectiveness of UNESCO Biosphere Reserve management: evidence and reflections from two parallel global surveys2010In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity management has traditionally followed two contradictory approaches. One champions ecosystem protection through rigorous law enforcement and exclusion of humans. The other promotes community-based sustainable use of natural resources. Participatory conservation, a major paradigm shift, nowadays strongly guides the concept of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (BRs). In this paper, the rationale for community participation, and the perception of its effectiveness among BR managers are analysed. Within the World Network of BRs (553 sites in 107 countries) diverse participatory approaches are being tried to advance community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). Data from two parallel surveys, involving managers from 276 BRs worldwide, reveal how far this participation paradigm shift has really occurred, and its influence on managers' self-evaluated effectiveness. There is substantial regional disparity, although in general BR managers endorse inclusive conservation, despite critical implementation hurdles. The process of participatory conservation carries new dangers for effective biosphere reserve management, when the aspirations of communities and other stakeholders do not 'fit' with a predetermined interpretation of sustainable development.

  • 23.
    Tholander, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ståhl, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Normark, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kosmack-Vaara, Elsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    But I Don’t Trust My Friends: Ecofriends - An Application for Reflective Grocery Shopping2012In: MobileHCI '12 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Computer Interaction With Mobile Devices and Services, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 143-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ecofriends application was designed to encourage people to reflect on their everyday grocery shopping from social and ecological perspectives. Ecofriends portrays the seasonality of various grocery products as being socially constructed, emphasizing subjective dimensions of what it means for a product to be in season, rather than attempting to communicate it as an established fact. It provides the user with unexpected information (news, weather, blog posts and tweets) about the place where the product was grown, and visualises how the product’s popularity shifts throughout the year, among the user’s friends, among chefs and other food experts, and the general public. Key findings from users’ first encounters with the system are presented. In particular, we discuss aspects of trust, information fragments as catalysts, and how several of the participants were challenged by the system’s portrayal of season.

  • 24.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cairns, Rose
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    What constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor?: A Q-study in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 198, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Success’ is a vigorously debated concept in conservation. There is a drive to develop quantitative, comparable metrics of success to improve conservation interventions. Yet the qualitative, normative choices inherent in decisions about what to measure — emerging from fundamental philosophical commitments about what conservation is and should be — have received scant attention. We address this gap by exploring perceptions of what constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, an area of global biodiversity significance. Biodiversity corridors are particularly illustrative because, as interventions intended to extend conservation practices from protected areas across broader landscapes, they represent prisms in which ideas of conservation success are contested and transformed. We use Q method to elicit framings of success among 20 conservation scientists, practitioners and community representatives, and find three statistically significant framings of successful corridors: ‘a last line of defence for biodiversity under threat,’ ‘a creative process to develop integrative, inclusive visions of biodiversity and human wellbeing,’ and ‘a stimulus for place-based cultural identity and economic development.’ Our results demonstrate that distinct understandings of what a corridor is — a planning tool, a process of governing, a territorialized place — produce divergent framings of ‘successful’ corridors that embody diverse, inherently contestable visions of conservation. These framings emerge from global conservation discourses and distinctly local ecologies, politics, cultures and histories. We conclude that visions of conservation success will be inherently plural, and that in inevitably contested and diverse social contexts success on any terms rests upon recognition of and negotiation with alternative visions.

  • 25.
    West, Simon P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning for resilience in the European Court of Human Rights: adjudication as an adaptive governance practice2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing for social-ecological resilience requires ongoing learning. In the context of nonlinear dynamics, surprise, and uncertainty, resilience scholars have proposed adaptive management, in which policies and management actions are treated as experiments, as one way of encouraging learning. However, the implementation of adaptive management has been problematic. The legal system has been identified as an impediment to adaptive management, with its apparent prioritization of certainty over flexibility, emphasis on checks and balances, protection of individual rights over public interests, and its search for “transcendent justice” over “contingent truth.” However, although adaptive management may encourage learning for ecological resilience, it is only one aspect of the institutional change needed to foster learning for social-ecological resilience. The mechanisms, including law, that provide for pursuit and protection of evolving ideas of justice and equity are critical for guiding human understanding of and interaction with the material environment. A broader agenda for learning within and about social-ecological resilience that focuses on the interaction between ideas of justice and equity with ecosystem dynamics is captured in the concept of adaptive governance. We have built on recent literature that has elaborated on the role of law in governance of social-ecological systems by analyzing environmental cases in the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). We find that the ECtHR contributes to adaptive governance by supporting multiple ways of knowing the environment, enhancing polycentricity, and encouraging adaptive management and policy making by member states in the context of public participation. We have argued that the environmental case law of the ECtHR constitutes an important site of learning for governance of social-ecological systems, because it situates knowledge and experience of environmental change in the context of discussions about the relative rights, duties, and responsibilities of social actors, facilitating the mutually adaptive evolution of truth and justice across scales.

  • 26.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning to live with social-ecological complexity: An interpretive analysis of learning in 11 UNESCO Biosphere ReservesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is increasingly considered a means to achieve sustainability in practice and has become a prominent goal of sustainability interventions. The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves seeks to bring environmental conservation, socio-economic development and research together in ‘learning sites for sustainable development.’ The World Network is globally significant, with 669 sites in 120 countries, yet as with many paradigmatic sustainability interventions there is a widespread notion that biosphere reserves suffer from a ‘concept-reality gap.’ When assessing practical, ‘on-ground’ manifestations of the concept in accordance with UNESCO documentation and formally stated aims and ambitions, observers have often been disappointed. But while many biosphere reserves (BRs) no doubt face significant challenges, these approaches to assessing outcomes – taken alone – may not reveal the complete picture. They tend to assume that BRs are a single, standardized concept (against which local actions should be measured), and carry implicit assumptions about how learning for sustainability should take place and what it should include. In this paper, we suggest that taking the inverse approach – paying close attention to practitioners’ interpretations of BRs and their experiences of working with the BR concept – can help build a richer picture of learning for sustainability, with significant implications for the ways that BR may fulfil their role as learning sites. To this end, we provide an interpretive, multi-case analysis of learning in 11 BRs around the world. We ask: (a) How is the BR concept interpreted and enacted by people involved with BR work? (b) What kinds of learning emerge through BR work, as described by the people involved? We find that participants interpret BRs in a number of different ways, from ‘collaborative platform’ to ‘marketing label’, and that that these meanings are entangled with the institutional, political and ecological histories of each location. BR work therefore encompasses a range of activities, from clearing invasive species to arranging art-science festivals, and these activities shape and are shaped by the meaning of each BR as well as the evolving social-ecological context. Learning occurs around three broad themes across the sites – human-environment relationships; actors and governance arrangements; and skills and capacities to negotiate the ad hoc, unplanned nature of much BR work – but is expressed very differently in each BR.  While our results make identifying generic ‘lessons learned’ difficult, they illustrate the BR’s value in providing opportunities for participants to learn about the complex social-ecological processes involved in pursuing sustainability. In particular, the BR’s position ‘in the middle’ of local, regional and global forces; social, ecological and economic goals; and government, business and civil society actors, points toward a potential role for BRs as experimental arenas for sustainability, rather than replicable models per se. Our interpretive, multi-case approach provides a novel contribution to research on biosphere reserves and the broader literature on learning for sustainability.

  • 27.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bekessy, Sarah
    Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 399-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

1 - 27 of 27
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