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  • 1. Evans, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Foraging behaviour of common murres in the Baltic Sea, recorded by simultaneous attachment of GPS and time-depth recorder devices2013In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 475, p. 277-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global positioning system and time-depth recorders were deployed in combination to investigate the foraging behaviour of common murres Uria aalge breeding at Stora Karlso Island, Baltic Sea, during the chick-rearing period. In the pre-breeding period the main prey species of murres, sprat Sprattus sprattus, is targeted by commercial fisheries, likely reducing prey availability during the breeding season. Foraging trips typically consisted of a short flight followed by a period sitting on the sea surface (0.39 +/- 0.48 h), followed by several (5.3 +/- 3.8) diving bouts interspersed by flights and water surface activity. Following the final diving bout, murres returned directly to the colony. Overnight foraging trips lasted longer than daytime trips, and that result corresponded with greater diving activity and reduced dive depths around dawn and dusk, likely times of high prey accessibility. High outward flight groundspeeds (20.0 +/- 2.8 m s(-1)) were aided by tailwinds, and lower inward flight groundspeeds (15.1 +/- 2.5 m s(-1)) were impeded by headwinds. Flights following the wind direction may reflect a strategy to reduce crosswind drift. Foraging intensity was lower than reported by most other studies of murres, suggesting more abundant or aggregated prey.

  • 2.
    Griffiths, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tamelander, Tobias
    Törnroos, Anna
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Järnström, Marie
    Kotta, Jonne
    Lindegren, Martin
    Nordström, Marie C.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Olsson, Jens
    Weigel, Benjamin
    Zydelis, Ramunas
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 2179-2196Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world.

  • 3.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jansson, Åke
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Karlsö Murre Lab methodology can stimulate innovative seabird research2012In: Marine Ornithology, ISSN 1018-3337, E-ISSN 2074-1235, Vol. 40, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of seabirds have contributed substantially to theoretical and applied ecology, but practical limitations in the field and lack of knowledge of the life history of studied birds often constitute significant hurdles to progress in research. In the middle of the largest seabird colony in the Baltic Sea, on the island of Stora Karlsö, we have built an artificial breeding site for Common Murres Uria aalge. The Karlsö Murre Lab enables high-resolution studies with minimal disturbance of the breeding birds. It became operational, with the first recruitment of breeding murres, in 2009. Building materials and location were chosen to minimize environmental impact. The lab was constructed to allow future outfitting with a range of high-technology devices. Since most of the fledged chicks in the subcolony have been ringed over the last 10 years, this will enable recruitment and studies using advanced technology of birds with known life history. Hence, we will be able to perform seabird studies with a resolution that is impossible in a strictly natural environment. Better knowledge of links between seabirds and their environment facilitates the use of seabirds as indicators, which in turn can improve marine ecosystem-based management. 

  • 4.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Benefits from seabirds - a review of ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Man, murres and modern fisheries: A case study in the Baltic Sea2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overfishing and climate change put increasing pressure on marine systems, with effects on commercially targeted fish and top predators dependent on these resources. To achieve sustainable resource use, governance mechanisms need to incorporate knowledge about ecosystem dynamics. Another key for success is the perception among actors about the challenges oceans are facing. Seabirds have become well-known symbols of coasts and oceans and their struggles with the consequences of human actions provide an illustration of the need to properly govern marine resources. Seabirds can be useful indicators of states of marine systems, forming tools that can help informing ecosystem approaches to management. The thesis focuses on the piscivorous seabird the common murre Uria aalge in the Baltic Sea, investigating two different aspects of interactions between seabirds and fisheries. In paper I, the effects of food quality and quantity during the chick-rearing period were investigated. Food quality (sprat Sprattus sprattus weight-at-age), but not quantity (sprat abundance), was positively related to murre fledging success. The adjustments of parental effort in relation to quality and quantity showed the opposite pattern – no relationships between parental effort and sprat weight-at-age but a negative relationship between sprat abundance and the duration of foraging trips. Paper II uses a long-term ring recovery dataset to study murre bycatch in Baltic Sea fisheries. We found an increase in the proportion bycatch between 1972 and 2008, and a strong bimodal intraannual pattern in bycatches, with peaks in spring and autumn, similar in three investigated periods. Uncertain finding dates were common and could potentially affect conclusions about intraannual patterns. Reported bycatches were concentrated to waters around the Hel peninsula, Poland. In recent years, 2000-2008, an increase of reported bycatch could be observed in the southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea. The findings of this thesis can aid the selection and interpretation of indicators for ecosystem approaches to Baltic Sea fisheries management, and further be used to communicate the need for such approaches.

  • 6.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seabirds as food for thought: An integrative study on seabird ecology and ecosystem services in changing marine systems2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the benefits that humans obtain from the oceans is increasingly recognized, along with the rapid decline in marine resources that threatens these benefits. Studying seabirds – top predators in marine ecosystems, can provide insights about multiple pressures and the state of the oceans. The thesis links studies of seabirds through the lens of ecosystem services with an ecological case study. Paper I reviews ecosystem services, finding that seabirds contribute to provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. Seabirds serve as mobile links in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, through regulating and supporting services. Further, scientific knowledge and indicators based on seabirds can be seen as an ecosystem service as they facilitate management. Papers II-IV proceed to build such knowledge about the importance of food quality and quantity for breeding seabirds, in particular common murres Uria aalge in the Baltic Sea. Here, there is a negative relationship between quantity (sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance) and quality (sprat weight-at-age). Quality, but not quantity, was positively related to common murre fledging success while parental foraging trips had shorter duration when quantity was higher, but showed no relationship with food quality (paper II). Paper III describes foraging behaviour of adults and found indications of good foraging conditions at sea. Parents made efforts to adjust provisioning of food according to the needs of the chicks (paper IV), but the adjustments did not seem to be enough to counteract the impact of lower food quality. Paper V explores ecosystem services obtained from seabirds over time identifying a shift from provisioning to cultural services, where current cultural services are often connected. The integration of ecosystem services with seabird ecology shows that seabirds are illustrative of changes in marine resources and provide ways to help people reconnect with the health of marine systems.

  • 7.
    Kadin, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anker-Nilssen, Tycho
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seabirds and changes in ecosystem services – from exploitation to stewardshipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kadin, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Willerström Ehrning, Ebba
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Common Guillemot Uria aalge parents adjust provisioning rates to compensate for low food quality2016In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 167-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantity and quality of food available within the foraging area set important constraints for chick-rearing birds, but responses to low quality are not well understood. This study explored the potential for parent birds to adjust quantity (feeding rate) and quality (energy content) in chick provisioning, by studying Common Guillemots Uria aalge on Stora Karlso, Baltic Sea, predominantly utilizing Sprat Sprattus sprattus, during conditions of high food quantity but reduced food quality. Quality is central to reproductive success in this single-prey loader. From the chick's perspective, provisioning rates should be increased to compensate for low food quality and to fulfil its growing needs with increasing age. However, the high energy cost of flying in Guillemots makes it important for parent birds to minimize commutes to feeding areas. Provisioning parameters were recorded during three dawn-to-dusk watches each breeding season from 2005 to 2013, when clupeids, presumably Sprat, constituted 98% of chick diet. Generalized additive mixed models showed that both feeding rate and size of clupeids (a proxy for energy content) varied between years and changed non-linearly with chick age, but that there was no change within breeding seasons. Chick age and year explained 36% of the variation in feeding rate but only 2% of the variation in the size of clupeids in chick diets. We conclude that parent birds tried to adjust both feeding rate and prey size, but were less successful with the latter. A strong negative correlation was found between annual feeding rates and size of clupeids, evaluated as the differences relative to the baseline year, and adjusted for the effects of chick age. Although the differences between years were small, the relationship indicates a compensation mechanism that does not seem to impact adult survival, and by which increased feeding rates can partly counteract reduced chick energy intake when food quality is low.

  • 9.
    Kadin, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Trends, changes and uncertainties in bycatch of common murres in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kadin, Martina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Contrasting effects of food quality and quantity on a marine top predator2012In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 444, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overfishing of predatory fish has contributed to an increase in forage-fish stocks. At the same time, a rising demand for forage fish to supply fishmeal markets, in combination with ­climate change, has put strong pressure on these stocks, and this, in turn, has had an impact on marine top predators. We examined how inter-annual variation in food quality (sprat Sprattus sprattus weight-at-age) and quantity (sprat abundance) influenced Baltic Sea common murres Uria aalge during chick-rearing. Fledging success, i.e. survival from hatching to fledging, showed a positive relationship with food quality, but we found no effect of food quantity. We found no relationship between food quality and parental behaviour or chick feeding parameters, but a negative relationship between food quantity and trip duration. Our data indicate that there was room for parental birds to increase their effort to compensate for reduced food quality, but we found no signs of such compensation. We analysed different types of fish and seabird life-history data to separate effects of food quantity and quality on a top predator. Understanding such effects can contribute to clarifying causes and consequences for observed changes in life-history parameters and population dynamics of top predators.

  • 11.
    Otto, Saskia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Casini, Michele
    Torres, Maria A.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A quantitative framework for selecting and validating food web indicators2018In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 84, p. 619-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding suitable state indicators is challenging and cumbersome in stochastic and complex ecological systems. Typically, a great focus is given to criteria such as data availability, scientific basis, or measurability. Features associated with the indicator's performance such as sensitivity or robustness are often neglected due to the lack of quantitative validation tools. In this paper, we present a simple but flexible framework for selecting and validating the performance of food web indicators. In specific, we suggest a 7-step process in which indicator performances at a regional scale are quantified and visualized allowing for the selection of complementary indicator suites. We demonstrate its application by comparing the performance of pelagic food web indicators for three basins of the Baltic Sea and by assessing the food web status based on selected indicator suites. Our analysis sheds light on spatial differences in indicator performances with respect to direct and indirect pressures, the role of non-linearity and non-additivity in pressure responses, as well as relationships between indicators caused by species interactions. Moreover, our results suggest that the present food web states in the Bornholm and Gotland basins of the Baltic Sea deviate distinctly from an earlier reference period. We advocate the use of our quantitative framework as decision-support tool for selecting suites of complementary indicators under given management schemes such as the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  • 12. Torres, Maria A.
    et al.
    Casini, Michele
    Huss, Magnus
    Otto, Saskia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Food-web indicators accounting for species interactions respond to multiple pressures2017In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 77, p. 67-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-web indicators for marine management are required to describe the functioning and structure of marine food-webs. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), intended to lead to a 'good environmental status' of the marine waters, requires indicators of the status of the marine environment that also respond to manageable anthropogenic pressures. Identifying such relationships to pressures is particularly challenging for food-web indicators, as they need to be disentangled from linkages between indicators of different functional groups caused by species interactions. Still, such linkages have not been handled in the indicator development. Here we used multivariate autoregressive time series models to identify how fish indicators in an exploited food-web relate to fishing, climate and eutrophication, while accounting for the linkages between indicators caused by species interactions. We assembled 31-year long time series of indicators of key functional groups of fish in the Central Baltic Sea pelagic food-web, which is characterized by strong trophic links between cod (Gadus morhua) and its main fish prey sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus). These food-web indicators were either abundance-based indicators of key piscivores (cod) and zooplanktivores (sprat and herring) or size-based indicators of the corresponding trophic groups (biomass of large predatory fish (cod >= 38 cm) and biomass of small prey fish (sprat and herring <10 cm)). Comparative analyses of models with and without linkages among indicators showed that for both types of indicators, linkages corresponding to predator-prey feedbacks and intra-specific density-dependence were essential to explain temporal variation in the indicators. Thus, no indicator-pressure relationships could be found that explained the indicators' variation unless such linkages were accounted for. When accounting for these, we found that the indicators overall respond to multiple pressures acting simultaneously rather than to single pressures, as no pressure alone could explain how the indicators developed over time. The manageable pressures fishing and eutrophication, as well as the prevailing hydrological conditions influenced by climate, were all needed to reproduce the inter-annual changes in these food-web indicators combined, although individual relationships differed between the indicators. We conclude that our innovative indicator-testing framework can therefore be used to identify responses of food-web indicators to manageable pressures while accounting for the biotic interactions in food-webs linking such indicators.

  • 13.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Sissenwine, M.
    Symes, D.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Incentives, social-ecological feedbacks and European fisheries2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 568-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) has failed to deliver on social, economic and ecological goals. This failure is in part the result of a number of social-ecological feedback mechanisms. The policy is currently undergoing reform, with unknown practical outcomes. Here, relatively successful fisheries policies outside the European Union are reviewed. Through interviews and workshops with scientists, managers and other stakeholders, complemented with literature reviews, practices that can create incentives for long-term sustainability are investigated. The focus is on how the provision of clear and trusted scientific evidence can stimulate defensible decisions, in turn creating incentives for compliance, leading to positive social-ecological outcomes. Despite differences between Europe and the investigated case studies, the prospects of an increased regionalization within the European CFP provides the best starting point for implementing best practice identified in this study.

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