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  • 1.
    Nehrfors Hultén, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Canonical considerations: Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s songs for children and the late eighteenth century German national community2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas national music has been acknowledged at least since the thirteenth century (Dahlhaus, 1980), nationalistic music did for obvious reasons emerge only with nationalism in late eighteenth century. Although closely connected, the relationship between the two is considerably more complex than is often acknowledged (Taruskin,2001). In the nineteenth century, national music was set a nationalistic task, expressing the national culture necessary as foundation for political nationalistic ambitions. Typically, these manifestations of national culture were conceived in prestigious art forms such as opera and symphony, aiming at canonical status. So far this has been the kind of nationalistic music that have received the greater part of the research interest. However, arguably more important for the national culture, was the emergence of nationalistic music in less prestigious genres, such as music for amateur choirs and children’s songs. Here, ambitions to actually shape a nation and its culture were asserted, and this was music with a much more active relationship to nationalistic ideas. So far, this music has unfortunately been widely neglected and is still in need of considerably more research. In this paper, I show how Prussian composer, writer and Kapellmeister Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814) sought to influence and form the German cultural community with songs, particularly through collections directed specifically at children such as Lieder für Kinder (4 vols.), Lieder für die Jugend (2 vols.), and Wiegenlieder für gute deutsche Mütter. By singing Reichardt’s songs children were schooled into a German cultural community. At the same time the songs influenced and shaped also the character of this community.I further show how this practice was founded on a Herderian conception of national cultural communities. Following Johann Gottfried Herder’s (1744–1803) expressivist views on culture and language I focus on the active participatory character of the communities, and talk therefore specifically of expressive communities. Reichardt’s songs for children were composed specifically for such an expressive community, and were intended to be a natural and intimate part of the national cultural community. Ideally, they would eventually gain a sort of folksong status. In this way also these songs would obtain canonical status, albeit of a different kind than the prestigious nineteenth century operas and symphonies. Instead of the limited canonicity of the concert hall these kinds of works would become canonical through their role and position in society. This indicates a more complex nature of the canonicity concept than is generally acknowledged, something that is further explored in my paper.

  • 2.
    Nehrfors Hultén, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Forming and expressing the cultural community through songs in late Eighteenth Century German lands2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the affective turn in cultural history a lot of studies have identified and analysed various emotional communities (e.g. Reddy 2001, Rosenwein 2007, 2015). However, when it comes to the forming and spreading of these emotional communities there is still much research needed, particularly when music’s role is concerned. In this paper I show how Prussian composer, writer and Kapellmeister Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814) sought to influence and form the German cultural community with songs, particularly through collections directed specifically at children such as Lieder für Kinder (4 vols.), Lieder für die Jugend (2 vols.), and Wiegenlieder für gute deutsche Mütter. By singing Reichardt’s songs children were schooled into a German emotional community. At the same time the songs influenced and shaped also the character of this emotional community. I further show how this practice was founded on a Herderian conception of national cultural communities. Following Johann Gottfried Herder’s (1744–1803) expressivist views on culture and language I focus on the active participatory character of the communities, and have chosen to talk therefore of expressive communities rather than emotional. 

  • 3.
    Nehrfors Hultén, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Shaping the nation with song: Johann Friedrich Reichardt and the German cultural identity2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this dissertation is to study the nationalistic worldview as it emerged in the German lands in the second half of the eighteenth century . The research focuses on how this influenced the artistic practices of Prussian composer, writer and court Kapellmeister Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814), and likewise how Reichardt’s activities influenced and formed this field. Reichardt was one of the musicians most actively involved in the development of this field at the time, both as a composer and as a writer. The nationalistic view that a society ought to have as its foundation a common cultural identity, and that this identity should be the guiding principle for organization and government, was groundbreaking at the time. In line with this Reichardt’s ambition involved a transformation of the composer’s/musician’s role in society, turning music into a means to influence and alter the state. As the dissertation shows, this was done in a variety of ways. Above all Reichardt was advocating, and helped shape, a German national cultural identity. This identity he sought to induce in the people, for instance through songs composed specifically for children.

    The study focuses on a variety of sources, above all a selection of Reichardt’s writings, songs and song collections. These are subjected to a substantial discourse analysis. Following the conviction that a discourse is formed and expressed not just in writing, but also in musical compositions, musical practices, institutions et cetera, the analytical approach vary throughout the study, depending on the researched material. Identified in the analyses are things and signs that point towards a new nationalistic system of meaning.

    Following a chapter on the historical background, including an analysis of Herderian nationalism, an exposition of the idea of expressive communities, and an account of Reichardt’s biography, the analytical part of the study is divided into two parts, dealing with two different kinds of music and fields of musical application. The first is devoted to music for the community, used in private and semi-private company. Here it is shown how Reichardt contributed to the formulation of a German national musical style founded on folksong ideals and the concept of Volkston. The second is devoted to music for school and education and study the strong interest and belief in education that characterized the eighteenth century, and which Reichardt fully embraced. Here Reichardt’s views on education, and their importance for his activities, are examined.

    A secondary aim of the study is the theoretical development of the concept expressive communities. This is founded on a central view of Johann Gottfried Herder’s (1744–1803) that acknowledges a natural expressive desire in man. On a community-level this leads to the cultural identity (national or other) being characterized by a particular expressiveness, and being acquired through an active cultural practice. This view is particularly applicable when regarding the late eighteenth century German lands.

    One result of the study is a better understanding of Reichardt’s activities and works. At the same time, as Reichardt was not the only one involved with the emerging nationalistic ideas, the study serves also as an example and its results are valid on a wider scale, providing a more nuanced understanding of the period on the whole.

  • 4.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Musicology and Performance Studies, Musicology.
    Anders Wesström (1720-1781)2013Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anders Wesström, född 1720/21 och avliden 7 maj 1781 i Uppsala, efterträdde redan som 13-åring sin far som organist och musiklärare i hemstaden Hudiksvall. Efter juridikstudier i Uppsala, som ledde till att han avlade magisterexamen 1744, flyttade han till Stockholm där han fick anställning som violinist i Hovkapellet. Efter en längre studieresa på kontinenten började han vid sidan av tjänsten framträda som framstående soloviolinist i Sverige såväl som utomlands. Han tillbringade sina sista år, fulla av självförvållade umbäranden, som organist och musiklärare i Gävle. I hans produktion finns både orkester- och kammarmusik.

  • 5.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Changing views on nationalism in late 18th century German opera2014In: Musikforskning idag: Växjö, 11-13 juni 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the second half of the 18th century a German middle class began to emerge. Seeking to validate their social status through the acquirement of cultural capital, they began to show an interest in music. This gave German composers and librettists a new audience to address; an audience with other values and interests than the old audience of the courts. One such interest was the emerging question of nationalism, taking shape for instance in the writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803). This was a particularly pertinent question in the German lands, given that they at the time were fragmented into count-less disparate pieces, lacking a common nation as well as a common culture. In this paper I will look at two operas by the Prussian composer and court Kapellmeis-ter Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814): the opera seria Brenno of 1789 and the Singspiel Die Geisterinsel of 1798. Both composed for royal celebrations, a comparison between them shows a change in view on nationalism (among other aspects) taking place in Germany at the end of the 18th century. I aim to show how this changed view was part of an incipient transformation of the cultural sphere at the time; a transformation indicated also by Reichardt’s change in chosen genre from the first occasion to the latter, from opera seria to Singspiel.

  • 6.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Conflicting agendas at the Königliche Nationaltheater? – Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s "Die Geisterinsel" on the Huldigungstag for Friedrich Wilhelm III2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Georg Joseph Vogler (1749−1814)2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Georg Joseph Vogler föddes i Würzburg 15 juni 1749 och avled 6 maj 1814 i Darmstadt. Han var tonsättare, musikteoretiker, pedagog, klaver- och orgelvirtuos, instrumentkonstruktör och romersk-katolsk präst. 1786 kallades han av Gustav III till Stockholm som kapellmästare och lärare åt kronprinsen. Verksam i Sverige till 1799, där han bl.a. komponerade operan Gustaf Adolph och Ebba Brahe och adventssången Hosianna, Davids son. Invald som ledamot av Kungl. Musikaliska akademien 1786.

  • 8.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Musicology and Performance Studies, Musicology.
    Joachim Nicolas Eggert (1779−1813)2013Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Född 22 februari 1779 i Gingst, Svenska Pommern. Död 14 april 1813 i Kisa, Östergötland. Han var musikdirektör vid hovteatern i Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1802, men kom till Stockholm året därpå och fick tjänst som violinist i Hovkapellet 1803−07, sedan som hovkapellmästare 1808−11. Han ledde det första svenska framförandet av en Mozartopera (Trollflöjten) och introducerade Beethovens tidiga symfonier. Han komponerade i wienklassisk stil med romantiska drag. Sina sista år verkade Eggert också som insamlare av folkvisor. Invald i KMA 1807.

  • 9.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Johann Friedrich Reichardt and the formation/emergence of an expressive community in the German lands at the end of the 18th century2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Musicology and Performance Studies, Musicology.
    Stephen Rumph: Mozart and Enlightenment Semiotics, University of California Press, 20112013In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 95, p. 184-185Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ternhag, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Wallrup, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Hallgren, Karin
    Öhrström, Eva
    Nehrfors, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Levande musikarv2014In: Musikforskning idag: Växjö, 11-13 juni 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kungl. Musikaliska akademien genomför under sex år projektet Levande musikarv, vars syfte är att tillgängliggöra äldre svensk musik (= verk av tonsättare som avled för mer än 70 år sedan). Huvudsatsningen handlar om att åstadkomma kritiska editioner av utvalda verk. Dessa editioner publiceras på nätet i projektets databas (http://www.levandemusi-karv.se).Bland oss som arbetar med Levande musikarv finns en insikt om att spel- och sångba-ra editioner inte räcker för att få den äldre svenska musiken upp på estraden eller framför mikrofonerna. Musiker, sångare, dirigenter och andra som har anledning att intressera sig för repertoarfrågor behöver också kontextkunskap kring verken. Kombinationen av lätt tillgängliga editioner och lika lättnådda uppgifter om tonsättarna och om verkens tillkomstsammanhang fordras för att nå ett genomslag för verken.Ett anslag från Riksbankens jubileumsfond möjliggör att databasen Levande musikarv kan förses med nyskrivna biografier över ca 300 äldre svenska tonsättare. Arbetet med att skriva dessa biografiska texter, inklusive bibliografier och verkförteckningar, läggs ut på sakkunniga musikvetare. Panelen vid konferensen presenterar arbetet med biografierna, men diskuterar också värdet med denna ansträngning. Från vilket kunskapsläge görs detta arbete? Vilka kun-skaper om svensk musikhistoria tillför de många biografierna? Och på vilket sätt kan de många biografierna påverka bilden av äldre svenskt musikliv?För panelens inledning svarar Gunnar Ternhag, vetenskapligt ansvarig för biografi-projektet, och Erik Wallrup som är projektets forskningssamordnare. I kortare bidrag problematiserar tre biografiförfattare sina erfarenheter av att skriva texter om mindre kända tonsättare.

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