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  • 1. Gallmetzer, Reinhold
    et al.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Individual Responsibility for Crimes Under International Law: The UN ad hoc Tribunals and the International Criminal Court2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article concerns individual criminal responsibility under international law. It is based on a lecture at the Summer School of the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, held by Reinhold Gallmetzer in The Hague on 5 July 2005. Reinhold Gallmetzer has turned his presentation into the present article and Mark Klamberg has written the second part on the ICC.

  • 2.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Article 64 Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber2013In: Code of International Criminal Law and Procedure, annotated / [ed] Paul De Hert, Jean Flamme, Mathias Holvoet, Olivia Struyven, Bryssel: Larcier , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comment on article 64 of the Rome Statute, Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber

  • 3. Klamberg, Mark
    Commentary on the Law of the International Criminal Court (CLICC)2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Commentary on the Law of the International Criminal Court (CLICC) provides a provision-by-provision analysis of the Rome Statute and the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Criminal Court. It is available as a book in hardcopy, an e-book and as an online commentary. It enables the user to find case-law, doctrine and comments efficiently and without cost.

  • 4.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Det behövs ny svensk lag om internationella brott2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Op-Ed Column in the daily Örnsköldsviks Allehanda, 8 august 2008 concerning the investigation and procesution of international crimes before Swedish domestic courts. It is argued that due to inadeqaute legislation Sweden may serve as a sanctuary for suspected criminals.

  • 5.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Evidence in International Criminal Procedure: Confronting Legal Gaps and the Reconstruction of Disputed Events2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the difficulties in establishing a universal code of procedural law governing international criminal trials and fact-finding. It covers five procedural systems: the military tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo, the ad hoc tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and the International Criminal Court. The basis for the comparison are specific procedural activities common to the five procedural systems, including evaluation, collection, disclosure, admissibility and presentation of evidence.

    Certain general principles of law are applicable to evidence. However, the judges tend to favour one type of legal system (either adversarial or inquisitorial) when they identify general principles of national law which run counter to the concept of this source of law. The practice of the modern two-tiered systems suggests that pre-trial and trial judges are bound or at least guided by decisions of the Appeals Chamber. In comparison with international law in general, international criminal procedure is thus a sui generis legal system as regards the status of legal precedents. The balance between crime control, fair trial, expeditious proceedings, state sovereignty, truth-seeking,  victims’ participation and witnesses and victims protection may vary. No abstract procedural model (either adversarial or inquisitorial) can be applied in its entirety to an existing procedural framework. Instead, the proceedings are mixed and in relation to a specific procedural activity one model may be more relevant as a tool of analysis than another. The concept of “robustness” is used to discuss quantity in addition to concepts that deal with quality, including “probative value” and “weight”. Finally, the method involving exclusion of every reasonable hypothesis of innocence is examined as one of several analytical steps that may contribute to the systematic evaluation of evidence.

  • 6.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Evidence in International Criminal Trials: Confronting Legal Gaps and the Reconstruction of Disputed Events2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the difficulties in establishing a universal code of procedural law governing international criminal trials and fact-finding. It covers eight procedural systems: the military tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo, the ad hoc tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals, the UN-supported Khmer Rouge Trials, the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court. The basis for the comparison are specific procedural activities common to the five procedural systems, including evaluation, collection, disclosure, admissibility and presentation of evidence.

    Certain general principles of law are applicable to evidence. However, the judges tend to favour one type of legal system (either adversarial or inquisitorial) when they identify general principles of national law which run counter to the concept of this source of law. The practice of the modern two-tiered systems suggests that pre-trial and trial judges are bound or at least guided by decisions of the Appeals Chamber. In comparison with international law in general, international criminal procedure is thus a sui generis legal system as regards the status of legal precedents. The balance between crime control, fair trial, expeditious proceedings, state sovereignty, truth-seeking,  victims’ participation and witnesses and victims protection may vary. No abstract procedural model (either adversarial or inquisitorial) can be applied in its entirety to an existing procedural framework. Instead, the proceedings are mixed and in relation to a specific procedural activity one model may be more relevant as a tool of analysis than another. The concept of “robustness” is used to discuss quantity in addition to concepts that deal with quality, including “probative value” and “weight”. Finally, the method involving exclusion of every reasonable hypothesis of innocence is examined as one of several analytical steps that may contribute to the systematic evaluation of evidence.

  • 7.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Exploiting legal thresholds, fault-lines and gaps in the context of remote warfare2017In: Research Handbook on Remote Warfare / [ed] Jens David Ohlin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, 186-210 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts increasingly involve action at a distance as opposed to traditional battlefield engagements. Development of new weapons, modern communications and growing economic interdependence between states push national decision-makers to adopt asymmetrical strategies, overt as well as covert. States may adopt such strategies to minimize the exposure to risk of their own forces while their opponents can be easily attacked and also for the purpose of avoiding attribution and retribution. Since international law is used as a tool for legitimizing state policies—in the words of Sari—legal thresholds, fault-lines and gaps will be used by states to portray their own actions as legal or at least belonging to a grey area but never illegal. These issues have been brought to the fore not least by increased tensions between the West and Russia. Russia states in its 2014 Military doctrine that the nature and characteristics of modern warfare conflict includes, inter alia: a) [i]ntegrated use of military force, political, economic, informational and other non-military measures nature, implemented with the extensive use of the protest potential of the population, and special operations forces … h) participation in hostilities irregular armed groups and private military companies; i) the use of indirect and asymmetric methods Action; j) the use of externally funded and run political forces and social movements. Russia perceives as one of the main military dangers ‘subversive activities of special services and organizations foreign states and their coalitions against the Russian Federation’.

  • 8.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    FRA and the European Convention on Human Rights: A Paradigm Shift in Swedish Electronic Surveillance Law2010In: Overvåking i en rettstat / [ed] Dag Wiese Schartaum, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget , 2010, 99-134 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic surveillance law is subject to a paradigm shift where traditional principles are reconsidered and the notion of privacy has to be reconstructed. This paradigm shift is the result of four major changes in our society with regard to 1) technology; 2) perceptions of threats, 3) interpretation of human rights and 4) ownership over telecommunications. The above-mentioned changes have created a need to reform both the tools of electronic surveillance and domestic legislation. Surveillance that was previously kept secret is now subject to public debate. The article focuses on systems of “mass surveillance” such as data retention and signal intelligence and whether these are consistent with the European Convention on Human Rights.

  • 9.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    FRA:s signalspaning ur ett rättsligt perspektiv2009In: Svensk Juristtidning, Vol. 4, 519-541 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I juni 2008 antog riksdagen lagstiftning som innebar en reglering av signalspaning i etern och en rätt för Försvarets radioanstalt att även spana mot kabelkommunikation. Lagförslaget gav upphov till en debatt där lagstiftningens förespråkare betonade behovet av en effektiv försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet och den precision med vilket signalspaning kan bedrivas med vilket enskilda med ”rent mjöl i påsen” skulle vara fredade. Kritikerna liknade FRA:s tillgång till den kabelbundna kommunikation vid ”massavlyssning”, pekade på utvidgningen av FRA:s mandat för signalspaning och oklarheter i avgränsningen mot polisiär verksamhet. Debatten fördes ofta i termer av avlyssning vilket skapat föreställningen att FRA läser och lyssnar på all kommunikation när tekniken och lagstiftningen även medger andra former av övervakning/underrättelseverksamhet. Vidare fanns en fokus på FRA:s försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet där inhämtning av signaler är förhållandevis smal, när myndighetens breda inhämtning av signaler sker inom dess relativt ouppmärksammade utvecklingsverksamhet. Artikeln uppmärksammar särskilt regleringen av dessa två verksamhetsgrenar, FRA:s verktyg för bearbetning av kommunikation och försvarsunderrättelseverksamhetens avgränsning mot polisiär verksamhet.

  • 10.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Fråga om tillämpning av legalitetsprincipen beträffande folkrättsbrott2007In: Juridisk Tidskrift: vid Stockholms Universitet, Vol. 19, no 1, 130- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The district court of Stockholm convicted on 18 December 2006 Jackie Arklöv for a crime against international law. It was the first and, until the present date, the only time liability for an international crime has been tried before a Swedish court. This comment presents the law applied by the Court, draws attention to the principles of legality, ne bis in idem, and discusses whether a national court in a dualistic legal system can impose criminal responsibility with reference to customary international law.

  • 11.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gränsdragningen mellan utlänningslagen och svensk straffrätt beträffande internationella brott2013In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 2, 286-293 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish migration law grants refugees and other persons in need of protection who are uin Sweden the right to reside in Sweden. There is a clause which provides that a person may be excluded from refugee status if there are reasons to believe that he or she have committed crimes against the peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity or acts in contravention with the purposes of the United Nations. The provisions in the migration law may create uncertainties in two regards. First, the definition of armed conflict in the Swedish migration law which is relevant for persons in need of protection differs from the definition provided for in international law and Swedish legislation on war crimes. Second, crimes that under the migration law may cause exclusion from protection are only partially criminalized in Swedish law. This article explains why this conflicts exist, possible challenges for the relevant state agencies and a recommendation how to deal with these challenges.

  • 12.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Inhämtning och bearbetning av personuppgifter i samband med brottsbekämpning och försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet2015In: Rättsinformatik: juridiken i det digitala informationssamhället / [ed] Cecilia Magnusson Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Staten har som en av sina kärnuppgifter att värna nationell säkerhet och fysiskt skydda sina medborgare. Potentiella hot mot dessa intressen manifesteras inte enbart i form av brottslighet utan kan även handla om andra aktörers agerande inom områden som rör ekonomisk utveckling, politiskt oberoende och militär säkerhet. För att möta dessa hot inhämtar stater information som innehåller personuppgifter, och dessa uppgifter blir i allt högre utsträckning föremål för automatiserad databehandling.

    Texten beskriver informationsbehandling inom brottsbekämpning och underrättelseverksamhet i form av i en informationslivscykel. Därefter behandlas följande problem och utmaningar särskilt: teknikneutral lagstiftning; ändamål som styrmedel för behandling av information och personuppgiftsbehandling; prevention jämfört med reaktion; tidpunkter för och gradering av integritetsintrång; och kontrollfunktioner. Avslutningsvis presenteras två fallstudier beträffande det s.k. "Romregistret" och det s.k. "Kvinnoregistret".

  • 13.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Inhämtning och bearbetning av personuppgifter i samband med brottsbekämpning och försvarsunderättelseverksamhet2016In: Rättsinformatik: Juridiken i det digitala informationssamhället / [ed] Cecilia Magnusson Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, 2, 219-243 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This section deals with collection and processing of personal data for law enforcement purposes and intelligence operations according to different stages of an information life cycle. The text focus on special problems and challenges whereof some are illustrated in two case studies: police registers on Roma and women.

  • 14.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    International Criminal Law in Swedish Courts: The Principle of Legality in the Arklöv Case2009In: International Criminal Law Review, ISSN 1567-536X, E-ISSN 1571-8123, Vol. 9, no 2, 395-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The district court of Stockholm convicted on 18 December 2006 Jackie Arklöv for a crime against international law. It was the first and, until the present date, the only time liability for an international crime has been tried before a Swedish court. This comment presents the law applied by the Court, draws attention to the principles of legality, ne bis in idem, and discusses whether a national court in a dualistic legal system can impose criminal responsibility with reference to customary international law.

  • 15.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Center for International Law and Justice (SCILJ). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    International Law in the Age of Asymmetrical Warfare, Virtual Cockpits and Autonomous Robots2014In: International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security: Liber Amicorum Said Mahmoudi / [ed] Jonas Ebbesson, Marie Jacobsson, Mark Klamberg, David Langlet, Pål Wrange, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, 152-170 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Kommersiella avtal kan bli lättare att hävda mot andra stater2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 February 2008 concerning the case-law from the Swedish Supreme Court on state immunity and the proposal that Sweden should ratify the United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property from 2004.

  • 17.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Power and Law in International Society: how international law influences international relations2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying international law, there is often a risk of focusing entirely on the content of international rules (i.e. regimes), and ignoring why these regimes exist and to what extent the rules affect state behavior. Similarly, international relations studies can focus so much on theories based on the distribution of power among states that it overlooks the existence and relevance of the rules of international law. Both approaches hold their dangers. The overlooking of international relations risks assuming that states actually follow international law, and discounting the specific rules of international law makes it difficult for readers to understand the impact of the rules in more than a superficial manner. This book unifies international law and international relations by exploring how international law and its institutions may be relevant and how it influences the course of international relations in international trade, protection ofthe environment, human rights, international criminal justice and the use of force.

  • 18.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Recharacterisation of Charges in International Criminal Trials2014In: Festskrift till Christian Diesen / [ed] Katrin Lainpelto, Simon Andersson, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, 327-345 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The text examines under what circumstances judges during trial may deviate from and recharacterize the charges. Depending on the legal tradition of a given country, the answer to these questions may vary. This test studies different traditions and procedural models as well as what is required under human rights law, as defined and interpreted in regional regimes and UN bodies. Finally, the text discusses and critically analyzes decisions and judgments from the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) where the judges have recharacterized the chargesduring trial.

  • 19.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Saddam borde ha tystats2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Op-Ed Column in the daily Svenska Dagbladet, 6 November 2006, commenting upon the verdict in the Saddam Hussein trial, one day earlier.

  • 20.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Skydd enligt Europakonventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna; Skydd enligt Europeiska unionens stadga om de grundläggande rättigheterna2016In: Rättsinformatik Juridiken i det digitala informationssamhället / [ed] Cecilia Magnussion Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, 2, 168-174 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    These two sections deal with privacy protection, in particular against surveillance and concering personal data under the European Convention on Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

  • 21.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Alternative Hypothesis Approach, Robustness and International Criminal Justice: A Plea for a ‘Combined Approach’ to Evaluation of Evidence2015In: Journal of International Criminal Justice, ISSN 1478-1387, E-ISSN 1478-1395, Vol. 13, no 3, 535-553 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with issues pertaining to the process of evaluation of evidence in international criminal justice. Initially, the author analyses some theoretical approaches to the evaluation of evidence. He further examines these theoretical constructs, mainly with emphasis on the ‘alternative hypothesis approach’ in the light of the case law of international criminal courts and tribunals. He then develops the topic from the angle of the various procedural phases of the proceedings focusing on the determination of guilt, eventually arguing for a broader combined and multifaceted approach to the method of assessment of evidence in international criminal justice depending on the stage of the proceedings and the function of the decision to be taken.

  • 22.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Concept of Genocide and the Anfal Campaign2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Ulf Lundqvist, Laga och rättvis rättegång – Om bevisförbud i rättspraxis2016In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 4, 986-991 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book review of Laga och rättvis rättegång – Om bevisförbud i rättspraxis (2015). The book deals with the right to a fair trial and consequences when this right has been violated. The author states that the book focuses on the admissibility of evidence obtained in an illegal manner. It also deals with the related question on how to sanction the person who violated this right.

  • 24.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Unification or Fragmentation?: Structural Tendencies in International Criminal Procedure2012In: The diversification and fragmentation of international criminal law / [ed] Larissa van den Herik, Carsten Stahn, Brill Academic Publishers, 2012, 593-631 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Utomrättslig avrättning eller legitim krigföring?: Obama kan tvingas ompröva USA:s drönarstrategi2012In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 4, 49-51 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar hur vi ska se på USA:s målinriktade dödande av individer i olika länder, bland annat genom drönare. Hur ser den folkrättsliga grunden för USA:s krig mot al-Qaida ut, hur kan målinriktat dödande klassificeras rättsligt och hur förhåller sig drönare till andra vapen? Bör målinriktat dödande jämställas med utomrättsliga avrättningar eller är det under vissa förutsättningar ett legitimt medel? Grundläggande för denna diskussion är om konflikten mellan USA och al-Qaida ska klassificeras som en väpnad konflikt, där krigets lagar styr, eller som brottsbekämpning i fred, vilken styrs av regelverket om mänskliga rättigheter.

  • 26.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Vad är domarens roll?2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 january 2008 on the role of the judge in a Swedish context, namely whether he or she should be a "finder of justice" or a "truth-finder".

  • 27.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    What are the Objectives of International Criminal Procedure?: Reflections on the Fragmentation of a Legal Regime2010In: Nordic Journal of International Law, Vol. 79, No. 2, 2010, ISSN 0902-7351, Vol. 79, no 2, 279-302 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International criminal courts pursue several objectives including retribution, deterrence, creating a historical record and giving a voice to the victims while the rights of the accused are protected. A problem is that these objectives pull in different directions creating tensions and fragmentation in the procedural system. Numerous legal issues, referred to as ‘hard cases’, entail a choice where the Judge has to make a choice between two or several objectives. In the interest of legal certainty solutions should ultimately controlled by the law and not by the discretion of the Judge. This article examines whether it is possible to identify a universally acceptable hierarchy of objectives. It is argued that the relevant objectives which determine the outcome of a hard case vary depending on the procedural stage and in each procedural stage there is a structural bias towards one or several objectives. Considering that law exists as a response to several social needs, it appears as unattainable to identify a universal and fixed hierarchy of objectives.

  • 28.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Är Sverige en fristad för krigsförbrytare?2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 November 2007 concerning the investigation and procesution of international crimes before Swedish domestic courts. It is argued that due to inadeqaute legislation Sweden may serve as a sanctuary for suspected criminals.

  • 29.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Överföring av personuppgifter till tredje land: Safe Harbor2016In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 4, 782-797 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The text concerns the judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union from 6th October 2015 in the case Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner (C-362/14). The case deals with transfer of personal data to a third country and raises important questions relating to the scope of protection for personal data and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

  • 30.
    Klamberg, Mark
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Fura, Elisabet
    The Chilling Effect of Counter-Terrorism Measures: A Comparative Analysis of Electronic Surveillance Laws in Europe and the USA2012In: Freedom of Expression: Essays in honour of Nicolas Bratza / [ed] Josep Casadevall; Egbert Myjer, Michael O´Boyle, Anna Austin, Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2012, 463-481 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic surveillance is an important tool for law enforcement and may contribute to counter-terrorism efforts. The present article examines, from a comparative privacy perspective, systems of electronic surveillance which involves the retention and/or access of large quantities of data and/or communication. This includes data retention of traffic data and signals intelligence, the latter occasionally described as mass surveillance or strategic monitoring. It is concluded that the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution offers a greater protection than Article 8 of the European Convention for the protection of Human Rights (ECHR) to the extent that searches and seizures require probable cause and a warrant. This requires that the measure is covered by the notions “search” or “seizure”, which may explain why law enforcement agencies which use warrant-less surveillance tend to define the notions “search” or “seizure” narrowly. This has implications for the content/non-content distinction. The constitutional protection under the Fourth Amendment has an all-or-nothing character. In comparison, Article 8 of the ECHR does not require probable cause and warrant but it has a broader scope. Thus, there is no problem to expand the scope and protection of Article 8 to content as well as traffic data.

  • 31.
    Klamberg, Mark
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sántha, Hanga
    Lennartsson Hartmann, Ylva
    Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sahara: The Case Against Morocco2010In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 2, 175-199 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Western Sahara is occupied by Morocco. The referendum on the territory’s final status set forth by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) has repeatedly been postponed and the so far brokered proposals have been rejected by both parties. Since the Moroccan occupation the Saharawis have been continuously repressed through arbitrary arrests, enforced disappearances, and attacks of the civilian population, persecution and oppression of peaceful demonstrations. The violation of fundamental human rights is an ongoing issue. It is argued that these violations may constitute crimes against humanity, further on this article suggests that the international community should act as soon as possible to end Moroccan impunity and to make greater efforts for a just and lasting solution of the question of Western Sahara.

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