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  • 1.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Concordia University, Canada.
    A distinctive use of R as a marker of Santomean identity2018In: Jounal of Belonging, Identity, Language, and Diversity, ISSN 2561-7982, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the ideologies that surround the use of rhotics (or r-sounds) in the Santomean variety of Portuguese. This emerging variety spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe diverges from the European and Brazilian Portuguese norms and shows great variability in its use of rhotics. More specifically, Santomeans often use a strong-R in positions that require a weak-r in other Portuguese varieties (Bouchard, 2017). I argue that this distinctive use of rhotics is becoming a marker of Santomean national identity. Through the use of sociolinguistic interviews, I examine where this new variety of Portuguese is emerging from, and how Santomeans view their distinctive use of rhotics. Results demonstrated that the use of strong-R is associated with younger Santomeans who grew up after the independence of the country (in 1975), and who are starting to show pride in their national variety of Portuguese.

  • 2.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Becoming Monolingual: The Impact of Language Ideologies on the Loss of Multilingualism on São Tomé Island2019In: Languages, E-ISSN 2226-471X, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the loss of the creole languages on São Tomé Island and the societal move from multilingualism to monolingualism in Portuguese. It argues that recognizing the ideologies attached to these languages is key in understanding the language shift, but also the processes leading toward monolingualism. This qualitative study is based on three main theories: Language as social practice, language ideology, and monoglot standardization. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork and sociolinguistic interviews with 56 speakers from the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe. I argue that the existence of multilingualism on São Tomé Island is not valued at a societal level because of the pejorative ideologies that have been held about the creole languages since colonial times. Also, the use of the creole languages stood as a problem for the creation of a unified Santomean nation, as the different racial groups on the islands had their own creole. Results show how ideologies about the Portuguese language and its association with national unity, modernity, and European-ness favored its expansion on São Tomé Island and a move toward monolingualism.

  • 3.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Language shift from Forro to Portuguese: Language ideologies and the symbolic power of Portuguese on São Tomé Island2019In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 228, article id 102712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates causes of the language shift from Forro to Portuguese around the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe from a language ideology and political economy perspective. It examines the ideological and indexical processes supporting the differentiating social categories and how they are linked to language choice. It shows that accessing ideologies held by Forros is key to understanding how they have historically set themselves apart from the other racial groups on the island by choosing Portuguese as their first language. This research is based on observations in the public and private spheres in São Tomé City and on interviews conducted with 56 Santomean informants. Results indicate that the use and transmission of characterizations and evaluative comments enable Santomeans to convey ideologies of superiority of the Portuguese language and its speakers, and that these ideologies are important forces driving the ongoing language shift.

  • 4.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Ongoing change in post-independence Sao Tome: The use of rhotics as a marker of national identity among young speakers of Santomean Portuguese2019In: Language Variation and Change, ISSN 0954-3945, E-ISSN 1469-8021, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines variation in the use of rhotics in Santomean Portuguese. In Portuguese, the distribution of rhotics is determined by syllable structure (Bonet & Mascaro, 1997). However, the emerging variety of Portuguese spoken in Sao Tome and Principe diverges from the standard norm and shows great variability in its use of rhotics; specifically, Santomeans often use a strong-R in positions that require a weak-r in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Sociolinguistic interviews with 56 speakers from the capital of Sao Tome and Principe and its surroundings provide 5287 data points for analysis. Based on the apparent-time construct (Bailey, 2004; Bailey et al., 1991), variation patterns show a language change in progress in the use of the strong-R, with younger speakers using it more frequently. Results also reveal the emergence of rhotic fricatives in the speech of Santomeans born after the independence of the country.

  • 5.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    New York University, US.
    Subject Pronoun Expression in Santomean Portuguese2018In: Journal of Portuguese Linguistics, ISSN 1645-4537, E-ISSN 2397-5563, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Subject Pronoun Expression (SPE) in the Portuguese-speaking world have shown a distinction between European Portuguese, which is a Null Subject Language (NSL) with high rates of null subjects, and Brazilian Portuguese, which is controversially treated as a partial-NSL and exhibits a considerably lower rate of null subjects. No specific studies have been conducted on the matter on Santomean Portuguese, but we know that both null and overt subject personal pronouns exist in this variety of Portuguese. The objective of this paper is to investigate variation in SPE in Santomean Portuguese, and to situate this variety of Portuguese in comparison with other varieties. Results of the variationist analyses show that Santomean Portuguese patterns more like European Portuguese in its high rate of use of null subject. Interestingly, and contrary to previous studies, Santomeans with a higher level of education disfavor the use of null subject, which I relate to a sensitivity to grammatical ideology and the favoring of the overt subject in more formal situations. Most of the results regarding the linguistic predictors, which are stronger than the social predictors, relate Santomean Portuguese to other varieties of Portuguese, and to Spanish.

  • 6.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Álvarez López, Laura, Perpétua Gonçalves and Juanito Ornelas de Avelar (eds.). 2018. The Portuguese Language Continuum in Africa and Brazil2019In: Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles, E-ISSN 2184-5360, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 445-448Article, book review (Other academic)
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