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  • 1.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Preparing to lead in combat: Development of leadership self-efficacy by static-line parachutingIn: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined whether a static-line parachute program could help prepare future military officers to lead in extreme situations by increasing leadership self-efficacy. Parachute training is commonly used for preparing to lead in combat since it presents a perceived threat to life which requires active mastery. Achieving such mastery facilitates the development of leader self-control efficacy and leader assertiveness efficacy. This assumption was tested in a real training situation within the Swedish Military Academy where two groups of cadets were included in the study. The group of cadets undertaking parachute training conducted repeated measures of assessment of their self-efficacy before and after the course as well as at a five-month follow-up. The results show that parachute training increased leader self-control efficacy when compared to a group of cadets who undertook different training. In addition, the training given contributed to increased leader assertiveness efficacy for both groups.

  • 2. Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Bäck, Hanna
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    From I to We: Group Formation and Linguistic Adaption in an Online Xenophobic Forum2018In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 76-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of identity formation processes nowadays takes place online, indicating that intergroup differentiation may be found in online communities. This paper focuses on identity formation processes in an open online xenophobic, anti-immigrant, discussion forum. Open discussion forums provide an excellent opportunity to investigate open interactions that may reveal how identity is formed and how individual users are influenced by other users. Using computational text analysis and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC), our results show that new users change from an individual identification to a group identification over time as indicated by a decrease in the use of “I” and increase in the use of “we”. The analyses also show increased use of “they” indicating intergroup differentiation. Moreover, the linguistic style of new users became more similar to that of the overall forum over time. Further, the emotional content decreased over time. The results indicate that new users on a forum create a collective identity with the other users and adapt to them linguistically.

  • 3. Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hen can do it: Effects of using a gender neutral pronoun in a recruitment situation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    SIEPS.
    Trade in services and in goods with low-wage countries: how do attitudes differ and how are they formed?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft ska tillåtas inom EU eller om denna arbetskraft ska betalas samma löner som i värdlandet har de senaste åren varit flitigt omdebatterad i många EU-länder. I Sverige symboliseras denna debatt av Vaxholmskonflikten.

    I rapporten Trade in Services and in Goods with Low-Wage Countries - How Do Attitudes Differ and How Are They Formed? analyserar ekonomer och psykologer attityderna till olika typer av låglönekonkurrens. Resultaten bekräftar att attityderna är mer negativa till låglönekonkurrens i tjänstehandel som innefattar utstationerad arbetskraft än till "vanlig" import av varor från låglöneländer. Attitydbildningen verkar ha såväl "rationella" som "irrationella" komponenter. Detta gäller både de som förespråkar fri lönekonkurrens och de som är emot, även om analysen visar att det rationella inslaget tycks vara större för den förra gruppen.

  • 5.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrica
    Trade in goods, trade in services and outsourcing - How do attitudes differ?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free trade in goods has become more or less generally accepted. On the other hand, the debates on wages for posted workers in several EU countries as well as the controversy around the new EU Service Directive show that there are much more hostile attitudes towards free trade in services. However, for economists it is natural to analyze trade in services – and their labour market implications – in a similar way as trade in goods. The objective of the project is to document to what extent attitudes towards trade in goods, trade in services and offshoring (outsourcing) differ and to explain what factors that could account for this. First, we examine the “rational” (conscious) arguments that people may have against free trade in services and offshoring. Some of these arguments deal with people’s perceptions of the changes in expected utility that would result from the opening up of international trade in services and offshoring, whereas others deal with the perceptions of the effects on broader “values” such as fairness and social cohesion. Second, we look at a number of “psychological” (unconscious) factors that are known to affect people’s judgments in public policy issues. Such factors are usually related to people’s motivation to maintain psychological and emotional comfort and coherent self-image. Two studies are presented in this report. The results from a nation wide survey with 1000 respondents showed that free trade in services and offshoring is more negatively evaluated than free trade. The results also show that “rational” factors cannot account for the difference in attitudes to different types of trade. Our conclusion was that there must exist some psychological mechanisms that cause this overall more negative attitude towards trade in services and offshoring. The result from experiments showed that it was possible to separate more permanent specific attitudes underlying the attitude towards free trade in goods from unstable and contextual specific attitudes that are constructed on the spot in order to make one’s position more coherent. It was also found that the attitude may depend on personality oriented factors (prevention or promotions focus) as well as social psychological factors (ingroup favoritism). We hope that the results of the present investigation may be useful in the area of trade politics for improving the communication between economists and people in general.

  • 6.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Department of Psychology, University of Latvia, och SSE Riga.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    (SIEPS).
    Uppfattas tjänstehandel som mindre rättvis än varuhandel?: En studie av attityder till låglönekonkurrens i utrikeshandel2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett antal arbetsmarknadskonflikter relaterade till låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft har blivit livligt uppmärksammade i den offentliga debatten runt om i EU:s medlemsländer. Av debatten att döma tycks de flesta medborgare ha en mer negativ inställning till låglönekonkurrens när det gäller import av tjänster innefattande utstationerad arbetskraft än när det gäller import av varor. Vår rapport studerar hur attityderna till låglönekonkurrens skiljer sig åt mellan olika former av handel genom att kombinera ekonomisk och psykologisk forskning. Resultaten bekräftar att attityderna är mer negativa till låglönekonkurrens i tjänstehandel och till offshoring än till varuimport från låglöneländerna. Demografiska, socioekonomiska och politisk-ideologiska bakgrundsfaktorer påverkar attityderna till handel i linje med resultaten från tidigare studier av handelsattityder. Däremot förefaller bakgrundsvariabler ha liten betydelse för skillnader i attityder mellan olika typer av handel. Vi genomförde även experiment för att klargöra i vilken grad attityden till tjänstehandel bildas utifrån rationella överväganden runt olika aspekter, det vill säga från underliggande attityddimensioner, eller om dessa attityddimensioner på grund av koherenssökande i stället anpassas till den generella attityden. Resultaten ger starkt stöd för att koherenssökande spelar stor roll i attitydbildningen till låglönekonkurrens med utstationerad arbetskraft. Tendensen till koherenssökande tycks vara kraftigare för dem som har en negativ inställning till sådan låglönekonkurrens än för dem som är positiva. Det skulle kunna tolkas som att den negativa gruppen bildar sina attityder på ett mindre rationellt sätt än den positiva gruppen. En alternativ tolkning är att den positiva gruppen ser sig som utmanare av den existerande ordningen, vilket enligt psykologisk forskning kan göra den mindre benägen att nyansera sin inställning.

  • 7.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Why do people dislike low-wage trade competition with posted workers in the service sector?2013In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 47, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people's attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments, we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

  • 8. Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stavlöt, Ulrica
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspective taking and expression of attitudes in a political controversy2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Karin Schenck
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 10.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Løvseth, Lise T.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A comparison of risk and protective factors related to suicide ideation among residents and specialists in academic medicine2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 271-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physicians have an elevated risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts, which might be due to work-related factors. However, the hierarchical work positions as well as work-related health differ among resident and specialist physicians. As such, the correlates of suicide ideation may also vary between these two groups. Methods: In the present study, work- and health-related factors and their association with suicidal thoughts among residents (n=234) and specialists (n=813) working at a university hospital were examined using cross-sectional data. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that having supportive meetings was associated with a lower level of suicide ideation among specialists (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94), while an empowering leadership was related to a lower level of suicide ideation among residents (OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.94). Having been harassed at work was associated with suicidal ideation among specialists (OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.31-3.91). In addition, sickness presenteeism and work disengagement were associated with suicide ideation in both groups of physicians. Conclusions: These findings suggest that different workplace interventions are needed to prevent suicide ideation in residents and specialists.

  • 11.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reasons to quit among Swedish General Practitioners2014In: International Conference on Physician Health: Milestones and transitions  - Maintaining the balance: Abstract brochure, 2014, p. 2-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: General practitioners play a crucial part in healthcare as they provide the continuity of care that can prevent illness, and they most often represent the patients first contact with health-care. A current problem is however that there is a lack of general practitioners in several countries. Recruitment of general practitioners from abroad is essential to ensure the publics physician access, but there are indications that this group has even greater quitting intentions than native-born physicians. The antecedents of turnover intentions may moreover differ in importance for native-born and foreign-born physicians respectively. Methods and participants: The authors examined five fundamental physician work factors in relation to intention to quit among native-born general practitioners (n=208), and foreign-born general practitioners (n=73) working in a primary care setting in a central area in Sweden. Linear regression analysis was performed with control for age and gender. The sample consisted of 64 % females. Results: Foreign-born general practitioners more often stated that they would quit today if they could than native-born practitioners (t278= 3,73, p = .001). Regression analysis revealed that pressure from patients was related to an increased intention to quit in both groups. In addition, vacancies and pressure from financial goals were related to a higher risk of wanting to quit among native-born general practitioners. HR-Primacy was associated with a decreased risk of turnover intentions among the native-born general practitioners, while control of work pace was highly related to a decreased risk of turnover intentions among foreign-born general practitioners. Conclusions: General practitioners primarily experience pressure from patients and financial goals of the care-unit, which may provoke intentions to quit. Study suggestions are that care-unit financial goals are set in consent with physicians, and that control of work pace is encouraged.

  • 12.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Belkic, Karen
    Marini, Massimo
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Why don't academic physicians seek needed professional help for psychological distress?2012In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 142, article id w13626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Suicidal thoughts, burnout and other signs of psychological distress are prevalent among physicians. There are no studies concerning help-seeking for psychological distress among university hospital physicians, who face a particularly challenging, competitive work environment. We compare psychologically-distressed university hospital physicians who have not sought needed help with those who have sought such help. We thereby aim to identify factors that may hinder help-seeking and factors that may trigger seeking help.

    METHODS: Analysis was performed among university hospital physicians reporting recent suicidal thoughts and/or showing other indications of current psychological ill-health. These distressed physicians were a subgroup (42.7%) from the cross-sectional phase I HOUPE study (Health and Organization among University Hospital Physicians in Europe): 366 from Sweden and 150 from Italy. Having sought professional help for depression or burnout was the outcome variable. Multiple logistic regression was performed with socio-demographic factors as covariates.

    RESULTS: Altogether 404 (78.3%) of these distressed physicians had never sought professional help for depression/burnout. Physicians who were currently involved in medical research, taking night call, surgical specialists, male, or Italian were least likely to have sought help. Physicians who faced harassment at work or who self-diagnosed and self-treated were more likely to have sought help.

    CONCLUSION: Very few of these university hospital physicians with signs of psychological distress sought help from a mental-health professional. This has implications for physicians themselves and for patient care, clinical research, and education of future physicians. More study, preferably of interventional design, is warranted concerning help-seeking among these physicians in need.

  • 13.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Minucci, Daria
    Marini, Massimo
    Tevik Løvset, Lise
    Jónsdottir, Lilja Sigrún
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of female and male academic physicians working while ill (the HOUPE study)2012In: Program, 2012, p. 59-60, article id 835Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Enhance physicians health through surevy feedback seminars2013In: 21st International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: Towards a more health oriented service: An issue of body and mind. The contribution of HPH to Health 2020, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Four university hospitals started 2005 a comprehensive research program Health and Organization among University hospitals Physicians in four European countries - The HOUPE study. The project aims to provide a systematic comparison on how research activity, work conditions, gender equality, career advancement, impact on the health and wellbeing of physicians. Here we present data from Sweden and how we used them to conduct an intervention project to develop the working conditions and thereby enhance the health of physicians working.

    Methods: Cross sectional survey in 2005 (N = 1800) among university hospital physicians employed permanently more than one year. Measures: Physician Career Path Questionnaire (Fridner, 2004), General Health Questionnaire-12 (Goldberg and Williams, 1991), Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti et al., 2001, 2003), Question About Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide (Meehan et al, 1992), and selected scales from Questionnaire about Psychological and Social Factors at Work (Lindström et al, 2000). Survey feedback seminars with physicians working in one university hospital.

    Results: All employed physicians (2300), the hospital management and HR-consultants recieved a written report where the results from the survey were presented. 10 % of all physicians participated in a three hour survey feedback seminar. Researchers documented these seminars, and reports were distributed to all the physicians working in the clinic/clinics which enabled non-participating physicians to gain knowledge from the seminars. One summarising report from all the survey feedback seminars was written and distributed to all physicians.

    Conclusions: The seminars were emotionally charged since a lot of frustration could be spoken out, but also a serious listening when results of the physcians´health and results about harrassments among colleagues were presented. Each feed-back seminar ended with the physicians themselves made proposals as to how they wanted to change work conditions in their specific clinic.

    Comments: Overall, the research team gave 20 survey feedback meetings in collaboration with head of clinic and HR-consultants. Three hours is minum to keep up with the process it means to understand their health and work situation, and to be constructive in their cooperation in order to achieve change.

  • 15.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tevik Løvseth, Lise
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Leadership strategies to increase health among university physicians (HOUPE)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Why do General Practitioners Self-Diagnose and Self-Prescribe Drugs?2016In: Book of Proceedings: 12th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: OHP in Times of Change: Society and the workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Vlad Dediu, Nathalie Jean Saade, Juliet Hassard, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2016, p. 203-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Physicians tend to demonstrate inappropriate behavior when it comes to taking care of their own health. Self-prescribing or self-treatment seems to be practiced in many countries, and self-treated illnesses are found to be more common among general practitioners. For the physician such behavior is a threat to their own health, and as a consequence their patients might not be able to receive optimal health care. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between help seeking behavior, sickness presenteeism, exhaustion, and self- treatment among general practitioners.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among GPs employed in one City Council in Sweden using a questionnaire on health and work factors. The criterion variable “To self-diagnose and self-treat” was measured with a single item from the Physician Career Path Questionnaire (PCPQ; Fridner, 2004). Exhaustion was measured with a scale from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, OLBI (α = .82; Demerouti et al., 2001, 2003). “Sickness presenteeism” and “Taking vacation due to stress” was measured with single items, also from the PCPQ (Fridner, 2004). For the analyses, we used hierarchical multiple regression.

    Results: Altogether 193 (63,9%) female GPs and 109 (36,1%) male GPs answered the questionnaire, a 44% response-rate. Among them 46,2% stated they had diagnosed and treated themselves for a condition for which they would have referred a patient to a specialist. Our regression analysis model revealed that those physicians who self-treated themselves were also significantly more sickness present at work. Adding to this, exhaustion among the GPs was also included in the model.

    Conclusions: This study shows that self-treatment is not an isolated behavior, but occurs together with exhaustion and sickness presenteeism, indicating a quite severe situation for their health, which would need to be investigated by other doctors than themselves. This needs to be further investigated and taken into account by the National Board of Health and Welfare, County Councils and Medical Associations, and for future physicians our medical schools. 

  • 17.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Norell, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åkesson, Gertrud
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Løvseth, Lise Tevik
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Possible reasons why female physicians publish fewer scientific articles than male physicians: A cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of women in medicine is approaching that of men, but female physicians are still in the minority as regards positions of power. Female physicians are struggling to reach the highest positions in academic medicine. One reason for the disparities between the genders in academic medicine is the fact that female physicians, in comparison to their male colleagues, have a lower rate of scientific publishing, which is an important factor affecting promotion in academic medicine. Clinical physicians work in a stressful environment, and the extent to which they can control their work conditions varies. The aim of this paper was to examine potential impeding and supportive work factors affecting the frequency with which clinical physicians publish scientific papers on academic medicine.

    Methods: Cross-sectional multivariate analysis was performed among 198 female and 305 male Swedish MD/PhD graduates. The main outcome variable was the number of published scientific articles.

    Results: Male physicians published significantly more articles than female physicians p <. 001. In respective multivariate models for female and male physicians, age and academic positions were significantly related to a higher number of published articles, as was collaborating with a former PhD advisor for both female physicians (OR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.22–7.20) and male physicians (OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.08–4.10). Control at work was significantly associated with a higher number of published articles for male physicians only (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.08–2.09). Exhaustion had a significant negative impact on number of published articles among female physicians (OR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.70) whilst the publishing rate among male physicians was not affected by exhaustion.

    Conclusions: Women physicians represent an expanding sector of the physician work force; it is essential that they are represented in future fields of research, and in academic publications. This is necessary from a gender perspective, and to ensure that physicians are among the research staff in biomedical research in the future.

  • 18.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pingel, Birgit
    Løvset, Lise Tevik
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    From Awareness to Action Using the Survey Feedback Method2014In: Journal of Health Science, ISSN 2328-7136, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 325-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports from European university hospitals show an increase in work-related mental strain. Four European university hospitals started a comprehensive research program called Health and Organisation among University hospitals Physicians in Europe—the HOUPE Study in the year 2003. Based on the results from the HOUPE study, the authors conducted an intervention project together with HR-consultants at one of the participating hospitals. A collected cross-sectional survey in 2005 among permanently employed academic physicians (N = 1800, response rate 60%) at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Results from the study were used in survey feedback seminars (N = 250). This method is a way of systematic collection of data to process and give feedback to the organisation’s members in order to initiate organisational change. By providing results based on the total sample, on each division, and unpublished data from each clinic the authors aimed to improve physicians’ health and work satisfaction and thereby enhance the health of the physicians. Feedback seminars can arouse many emotions and might make people defensive. The role of resistance in the process of change is a paradox in that resistance slows down change. However, without resistance there will be no change at all. The authors conducted 20 feedback seminars of three hours duration where results were discussed relating mainly to the psychosocial work environment, psychological distress, and career paths, i.e., job demands, control at work, social interactions, leadership, commitment to the organisation, harassment at work, burnout, depression and suicide ideation. Altogether, 250 physicians participated in these meetings. To achieve acceptance for organisational change, data about relevant conditions in the organisation have to be processed in a systematic way in collaboration with all those who will benefit from changes, in concrete work units as divisions and clinics.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Men differentiate less between good  and bad leadership than women do2012In: Program: Poster Session G — Gender, 2012, p. 245-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a survey about leadership (N = 86) we tested men’s and women’s ratings of female, male, preferred and unpreferred attributes. We found ingroup bias such that women favored female attributes and vice verse. We also found that man discriminate less between preferred and unpreffered leadership attributes than women do.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender in leadership2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender pronouns in the news media, differences in frequencies, description and evaluations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personal Pronouns in Evaluative Communication2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal pronouns represent important social categories; they are among the most common words in communication and are therefore highly interesting in studying psychological perspectives and relations. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether pronouns are used in semantic contexts in a way that reflect psychological biases. Specifically, I have tested whether self-, group-serving- and gender biases occur when pronouns are used in natural language. To study this, I developed a structure for pronouns in social categorization where the pronouns are categorized in a self-inclusive/exclusive, an individual/collective, and a gender dimension. New methods for examining pronouns usage in language were developed in the thesis, for use in experiments and in computerized studies of large data corpora of media news. The results of this thesis showed that self-inclusive pronouns (I, We) consistently were used in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He, She, They) by participants who generated messages in the lab (Study I), and by journalists in written media news (Study II). Study I revealed that the evaluative context surrounding I and We varied according to the specific communicative situation. When individuals generated messages individually, more positive contexts were selected for I than We. However in a collaborative setting, We occurred in contexts of similar valence as I. An intergroup setting magnified the differences between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns (e.g., between We and They and between I and He/She). In an analysis of 400 000 news media messages, We occurred in more positive context than I (Study II). In Study III, the contexts of He and She in these media news were examined. The results showed that He occurred nine times more often, and in more positive contexts than She. Moreover, words associated with She included more labels denoting gender, and were more uniform than words associated with He. In sum, this thesis shows that studying the use of pronouns is a fruitful way to investigate social psychology phenomena. The thesis contributes to the understanding of how pronoun use convey knowledge about social cognition, attitudes, gender stereotypes, as well as interpersonal and intergroup relations.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Vergoossen, Hellen P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Neutral pronouns as promoters of gender equality2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eagly, Alice
    Sczesny, Sabine
    Gender Stereotyping in Linguistic Behavior2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eagly, Alice
    Sczesny, Sabine
    Of Caring Nurses and Assertive Police Officers: Social Role Information Overrides Gender Stereotypes in Linguistic Behavior2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the social role theory (SRT: Eagly & Steffen, 1984), gender-stereotypic beliefs stem from the observation of women and men in different social roles that require different types of traits. In four experiments (485 participants altogether) we addressed the question of whether language production reflects and reproduces gender stereotypes. Participants created person descriptions in which they could refer to gender (e.g., women/men, he/she) and/or occupational roles (e.g., nurses/police officers) with either communal or agentic traits (e.g., caring or assertive). In Experiment 1, participants more often combined female pronouns to female-typical occupational roles, and male pronouns to male-typical occupational roles. In Experiment 2 and 3, persons in female-typical occupations were more likely ascribed with communal traits, whereas persons in male-typical occupations were more likely ascribed with agentic traits. In both experiments, occupational roles had a stronger influence on trait ascriptions than sex definitional nouns/pronouns. Experiment 4 provided the critical test of social role theory revealing that trait ascriptions did not differ when women and men where described in the same occupational role.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eneroth, Mari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender influence on sickness presence in outpatient care2014In: International Conference on Physician Health: Milestones and transitions  - Maintaining the balance: Abstract brochure, 2014, p. 64-65Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the health care sector sickness presence is common, and especially among physicians. Sickness presence is less studied than sickness absence but might have adverse effects for individual physicians, and for health care of patients (Wallace, et al, 2009). Previous research has shown that female physicians more often go to work while sick (Gustafsson et al., 2013). In this study, it is examined whether men and women also show different reasons for going to work while ill. Method and participants: The study was conducted within outpatient care in a large Swedish city (N = 283, women 64 %). The question studied were sickness presence in a long term perspective, during the last 12 months and reasons for going to work while sick (concern for colleagues; patients; workload; economy; and perceptions of own capability). Results: In a long-term perspective, women indicated that they went to work while sick more often than men, F (1,282) = 6.06, p = .014. Among the women, 37 % indicated that they often or very often go to work while ill. For men, this figure was 23.4 %. For the last 12 month, 50% of the women and 40% of the men had gone to work while sick more than two times (mean difference = ns.). Although men and women indicated similar reasons for going to work while sick, there were also interesting differences. Women indicated higher concerns for patients, and the workload as reasons for going to work while sick. On the other hand, men indicated economic concerns to a higher degree than women and that they were capable of going to work while sick.  There were no gender differences in concerns for colleagues. Conclusions: Sickness presence might have severe consequences, both for physicians themselves and for patients and medical care. Knowing the reasons for why physicians go to work is important in order to counter these behaviors. It is also important to notice that sex roles are of relevance in this type of behavior. HR departments and managers within medical care need to address these questions thoroughly and to implement strategies to decrease sickness presence among physicians.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The General Practitioner – an Endangered Professional Group2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Conference: Looking at the past planning for the future. Capitalizing on occupational health psychology multidisciplinarity / [ed] Nicholas John Artin Andreou, Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Juliet Hassard & Kevin Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 296-297Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners are responsible for the basic health care of the patients and if necessary, ensure the guidance of the patients within the medical system towards specialist care fulfilling the role of the “gatekeeper” of the medical system. However the shortage of doctors resulting in unfilled vacancies in the outpatient departments of hospitals has become a problem for the quality of care and a well-functioning health care delivery Doctors who are psychologically stressed are more likely to make medical mistakes, show a lower level of empathy, are more dissatisfied with their work and think more often of quitting their jobs or going on pension. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between doctors´ health, the organisation in which they work and the desire to stay on or quit working as a specialist general practioner.

    Method: Cross sectional survey in 2013 among General Practioners (GPs) employed in one City Council in Sweden. The criterion variable “intention to quit” was measured on a scale with three items (&#945; = .86; QPS-Nordic; Lindström et al, 2000). Exhaustion was measured by Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, OLBI, (&#945; = .82; Demerouti et al., 2001, 2003), “support from the organization” was measured also by scales from the QPS-Nordic (&#945; = .87). Scales about “vacancies” (&#945; = .90) and “economic goals” (&#945; = .86), were created within the project. For the analyses we used hierarchical multiple regression.

    Results: Altogether 193 (63,9%) female GPs and 109 (36,1%) male GPs answered the questionnaire, 44% response-rate. The results showed that analysed factors contributed to (50.6%) of unique variance in the physicians’ intention to quit. Physician exhaustion was included in the first model and accounted for 33% of the variance. All the subsequently introduced models added significantly to the “intention to quit”, specifically: “vacancies” (9.6%) , goal (2.1%) and “support from the organization” (5.2%).

    Conclusion: The results show that there are strong associations between physician’s level of exhaustion and their intention to quit their work as physicians. The results are important since they show that the organization needs to pay attention to resource planning, how economic goals are introduced in the organizations. A positive aspect is that support from the organizations seems to be a protective factor. This is something that the organizations need to implement.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Klysing, Amanda
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Renström, Emma Aurora
    The (Not So) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Social Role Theory, gender stereotypes are dynamic constructs influenced by actual and perceived changes in what roles women and men occupy (Wood and Eagly, 2011). Sweden is ranked as one of the most egalitarian countries in the world, with a strong national equality discourse and a relatively high number of men engaging in traditionally communal roles such as parenting and domestic tasks. This would imply a perceived change toward higher communion among men. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of gender stereotype content in Sweden with a primary interest in the male stereotype and perceptions of gender equality. In Study 1, participants (N = 323) estimated descriptive stereotype content of women and men in Sweden in the past, present, or future. They also estimated gender distribution in occupations and domestic roles for each time-point. Results showed that the female stereotype increased in agentic traits from the past to the present, whereas the male stereotype showed no change in either agentic or communal traits. Furthermore, participants estimated no change in gender stereotypes for the future, and they overestimated how often women and men occupy gender non-traditional roles at present. In Study 2, we controlled for participants' actual knowledge about role change by either describing women's increased responsibilities on the job market, or men's increased responsibility at home (or provided no description). Participants (N = 648) were randomized to the three different conditions. Overall, women were perceived to increase in agentic traits, and this change was mediated by perceptions of social role occupation. Men where not perceived to increase in communion but decreased in agency when change focused on women's increased participation in the labor market. These results indicate that role change among women also influence perceptions of the male stereotype. Altogether, the results indicate that social roles might have stronger influence on perceptions of agency than perceptions of communion, and that communion could be harder to incorporate in the male stereotype.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Sikström, Sverker
    Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts2014In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (WeI) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/SheThey), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; Weoccurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Selection Bias in Choice of Words:: Evaluations of "I" and "We" Differ Between Contexts, but "They" Are Always Worse2014In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people use language to communicate evaluative messages about social categories. A selection bias in language across two social dimensions not previously integrated was examined: a self-inclusive/self-exclusive dimension and an individual/collective dimension. Pronouns as markers for social categories were adopted (I, We, He/She, and They), and a new measure was developed (the Evaluative Sentence Generating task) to investigate the evaluative context selected for the pronouns. Results demonstrate that individuals select a more positive context for self-inclusive than self-exclusive pronouns and a more positive contexts for individual than collective pronouns. However, in an interpersonal context, evaluative differences between I and We diminished, whereas in an intergroup condition the evaluative gap between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns was magnified.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Løvseth, Lise Tevik
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What makes physicians go to work while sick: a comparative study of sickness presenteeism in four European countries (HOUPE)2013In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 143, no w13840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Sickness presenteeism is common in the health sector, especially among physicians, leading to high costs in terms of medical errors and loss in productivity. This study investigates predictors of sickness presenteeism in university hospitals, which might be especially exposed to competitive presenteeism. The study included comparisons of university hospitals in four European countries.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey analysis of factors related to sickness behaviour and work patterns in the field of academic medicine was performed among permanently employed physicians from the HOUPE (Health and Organisation among University Physicians Europe) study: (Sweden n = 1,031, Norway n= 354, Iceland n = 242, Italy n = 369). The outcome measure was sickness presenteeism.

    RESULTS: Sickness presence was more common among Italian physicians (86%) compared with physicians in other countries (70%‑76%). Country-stratified analyses showed that sickness presenteeism was associated with sickness behaviour and role conflicts in all countries. Competition in the form of publishing articles was a predictor in Italy and Sweden. Organisational care for physician well-being reduced sickness presenteeism in all countries.

    CONCLUSION: Sickness presenteeism in university hospitals is part of a larger behavioural pattern where physicians seem to neglect or hide their own illness. Factors associated with competitive climate and myths about a healthy doctor might contribute to these behaviours. Importantly, it is suggested that managers and organisations should work actively to address these questions since organisational care might reduce the extent of these behaviours.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Renström, Emma A.
    Gender bias in assessment of future work ability among pain patients - an experimental vignette study of medical students' assessment2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Pain is a prevalent problem in many countries. Women are more often on sick-leave for pain than men. Such gender differences have been explained through biological factors, different demands for on the job market, and home conditions. Fewer studies have focused on how gender stereotypes may bias the medical assessment of pain patients. The aim of the present research was to investigate if a gender bias in medical students' evaluations of chronic pain patients can contribute to explaining the gender differences in sick-leave due to pain. Specifically, we investigated whether medical students' estimates of a patient's accuracy of their own work ability and amount of domestic work differed between female and male patients, and how such estimates influenced the medical students' judgments of the patient's work ability. Methods: Medical students (n = 137; 60 women; 74 men; three unspecified) read a vignette describing a patient with pain and filled out a questionnaire. The vignette was identical and gender neutral, except for the name of the patient signaling gender. A between-subjects experimental design was used in which participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition. Participants then judged the patient's work ability, the accuracy of the patient's self-assessed work ability, and the amount of domestic work they believed was performed by the patient. All ratings were made on seven-point items. Results: The results showed that there was no main effect of gender on perceived future work ability of the patient, F (1,131) = 0.867, p = 0.353. However, male patients were considered to be more accurate in their self-assessed work ability than female patients F (1,131) = 5.925 p = 0.016 (M-female = 4.87, SDfemale = 1.22, and M-male = 5.33, SDmale = 1.02). Moreover, female patients were thought to perform more domestic work, F (1,131) = 25.56, p < 0.001 (M-female = 4.14, SDfemale = 1.41, and M-male = 3.07, SDmale = 1.16). Finally, perceived amount of domestic work moderated the effects of perceived future work ability for female but not for male patients, B = 0.42, p = 0.005. Hence, there was a positive effect of amount of domestic work performed on work ability judgments for women, such that the more domestic work they were assumed to perform, the more they were perceived to be able to work. Conclusions: Gender stereotypes influenced assessments of future work ability in pain patients, mainly because women were assumed to perform more domestic work which had a positive effect on perceived work ability. Because domestic work should have a negative effect on recovery, expectations from the physician that domestic work is expected by female patients may in fact have the opposite effect prolonging sick-leave. Moreover, the students trusted the male patients' ability to assess their own work capacity more than women's.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization2016In: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2052-4374, Vol. 28, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick.

    Methods: General practitioners (GP’s) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables.

    Results: Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism.

    Women reported reasons related with “concern for others” and “workload” more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with “capacity” and “money” more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities.

    Conclusions: Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She and He in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Extracting gender stereotypes with latent semantic analysis2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Ingroup Allocation Model - Redistributing Resources through Language to Improve Fitness2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Ingroup Allocation Model (IAM) - Redistributing resources through language, part 22011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Ingroup Allocation Model: Ingroup favoritism spontaneously expressed in choice of words2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Ingroup Allocation Model: The evolution of evaluative communication in group formation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Language and the Values of Personal Pronouns:  A Tool to Redistribute Resources from Outgroup Individuals to Ingroup Collectives2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Language as a Tool for Improving Fitness: Values of Social Groups2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    She” and “He” in news media messages: Pronoun use reflects gender biases in frequencies, as well as in evaluative and semantic contextsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Gustafsson Sénden, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: Females latently express communality more than malesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e., personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than males’ do. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e., what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e., the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed (with LIWC) as well as the latently expressed (with LSA) in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male’s.

  • 45. Klysing, Amanda
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Renström, Emma
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Perception of gender equality statements: Explicit mention of non-binary gender identities as a strategy for creating a more inclusive organization image2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1802-1802, article id 570Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many organizations include gender equality policy statements in their information material. Our aim was to explore if different types of equality statements influence organization appeal and estimates of organization diversity.

    Design: We tested three types of equality statements in a between-groups design (N = 424): (1) gender-balance (equality between women and men), (2) gender-blind (equality regardless of gender), (3) inclusive-gender (equality between women, men and individuals with a non-binary or other gender identity). Dependent variables were organization appeal, estimated organization equity and estimated diversity within the organization.

    Results: For organization appeal and organization equity, no differences were found between conditions. General diversity within the organization was rated as significantly higher in the inclusive-gender condition compared to the gender-balance condition. No other between-group comparison was significant.

    Limitations: Potential positive effects of an inclusive gender equality statement for individuals with a non-binary gender identity could not be assessed due to lack of participants.

    Implications: Gender equality statements which explicitly include individuals of all gender identities (i.e., does not treat gender as a binary variable) seem to be received similarly to the other types of equality statements tested, with the exception of higher estimated diversity compared to a genderbalance statement. Results support the use of inclusive gender equality statements since they are inclusive of a larger number of individuals and do not differ from a gender-blind statement.

    Originality: This is the first study investigating the impact of different types of gender equality statements which include gender identities other than women and men.

  • 46. Komlenac, Nikola
    et al.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Hochleitner, Margarethe
    Siller, Heidi
    Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians2019In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 539-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have continuously shown that fewer women than men achieve leadership positions in academic medicine. In the current study we explored gender differences in clinical position among academic physicians at three university hospitals, each in a different European country. These countries, Sweden, the Netherlands and Austria, differ in terms of gender equality. We analyzed whether the number of children, working hours or publications could explain gender differences in physicians’ clinical position. In this cross-sectional questionnaire study 1333 (54% female) physicians participated. Physicians were asked about their gender, age, number of children, working hours and clinical position. We used structural equation models to explore the influence of gender on the physicians’ clinical position in each of the three countries. We explored whether the association between gender and clinical position could be explained by number of children, working hours or publication activity. The analyses revealed that at all three university hospitals gender influenced clinical position. These gender differences in clinical position could be partly explained by gender differences in publication activity. Female physicians as compared to male physicians were likely to publish fewer articles, and in turn these lower publication numbers were associated with lower clinical positions. The number of children or working hours did not explain gender differences in publication activity or clinical position. Therefore, factors other than unequal allocation of household labor, such as the academic working environment, may still disproportionately disadvantage women’s progress, even at universities in countries with high rates of gender equality such as Sweden.

  • 47. Lindqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Bäck, Emma Aurora
    Vem tycker om hen?2016In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 26, p. 101-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish is the first language that has a gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun, hen, that has spread from transgender and queer communities to the broader society and now exists in parallel with the two traditional gendered pronouns representing ‘she’ and ‘he’. Many strong emotions have arisen during this process, both for and against hen. This study aims at analyzing what background factors may explain the attitudes towards hen. In total, 240 individuals participated in our online questionnaire where they indicated their attitude towards hen, as well as responded to questions assessing attitudes towards sexist language (i.e. gender discriminating language), modern sexism (i.e. the belief that gender-discrimination is no longer an issue), political views (from left to right), interest in gender issues and their identification with their own gender identity. The results show no gender difference in attitudes towards hen, but participants strongly identifying themselves with their gender identity had a tendency to be more negative towards the word. Political view was not a significant predictor. However, participants with sexist attitudes had a tendency to dislike hen, whereas those who were interested in gender issues and were negative towards sexist language had a tendency to like the word. Finally, younger age implied a stronger tendency to like hen.

  • 48.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. University of Catanzaro, Italy; University of Rome, Italy; RCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Italy.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hawley, Caitlin B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 171091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

  • 49.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hawley, Caitlin B.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Stanciu, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Body odor disgust sensitivity independently predicts authoritarian attitudes2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavioral immune system (BIS) provides us a set of emotional and behavioral responses to avoid the threat of pathogens. Individual differences in BIS can make some individuals endorse social values that minimize the contact with groups that might be perceived unfamiliar or deviant. Disgust is one of the emotions that is most consistently involved in the BIS and it has been found to be consistently related to socially conservative attitudes. Disgust sensitivity to body odors plays a crucial role in the BIS but it has been largely understated by research linking disgust sensitivity. We the developed a new scale that measures individual differences in body odors disgust sensitivity (BODS) and assessed how this measure related to conservative attitudes. We hypothesized that the BODS should relate to social, but not economic, conservatism, as only the latter should share common motives with the BIS. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the BODS should share more core motives with conservatism and thus it should at least partially mediate the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and conservatism. We developed a 30 items measure of BODS where participants had to rate how they would feel disgusted in five different scenarios involving six body odors consistently linked to disease detection. We ran three studies (N = 200, N = 159 and N = 269) through Amazon Mechanical Turk where we collected participants’ differences in: BODS, three domains of disgust (TDD) (studies 1-3), disgust sensitivity (DS, studies 2-3), Perceived Vulnerability to Disease (PVD, studies 2-3) and in social conservatism (Right-Wing Authoritarianism RWA, studies 1-3) and economic conservatism (Social Dominance Orientation, SDO, study 3). We ran zero order correlations to assess the relationship between BODS, other Disgust Sensitivity measures and conservatism measures. Akaike Information Criterion based stepwise model selection procedures were used to identify the variables that mostly accounted for participants’ variance in conservatism. Mediation analyses were ran to test the hypothesis that BODS could mediate, at least partially the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and conservatism.

    Results: Across three studies we found that 1) BODS has good convergent validity with other measures of general disgust sensitivity (Studies 1-3) 2) BODS is consistently and independently related to RWA even when taking into account DS-R and/or TDD (Studies 1-3) 3) BODS relates to social, but not economic conservatism 4) BODS at least partially mediates the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and social conservatism (Studies 1-3). Our results show that body odor disgust sensitivity independently predicts socially conservative attitudes, and our findings suggest that the study of the biological basis of social attitudes would benefit from an increased focus on basic sensory-emotional processes. While our approach is broadly congruent with current theoretical frameworks emphasizing the evolutionary roots of disgust in basic chemosensory processes, an increased empirical focus on body odor perception might provide a unique link between pathogen detection and social regulation mechanisms.

  • 50.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    The Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS): Development and Validation of a Novel Olfactory Disgust Assessment2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 499-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors. Collected data from 3 studies (total n = 528) show that the scale can be used either as a unidimensional scale or as a scale that reflects two hypothesized factors: sensitivity to one's own body odors versus those of others. Guided by our results, we reduced the scale to 12 items that capture the essence of these 2 factors. The final version of the BODS shows an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha s > 0.9). The BODS subscales show convergent validity with other general disgust scales, as well as with other olfactory functions measures and with aspects of personality that are related to pathogen avoidance. A fourth study confirmed the construct validity of the BODS and its measurement invariance to gender. Moreover, we found that, compared with other general disgust scales, the BODS is more strongly related to perceived vulnerability to disease. The BODS is a brief and valid assessment of trait body odor disgust sensitivity.

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