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  • 1.
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Allmyr,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Antibakteriellt behandlade konsumentprodukter - källa till exponering av människa och miljö2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Allmyr,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, H.
    Glynn, A.
    Sources of triclosan exposure to humans2007In: SETAC News: May 20-24, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Magnér,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gunnarsson, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Pharmacuticals in fish bile2007In: SNMM: March 12-14 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Magnér,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gunnarsson, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Tracing pharmaceutical residues from humans to fish2007In: SETAC News: May 20-24, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jahnke, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A flow-through passive dosing system for continuously supplying aqueous solutions of hydrophobic chemicals to bioconcentration and aquatic toxicity tests2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 593-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuous supply of water with defined stable concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals is a requirement in a range of laboratory tests such as the OECD 305 protocol for determining the bioconcentration factor in fish. Satisfying this requirement continues to be a challenge, particularly for hydrophobic chemicals. Here we present a novel solution based on equilibrium passive dosing. It employs a commercially available unit consisting of similar to 16000 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes connected to two manifolds. The chemicals are loaded into the unit by repeatedly perfusing it with a methanol solution of the substances that is progressively diluted with water. Thereafter the unit is perfused with water and the chemicals partition from the unit into the water. The system was tested with nine chemicals with logK(ow) ranging from 4.1 to 6.3. The aqueous concentrations generated were shown to be largely independent of the water flow rate, and the unit to unit reproducibility was within a factor of similar to 2. In continuous flow experiments the aqueous concentrations of most of the study chemicals remained constant over 8 d. A model was assembled that allows prediction of the operating characteristics of the system from the logKow or PDMS/water partition coefficient of the chemical. The system is a simple, safe, predictable and flexible tool that generates stable aqueous concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals.

  • 6.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Internal Benchmarking Improves Precision and Reduces Animal Requirements for Determination of Fish Bioconcentration Factors2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 8205-8211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enactment of new chemical regulations has generated a large need for the measurement of the fish bioconcentration factor (BCF). Past experience shows that the BCF determination lacks precision, requires large numbers of fish, and is costly. A new protocol was tested that shortens the experiment from up to 12 weeks for existing protocols to 2 weeks and reduces the number of fish by a factor of 5, while introducing internal benchmarking for the BCF determination. Rainbow trout were simultaneously exposed to 11 chemicals. The BCFs were quantified using one of the test chemicals, musk xylene, as a benchmark. These were compared with BCFs measured in a parallel experiment based on the OECD 305 guideline. The agreement was <20% for five chemicals and between 20%-25% for two further, while two chemicals lay outside the BCF operating window of the experiment and one was lost due to analytical difficulties. This agreement is better than that observed in a BCF Gold Standard Database. Internal benchmarking allows the improvement of the precision of BCF determination in parallel to large reduction in costs and fish requirements.

  • 7.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    In-vivo passive sampling to measure elimination kinetics in bioaccumulation tests2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of in-tissue passive sampling to quantify chemical kinetics in fish bioconcentration experiments was investigated. A passive sampler consisting of an acupuncture needle covered with a PDMS tube was developed together with a method for its deployment in rainbow trout. The time to steady state for chemical uptake into the passive sampler was >1 d, so it was employed as a kinetically limited sampler with a deployment time of 2 h. The passive sampler was employed in parallel with the established whole tissue extraction method to study the elimination kinetics of 10 diverse chemicals in rainbow trout. 4-n-nonylphenol and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol were close to or below the limit of quantification in the sampler. For chlorpyrifos, musk xylene, hexachlorobenzene, 2,5-dichlorobiphenyl and p,p'-DDT. the elimination rate constants determined with the passive sampler method and the established method agreed within 18%. Poorer agreement (35%) was observed for 2,3,4-trichloroanisole and p-diisopropylbenzene because fewer data were obtained with the passive sampling method due to its lower sensitivity. The work shows that in-tissue passive sampling can be employed to measure contaminant elimination kinetics in fish. This opens up the possibility of studying contaminant kinetics in individual fish, thereby reducing the fish requirements and analytical costs for the determination of bioconcentration factors.

  • 8.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Measuring bioconcentration factors in fish using exposure to multiple chemicals and internal benchmarking to correct for growth dilution2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1853-1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern chemical legislation requires measuring the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of large numbers of chemicals in fish. The BCF must be corrected for growth dilution, because fish growth rates vary between laboratories. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that BCFs of multiple chemicals can be measured simultaneously in one experiment, and (2) that internal benchmarking using a conservative test substance in the chemical mixture can be used to correct for growth dilution. Bioconcentration experiments were conducted following major elements of the OECD 305 guideline. Fish were simultaneously exposed to 11 chemicals selected to cover a range of BCFs and susceptibility to biotransformation. A method was developed to calculate the growth-corrected elimination rate constant from the concentration ratio of the analyte and a benchmarking chemical for which growth dilution dominated other elimination mechanisms. This method was applied to the experimental data using hexachlorobenzene as the benchmarking chemical. The growth dilution correction lowered the apparent elimination rate constants by between 5% and a factor of four for eight chemicals, while for two chemicals the growth-corrected elimination rate constant was not significantly different from zero. The benchmarking method reduced the uncertainty in the elimination rate constant compared to the existing method for growth dilution correction. The BCFs from exposing fish to 10 chemicals at once were consistent with BCF values from single-chemical exposures from the literature, supporting hypothesis 1. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 18531860. (c) 2012 SETAC

  • 9.
    Allmyr, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Harden, F.
    Toms, L-ML.
    Mueller, J.F.
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sandborgh Englund, G.
    The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum2008In: Sci. Tot. Environ.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hahlbeck, Edda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Mayer, Ian
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    James, Jonathan
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    The juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as a model organism for endocrine disruption II: kidney hypertrophy, vitellogenin and spiggin induction2004In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 311-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the suitability of juvenile three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., for detecting both androgen- and oestrogen-induced endocrine disruption. The investigated endpoints were kidney hypertrophy and the induction of the protein markers spiggin and vitellogenin. Juveniles were exposed to steroid hormones 17β-oestradiol (E2: nominal 0.01, 1.0 and 10 μg/L), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2: nominal 0.05 μg/L) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT: nominal 1.0 μg/L) from the day of hatching until the termination of the experiments between 39 and 58 days after hatching. E2 (10 μg/L) and MT were applied during different time windows: (a) 14 days after hatching only and (b) continuously with start 14 days after hatching.

    Kidney hypertrophy is an androgen-dependent secondary sexual character in adult male sticklebacks and corresponds to the production of the glue protein spiggin during the breeding season. The kidneys were hypertrophied and spiggin levels were elevated in juvenile sticklebacks after treatment with MT. Paradoxically, slightly elevated spiggin levels and kidney hypertrophy were observed also in fish treated with high dose E2. Levels of vitellogenin, the oestrogen-inducible yolk precursor protein, were elevated in juvenile sticklebacks after E2 medium and high dose and EE2 treatment.

    The tested endpoints are suitable for the study of endocrine disruption in juvenile sticklebacks, a fish species that is easy to handle in laboratory and relevant for temperate geographical regions.

  • 11. Heath, E.
    et al.
    Kosjek, T.
    Andersen, H. R.
    Luetzhoft, H.-C. Holten
    Adolfson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Coquery, M.
    Duering, R. -A
    Gans, O.
    Guignard, C.
    Karlsson, P.
    Manciot, F.
    Moldovan, Z.
    Patureau, D.
    Cruceru, L.
    Sacher, F.
    Ledin, A.
    Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 658-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: ""Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle"" The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining ""Endocrine Disrupting Compounds"" (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17 beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices' tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones.

  • 12.
    Jahnke, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mayer, Philipp
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    EQUILIBRIUM SAMPLING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN FISH: COMPARISON WITH LIPID-NORMALIZED CONCENTRATIONS AND HOMOGENIZATION EFFECTS ON CHEMICAL ACTIVITY2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1515-1521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium sampling of organic pollutants into the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has recently been applied in biological tissues including fish. Pollutant concentrations in PDMS can then be multiplied with lipid/PDMS distribution coefficients (D(Lipid.PDMS)) to obtain concentrations in fish lipids. In the present study, PDMS thin films were used for equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intact tissue of two eels and one salmon. A classical exhaustive extraction technique to determine lipid-normalized PCB concentrations, which assigns the body burden of the chemical to the lipid fraction of the fish, was additionally applied. Lipid-based PCB concentrations obtained by equilibrium sampling were 85 to 106% (Norwegian Atlantic salmon), 108 to 128% (Baltic Sea eel), and 51 to 83% (Finnish lake eel) of those determined using total extraction. This supports the validity of the equilibrium sampling technique, while at the same time confirming that the fugacity capacity of these lipid-rich tissues for PCBs was dominated by the lipid fraction. Equilibrium sampling was also applied to homogenates of the same fish tissues. The PCB concentrations in the PDMS were 1.2 to 2.0 times higher in the homogenates (statistically significant in 18 of 21 cases, p < 0.05), indicating that homogenization increased the chemical activity of the PCBs and decreased the fugacity capacity of the tissue. This observation has implications for equilibrium sampling and partition coefficients determined using tissue homogenates.

  • 13.
    Kierkegaard, A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A Sensitive Method for the Analysis of Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in Biota2008In: SETAC North America 29th Annual Meeting: 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kierkegaard, A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) Concentrations in Fish from Urban and Remote Lakes in Sweden2008In: SETAC North America 29th Annual Meeting: 16-20 November, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Larsson, D.G.J.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Parkkonen, J.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berg, A.H.
    Olsson, P.-E.
    Förlin, L.
    Ethinyloestradiol – an undesired fish contraceptive?1999In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 45, no 2-3, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental oestrogens are natural or synthetic substances present in the environment, which imitate the effects of endogenous oestrogen. Oestrogenic substances were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in effluent water from a Swedish sewage treatment works receiving mainly domestic wastewater. Substances found include the synthetic oestrogen used in contraceptives 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (4.5 ng l(-1)), the natural oestrogens oestrone (5.8 ng l(-1)) and 17 beta-oestradiol (1.1 ng l(-1)), and the weaker non-steroidal oestrogens 4-nonylphenol (840 ng l(-1)) and bisphenol A (490 ng l(-1)). Ethinyloestradiol exceeded levels shown to be oestrogenic to fish by 45 times. The oestrogenicity of the effluent water was investigated by introducing juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in cages downstream of the sewage treatment works. After 2 weeks, all oestrogens indicated were present in the bile of the fish, and the oestrogen inducible protein, vitellogenin, was found in large amounts in the plasma (1.5 mg ml(-1)), as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Thus, a widely used synthetic oestrogen affects the endocrine systems of fish exposed to sewage effluent water.

  • 16.
    Lavén, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Yu, Y.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sun, H.
    Serial mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange solid-phase extraction for separation of basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method is presented whereby 15 basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater were simultaneously extracted and subsequently separated into different fractions. This was achieved using mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange SPE (Oasis MCX and MAX) in series. Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QTOF-MS). A fast separation was achieved, with all compounds eluting within 6 min, narrow chromatographic peaks, with a peak base width of 6 s on average, and a high mass accuracy of quantified wastewater sample ions, with average mass errors in absolute value of 0.7 mDa or 2.7 ppm. The recovery of the SPE method in the analysis of sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent wastewater was on average 80% and the ion suppression 30%. For less demanding samples Oasis MCX used alone may be an alternative method, although for STP influent waters containing high loads of organic compounds the clean-up achieved using only Oasis MCX was insufficient, leading to unreliable quantitation. Furthermore, serial SPE separation according to molecular charge added an additional degree of analyte confirmation. For quantitation, an approach combining external standard calibration curves, isotopically labelled surrogate standards and single-point standard addition was used. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in the analysis of influent and effluent wastewater from an STP, using small sample volumes (25–50 mL). The effluent wastewater had been subjected to three different treatments; activated sludge, activated sludge followed by ozonation, and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Ozone treatment proved superior in removal of the analysed pharmaceuticals, while the MBR provided higher removal efficiencies than the activated sludge process.

  • 17.
    Lundström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lavén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Characterization of additional sewage treatment technologies: Ecotoxicological effects and levels of selected pharmaceuticals, hormones and endocrine disruptors2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1612-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjostad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term ( <= 7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations ( < 50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests.

  • 18.
    Minten, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Extraction and analysis of pharmaceuticals in pollutedsediment using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry2011In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 553-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-residue method for the extraction and clean-up of sediment samples was developed for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues. Sediment samples were collected in the proximity of sewage water plant in Stockholm, Sweden. Target analytes were the basic -blocker propranolol, the neutral neuroleptic carbamazepine and the acidic anticoagulant warfarin, the painkiller diclofenac and the lipid regulator gemfibrozil. The extraction solvent was optimised with regard to pH and organic modifer. Extraction and clean up were performed with liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-sonication followed by solid-phase extraction. One extraction solvent, containing acetone/McIlvaine buffer pH4, provided satisfactory extraction for all substances. LC/MSMS in the MRM mode was used for determination. The recoveries of the extraction and clean-up steps were 60–75% (2–8%) and LOQs were in the range 0.4–8 ng/g sediment (dry weight). The pharmaceuticals found in the sediment samples were propranolol and carbamazepine, representing substances with basic and neutral properties. Additionally, the samples were analysed with LC/QTOF for verification with the use of accurate mass measurement in the full-scan mode. Pharmaceuticals not represented in the original method were looked for. Non-target pharmaceuticals found using the LC/QTOF system were the basic -blocker metoprolol and the acidic painkiller naproxen.

  • 19.
    Minten, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A method for the analysis of sucralose with electrosprayLC/MS in recipient waters and in sewage effluent subjected totertiary treatment technologiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Minten, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ulfsdotter Turesson, E.
    Stiernström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Utveckling av en analysmetod för pesticiden tebuconazole med vätskekromatografi och UV-diode-array detektor avsett för att utvärdera ett ekotoxikologiskt testsystem där den bentiska sötvattenorganismen Attheyella crassa exponerats för tebuconazole2007In: SNMM: March 12-14 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Minten, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A method for the analysis of sucralose with electrospray LC/MS in recipient waters and in sewage effluent subjected to tertiary treatment technologies2011In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the analysis of the artificial sweetener sucralose in sewage water and recipient water was developed. Extraction and clean up was performed with solid-phase extraction utilising Oasis HLB columns. Detection was made by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. However, 'pseudo MRM' was used, a technique where the two quadrupoles monitor the same m/z. The sodium adduct of sucralose was used for quantification, since lower detection limits were obtained as compared to the sucralose quasi-molecular ion in negative ion mode. The two ions with highest intensity in the chlorine isotope pattern were monitored. The reduction of matrix effects with this approach is discussed. The method limit of quantification (MLOQ) for sewage water was 0.2 mu g L(-1), whereas for recipient water MLOQ was 0.02 mu g L(-1). The method was used to analyse effluent samples from an experimental sewage treatment plant (STP) to assess the efficiency of tertiary treatment techniques for removal of sucralose. Filtration through activated carbon was shown to be efficient, while ozonation, advanced oxidation techniques and membrane bioreactors were less efficient. Analyses of receiving waters showed low dilution of sucralose emitted from the STPs.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Förlin, Lars
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 174-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modem Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed in the blood plasma of the exposed fish. To identify substances possibly responsible for the effect, bile fluid from the exposed fish were analysed with GUMS. Elevated levels of vitellogenin were only seen in the fish exposed at one of the sewage treatment plants, the one with shorter residence time in the biological treatment steps, which suggests that the residence time is of importance for the ability to reduce the amount of estrogenic substances in the sewage water. The highest elevation of vitellogenin was seen in the fish exposed to water before the sand filter, which indicates that the sand filter contributes to further reduction of estrogenic substances in the sewage water. In bile from the same group of fish, considerably higher concentrations of estrone, bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol (4.0 mu g/g bile, 23 mu g/g bile and 24 mu g/g bile, respectively) were observed compared to bile from control fish (< 0.04 mu g/g bile, 0.21 mu g/g bile, and 3.5 mu g/g bile, respectively). The more potent steroidal estrogens were suggested to be major contributors to the observed estrogenic effect, although xenoestrogens were detected at higher concentrations in the bile fluid.

  • 23.
    Rummel, Christoph Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jahnke, Annika
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    No measurable cleaning of polychlorinated biphenyls from Rainbow Trout in a 9 week depuration study with dietary exposure to 40% polyethylene microspheres2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 788-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent hydrophobic chemicals sorbed to plastic can be transferred to fish and other aquatic organisms upon ingestion. However, ingestion of plastic could also lead to enhanced elimination of these chemicals if the plastic is less contaminated than the fish. Here, we attempted to measure the influence of ingestion of uncontaminated polyethylene microspheres on the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an in vivo fish feeding experiment. Rainbow trout were given feed contaminated with PCBs for two consecutive days, then clean feed for three days to allow for egestion of the contaminated food. A control group of fish were then fed ordinary food pellets and a treatment group were fed pellets that additionally contained 40% by weight polyethylene microspheres. Condition factors and growth rates in both groups were similar, indicating no negative effect of the plastic microspheres on the nutritional status of the fish. Fish were sampled after zero, three, six and nine weeks, homogenized, solvent-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. PCB concentrations declined in both groups at a rate consistent with growth dilution. There was no significant difference in the elimination rate constants between the control and treatment group, indicating that ingestion of uncontaminated plastic did not cause a measurable enhancement of depuration of PCBs by the fish in this study.

  • 24.
    Stiernström,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ulfsdotter Turesson, E.
    Minten,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A novel reproduction and development sediment toxicity test with the freshwater harpacticoid copepod /Attheyella crassa/.2007In: SETAC 17th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25. Sturve, Joachim
    et al.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Förlin, Lars
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 24, p. 13758-13768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Goteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Goteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during normal conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  • 26. Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    et al.
    Allmyr, Mats
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Murby, John
    Harden, Fiona A.
    Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 11, p. 1682-1686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triclosan is a chlorinated phenol ether that has been in widespread use as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for four decades. When compared to the limited international data available on human body burden of triclosan, results from a pooled blood study suggested that triclosan concentrations in Australia were a factor two higher than observed in Sweden. This study determined triclosan levels in individual human milk samples (n = 151) collected between 2002 and 2005 from primiparous Australian mothers. It provided the first report of population triclosan levels and individual variation in Australia and gave a measure of infant exposure via breast feeding. The distribution of triclosan concentration was positively skewed, with 7.2% of the samples below the LOQ 66% with a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 ng g(-1) fresh weight and the remaining samples above 1 ng g(-1) reaching a maximum concentration of 19 ng g(-1) fresh weight. The mean and median triclosan concentrations were 1.3 +/- 2.7 ng g(-1) f.w. and 0.26 ng g(-1) f.w., respectively. The results of this study showed high variability in triclosan concentrations between individuals and no correlations with maternal age (p = 0.094), maternal weight (p = 0.971) or infant age at the time of sample collection (p = 0.621). A large number of samples contained low or non-quantifiable concentrations of triclosan and so, in Australia, ubiquitous background exposure due to environmental sources is low. This means that body burden can be influenced by an individual's use of triclosan containing product. Given that triclosan containing product use is continuing, it is important that monitoring in both humans and the environment is continued and that triclosan containing products are adequately labeled so that an individual can choose to avoid exposure.

  • 27.
    Ulfsdotter Turesson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Stiernström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Minten, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Development and reproduction of the freshwater harpacticoid copepod Attheyella crassa for assessing sediment-associated toxicity2007In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 180-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both freshwater and marine sediments are sinks for many anthropogenic substances. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial that toxicity tests that are available for environmental risk assessment can identify potentially adverse effects of sediment-associated substances on benthic organisms, such as harpacticoid copepods. While marine harpacticoids have been protected via a number of acute and chronic sediment tests, the freshwater harpacticoid copepod community has so far been neglected in such activities. The main aim of the present study was therefore to (a) find a suitable freshwater harpacticoid copepod, (b) establish robust laboratory mass cultures and (c) develop a chronic test for assessment of sediment-associated toxicity using spiked sediments. After several cultivation trials with a number of potential test species, the choice fell on the benthic freshwater harpacticoid copepod Attheyella crassa, a species that possesses many of the characteristic features identified as prerequisites for toxicity test organisms, e.g. it has a sexual reproduction, it is relatively easy to grow and keep in mass cultures in the laboratory, and it has a small body size. Owing to the relatively long generation time of freshwater harpacticoids (in relation to many marine harpacticoids), it was decided that the test should be separated into a development part (21 days) and a reproduction part (14 days) running in parallel. As a reference substance we used the fungicide tebuconazole, which is currently subject to risk assessment and which partitions to soil and sediment. Clear concentration-related responses were observed for all endpoints analyzed. Nauplia body length was the most sensitive endpoint with a measured time weighted LOEC(water) of 20microg/L. The corresponding LOEC(water) for larval mortality and offspring production was 65 and 62microg/L, respectively. In conclusion, A. crassa is an ecologically relevant test species for freshwater ecosystems and particularly for the cold, oligotrophic and often acidic lakes of Northern Europe. Regardless of the relatively long generation time of this species, our results clearly show that sediment-associated toxicity related to development and sexual reproduction can be assessed within 2-3 weeks exposure with the developed bioassay.

  • 28.
    Wiklund, Ann-Kristin Eriksson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sucralose Induces Biochemical Responses in Daphnia magna2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e92771-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS) in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001-5 mg L-1). The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology.

  • 29.
    Wiklund, Ann-Kristin Eriksson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sucralose - An ecotoxicological challenger?2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-calorie sweetener sucralose - sucrose containing three chlorine atoms - is intensively sweet and has become a popular substitute for sugar. Its widespread use, exceptional stability in combination with high water solubility have thus resulted in contamination of recipient waters. Earlier studies on sucralose in aquatic organisms indicate low bioaccumulation potential and negligible acute/chronic toxicity, but the close structural resemblance with sucrose in combination with the importance of sugar in nature, warrant a more detailed ecotoxicological assessment. The aim of this investigation was therefore to study behavioural and physiological effects of sucralose in crustaceans. Our results show that both physiology and locomotion behaviour were affected by exposure to sucralose. In Daphnia magna, the behavioural response was manifested as altered swimming height and increased swimming speed, whereas in gammarids the time to reach food and shelter was prolonged. Regardless if these behavioural responses were initiated via traditional toxic mechanisms or stimulatory effects, they should be considered as a warning, since exposed organisms may diverge from normal behaviour, which ultimately can have ecological consequences.

  • 30.
    Xiao, Ruiyang
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A BENCHMARKING METHOD TO MEASURE DIETARY ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICALS BY FISH2013In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 2695-2700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract of fish is important from both a scientific and a regulatory point of view. However, reported fish absorption efficiencies for well-studied chemicals are highly variable. In the present study, the authors developed and exploited an internal chemical benchmarking method that has the potential to reduce uncertainty and variability and, thus, to improve the precision of measurements of fish absorption efficiency. The authors applied the benchmarking method to measure the gross absorption efficiency for 15 chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties and structures. They selected 2,2,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB53) and decabromodiphenyl ethane as absorbable and nonabsorbable benchmarks, respectively. Quantities of chemicals determined in fish were benchmarked to the fraction of PCB53 recovered in fish, and quantities of chemicals determined in feces were benchmarked to the fraction of decabromodiphenyl ethane recovered in feces. The performance of the benchmarking procedure was evaluated based on the recovery of the test chemicals and precision of absorption efficiency from repeated tests. Benchmarking did not improve the precision of the measurements; after benchmarking, however, the median recovery for 15 chemicals was 106%, and variability of recoveries was reduced compared with before benchmarking, suggesting that benchmarking could account for incomplete extraction of chemical in fish and incomplete collection of feces from different tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2695-2700.

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