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  • 1.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Föräldraskapsideal och deras förverkligande: En forskarrapport om föräldrars uppfattning om vad som underlättar och förhindrar ett delat föräldraskap i Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vem gör vad när? Kvinnors och mäns tid i betalt och obetalt arbete2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 158-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Cooke, Lynn Prince
    et al.
    Erola, Jani
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hewitt, Belinda
    Jolovaara, Marika
    Kan, Man-Yee
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Mencarini, Letizia
    Mignot, Jean-Francois
    Mortelmans, Dimitri
    Poortman, Anne-Rigt
    Schmitt, Christian
    Trappe, Heike
    Labor and Love: Wives' Employment and Divorce Risk in its Socio-Political Context2013In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 482-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize how social policy affects marital stability vis-à-vis macro and micro effects of wives' employment on divorce risk in 11 Western countries. Correlations among 1990s aggregate data on marriage, divorce, and wives' employment rates, along with attitudinal and social policy information, seem to support specialization hypotheses that divorce rates are higher where more wives are employed and where policies support that employment. This is an ecological fallacy, however, because of the nature of the changes in specific countries. At the micro level, we harmonize national longitudinal data on the most recent       cohort of wives marrying for the first time and find that the stabilizing effects of a gendered division of labor have ebbed.  In the United States with its lack of policy support, a wife's employment still significantly increases the risk of divorce. A wife's employment has no significant effect on divorce risk in Australia, Flanders, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In Finland, Norway, and Sweden, wives' employment predicts a significantly lower risk of divorce when compared with wives who are out of the labor force. The results indicate that greater policy support for equality reduces and may even reverse the relative divorce risk associated with a wife's employment.

  • 4.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gender Ideology and the Sharing of Housework and Child Care in Sweden2014In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 927-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study to study spouses' gender ideology and women's and men's division of routine housework and child care. The results show that men with an egalitarian gender ideology spend 1 hour more in housework per week than do other men and that their spouses spend approximately 2 hours less in housework than do other women. Women's gender ideology, in contrast, only seems to influence women's own time spent in housework (and not their spouses'). Couples wherein the woman and/or the man have a strong egalitarian ideology display a more gender-equal division of child care. Equality in child care and housework are linked and men spend more time in housework when they live in a family with a gender-equal division of child care. In sum, an articulated gender consciousness is a prerequisite for a gender-equal division of unpaid work, even in gender-egalitarian Sweden.

  • 5.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.2009In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 210-241Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kön2010In: Ett delat samhälle: makt, intersektionalitet och social skiktning / [ed] Christofer Edling, Fredrik Liljeros, Stockholm: Liber , 2010, p. 50-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental leave and careers: Women's and men's wages after parental leave in Sweden2016In: Advances in life course research, ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 29, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent gender differences in caretaking and the parental leave length have been proposed as one important reason why the gender wage and income gap has remained stablein Sweden for a long period of time. In this article, we study whether and how parental leave uptake (PL) affects mothers' and fathers' earned income and wages during a period of up to eight years after the first child is born. Focusing on those who had their first child in 1999, the descriptive results based on Swedish population registers show that social transfers compensate for a large part of the loss in earned income for mothers. Multivariate analyses of fixed effect models indicate small wage effects of PL. PL results in greater wage reductions (or the loss of wage increases) for the higher educated than for others. For women, the longer their leaves are, the more their wages suffer. For men, the negative wage effect is more immediate but increases less with time in parental leave, which leads to the conclusion that human capital depreciation most likely is not the main reason for the wage decreases that fathers experience. Instead, it seems that men's leave taking is perceived as a signal of work commitment by employers, given that the negative wage effect appears already at very short leaves.

  • 8.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The importance of work: Changing work commitment following the transition to motherhood2013In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 139-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the longitudinal Young Adult Panel Study to examine changes in subjective work commitment among new mothers in Sweden. With a sample of childless women in 1999, we study changes in work commitment occurring between 1999 and 2003, comparing those who had a child during this period with those who did not. In the 1999 sample, there is no difference between the two groups in terms of work commitment. However, in 2003, women who gave birth during this period are less work committed than other women. Although the changes in women's work commitment on average are small, our findings indicate that the transition to motherhood - with all of the changes it brings - may lead to a redistribution of priorities and slightly lower work commitment among new mothers compared with non-mothers. Additional analyses indicate that the negative relationship between becoming a mother and work commitment is restricted to the first few years of a child's life. When women have children older than four years of age, they are not less work committed than non-mothers. We interpret this lower work commitment as a way of temporarily adjusting to the difficulties of combining work and family during the early pre-school years.

  • 9.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Aisenbrey, Silke
    Yeshiva University.
    Grunow, Daniela
    University of Amsterdam.
    Is There a Career Penalty for Mothers' Time Out? A Comparison of Germany, Sweden and the United States2009In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 573-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on three countries with distinct policies toward motherhood and work: Germany, Sweden and the United States. We analyze the length of mothers’ time out of paid work after childbirth and the short-term career consequences for mothers. In the United States, we identify a career punishment even for short time-out periods; long time-out periods increase the risk of a downward move and reduce the chances of an upward move. In Germany, long time-out periods destabilize the career and, the longer the leave, the greater the risk of either an upward or downward move. In Sweden, we find a negative effect of time out on upward moves. Hence, even in “woman-friendly” Sweden, women’s career prospects are better if they return to paid work sooner rather than later.

     

  • 10.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Female same-sex couples act long-term financially rational?2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 297-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges faced by research on the gendered transition to parenthood is how to dismantle the interconnected nature of biology, gender and economic reasoning. We contribute to this aim by comparing division of parental leave in different-sex couples (DSC) and female same-sex couples (SSC). Motherhood identity formation appears to be strong in DSC as well as SSC. Net of this, gender is an important predictor of parental leave in DSC. To some extent, SSC seem to divide the leave in a more long-term financially rational way than DSC do.

  • 11.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jämställdhet i hemmet – så fördelar unga vuxna hushålls- och omsorgsarbetet2013In: Fokus 13: unga och jämställdhet, Stockholm: Ungdomsstyrelsen , 2013, p. 146-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Gendered Transition to Parenthood: Lasting Inequalities in the Home and in the Labor Market2016In: Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource / [ed] Robert A. Scott, Marlis C. Buchmann, John Wiley & Sons, 2016, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the slow process through which the gendered transition to parenthood has changed in Western societies and the degrees to which this process challenges economic theories on the utility-maximizing rational man, woman, and/or couple. The transition to parenthood has long-term consequences for women's careers, often even in couples in which the woman earns more than the man. The reason for the slow-changing process can partially be found in gender norms and the physical aspects of the transition to motherhood, including breastfeeding and norms regarding how long the child benefits from being in the mother's care. One of the challenges faced by research on the gendered transition to parenthood is how to distinguish where the boundaries between biology and gender norms lie. We discuss the gendered transition to parenthood and its career-related consequences, and we elaborate on potential ways in which research may advance to dismantle the interconnected nature of biology, gender, and economic reasoning in couples' transition to parenthood.

  • 13.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Transition to Parenthood and the Division of Parental Leave in Different-Sex and Female Same-Sex Couples in Sweden2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the division of paid and unpaid work at the transition to parenthood has rarely been ableto separate the social construction of gender and motherhood/fatherhood identities from labour market and financial factors. By bringing in female same-sex couples (SSC) and comparing how the transition to parenthood influences the division of parental leave in SSC and different-sex couples (DSC),we can isolate parents’ gender as a predictor of the division of care from physiological and identity-forming aspects linked to being a birth-mother (or her partner). Analysing Swedish register data forcouples who had their first child in 2003–2011, results show that (i) the (birth) mother’s leave uptake ishigher than the partner’s uptake for both SSC and DSC, providing support for identity formation andinternalized norms linked to the child’s need of its (birth) mother; (ii) birth-mothers in SSC on averagetake 7 weeks less parental leave than mothers in DSC, indicating that the partner’s gender plays arole; and (iii) the (birth) mother’s parental leave share is negatively related to her income but unrelatedto her partner’s income, suggesting that her labour market prospects are more important in the division of leave than any financial, family-utility maximization.

  • 14.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Erman, Jeylan
    Fathers on-call? A study on the sharing of care work between parents in Sweden2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, p. 33-60, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Swedish fathers’ parental leave uptake has increased over time, but progress has been moderate. In relation to this, we ask what factors hinder or facilitate the taking of leave by fathers and how – if at all – the leave influences the father’s relationship with his child.

    OBJECTIVE

    To study (i) the reasons for parents’ division of parental leave as well as the consequences this division has for their actual time at home with the child and (ii) the link between the father’s leave and his relationship with the child, as well as the parents’ division of childcare after parental leave.

    METHODS

    A multi-methods approach is used, where OLS regression models of survey data from the Young Adult Panel Study are analysed alongside qualitative in-depth interviews with 13 couples who have had a first child.

    RESULTS

    Quantitative results show that parents’ leave lengths vary with the reasons given for the division of leave and that fathers’ parental leave is related to long-term division of childcare. Qualitative results suggest that equal parenting is important to the interviewed parents; however, motherhood ideals may stand in the way of achieving it. Several mechanisms by which fathers’ parental leave may influence later division of childcare are suggested, including the development of a closer relationship between father and child.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Policies aimed towards increasing fathers’ parental leave uptake have the potential to strengthen the father–child bond, contribute to a more equal division of childcare, and facilitate both parents’ understanding of each other and what being a stay-at-home parent involves.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This article is the first to show how parents alleged reasons for the parental leave links to the actual length of the mother's and father's leave. Results indicate that increasing paternal leave length is linked to improved couple relationship quality and a closer relationship with the child.

  • 15.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Leave - Possibility or Trap?: Does Family Leave Length Effect Swedish Women's Labor Market Opportunities?2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 435-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is known for its policies aimed at facilitating the combination of work and familyfor both mothers and fathers. The parental leave insurance is one important part of these policies, considered to reduce the work-family conflict for women. However, there is scarce knowledge about the effects a long family leave break may have on women’s occupational careers and the studies on the topic so far mainly refer to the period up to the early 1990s. In addition, issues of selectivity are seldom dealt with. In the present study, we focus on mothers’ leave-taking behaviour in the period from 1974 to 2000 and estimate the relationship between family leave length and the transition rate to an upward occupational move upon return to work. Data from the nationally representative Swedish Level of Living Survey of 1991 and 2000 are used. The results indicate that women with leaves of 16 months or more were less likely to experience an upward occupational move once back on the job again. In a multilevel, multiprocess model including terms for unobserved heterogeneity, the main results remain, and we conclude that even after controlling for selectivity into different parental leave length, we find a negative effect of time out on subsequent career moves.

  • 16.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    England, Paula
    Hermsen, Joan
    Cotter, David
    How Does Gender Inequality in Employment and Earnings Vary by Educational Stratum in Sweden and the United States?2007In: The International Journal of Sociology, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Grunow, Daniela
    Swimming against the tide or going with the flow? Stories on work-care practices, parenting norms and the importance of policies in a changing Europe2019In: New Parents in Europe: Work-Care Practices, Gender Norms and Family Policies / [ed] Daniela Grunow, Marie Evertsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 226-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grunow, Daniela
    Women’s Work Interruptions and Career Prospects in Germany and Sweden2012In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 32, no 9/10, p. 561-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de-familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those with discontinuous careers due to: parental leave or homemaking; unemployment; or other reasons, the authors explore the support for the skill depreciation hypothesis and signalling theory. Depending on the type of welfare state regime, the authors expect women to be subject to varying degrees of career punishment for time spent out of the labour market.

    Design/methodology/approach – Cox proportional hazard regression models of the transition rate of an upward or downward occupational move among women in the labour market were estimated.

    Findings – Focusing on upward career moves, the results show no significant relationship between a career interruption and upward occupational moves in Germany. In Sweden, the longer the accumulated duration of family leave, the lower the transition rate to an upward move. Overall occupational mobility is higher in Sweden, and in a policy regime where almost all women work, extended leaves may have a more negative effect on career prospects than in Germany, where many mothers drop out of the labour force altogether. In Germany, on the other hand, the authors find traces of unemployment to be scarring, as the risk of downward moves increases with increased unemployment experience.

    Originality/value – The paper explores the impact of policies in shaping women's career trajectories and critically examines the often-cited skill depreciation hypothesis.

  • 19.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grunow, Daniela
    Aisenbrey, Silke
    Work interruptions and young women's career prospects in Germany, Sweden and the US2016In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 291-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the impact of discontinuous work histories on young women's occupational mobility in Germany, Sweden and the US. Women with continuous work histories are compared with those with gaps due to family leave, unemployment, or other reasons. The German Life History Study, the Swedish Level of Living Survey and the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to estimate Cox regression models of the transition rate to downward or upward occupational mobility. The results indicate that US women face increased downward mobility with increasing duration of both family leave and unemployment. German women with unemployment experience are also more likely to encounter downward mobility, but no such relationship is found for family leave. In Sweden, family leave experience reduces the chances of upward mobility. Results question the human capital approach, according to which skills should deteriorate at the same rate independent of the reason for the leave.

  • 20.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gupta, Sanjiv
    Grunow, Daniela
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sayer, Liana C.
    Economic Inequality and Housework2010In: Dividing the Domestic.: Men, Women and Household Work in Cross-National Perspective / [ed] J. Treas, S. Drobnic, Stanford University Press , 2010, p. 105-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inledning2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 12-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Magnusson, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ojämlikhetens dimensioner : uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige.2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Changing Resources and the Division of Housework: A Longitudinal Study of Swedish Couples2007In: European Sociological Review, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 455-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Dependence Within Families and the Household Division of Labour: A Comparison Between Sweden and the United States2004In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 1272-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the relative explanatoryvalue of the resource-bargaining perspectiveand the doing-gender approach for the divisionof housework in the United States and Swedenfrom the mid-1970s to 2000. The data used arethe Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)and the Swedish Level of Living Survey. Overallresults show that housework was truly genderedwork in both countries during the entire period.Even so, the results indicate that, unlike Swedishwomen, U.S. women seem to increase theirtime spent in housework when their husbandsare to some extent economically dependent onthem, as if to neutralize the presumed genderdeviance on the part of their spouses.

  • 25. Grunow, Daniela
    et al.
    Aisenbrey, Silke
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Motherhood, family policy, education, and careers in Germany, the US, and Sweden2011In: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, ISSN 0023-2653, E-ISSN 1861-891X, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 395-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the duration of and consequences for employment interruptions for mothers with distinct educational qualifications in cross-national perspective. We analyze the duration of mothers' employment interruption and the relative quality of the job after childbirth, for high and low qualified mothers in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Analyses are based on harmonized national longitudinal data sets (GLHS-West, NLSY, LNU), which allow us to study mothers' careers over the past 30-35 years. We apply event-history analysis to study how long mothers with distinct educational levels interrupt employment after childbirth, and how the patterns of return to work differ with respect to mothers' educational level. In all three countries the highly educated display a greater labor market attachment. In the US, almost half of the mothers with some college background, compared to only a quarter of high-school dropouts stay employed continuously after childbirth. In Sweden, basically all mothers take time-out for at least half a year. In Germany, 25% of mothers with university entrance qualification do not claim parental leave. In Germany and Sweden consequences of leave extensions seem to operate independent of mothers' educational levels. In the U. S. medium and highly educated mothers tend to return more slowly after the enactment of the FMLA.

  • 26. Grunow, Daniela
    et al.
    Evertsson, MarieStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    New Parents in Europe: Work-Care Practices, Gender Norms and Family Policies2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This innovative book explores the different ways in which dual-earner couples in contemporary welfare states plan for, realize and justify their divisions of work and care during the transition to parenthood. Providing a unique comparative, longitudinal and qualitative analysis of new parents in eight European countries, this timely book explicitly locates couples’ beliefs and negotiations in the wider context of national institutional structures.

    Compelling evidence is provided, demonstrating that the ways and degrees to which new parents can realize their work-care plans and ideals systematically relate to the support structures and resources available from employers, families and the state. A key focus is on couples that act in a non-normative way compared to their national, gender cultural context.

    New Parents in Europe will be of great value to sociology, political science and economics scholars alike and, with its use of cutting-edge methodology, will prove to be a valuable resource for policy makers.

  • 27. Gupta, Sanjiv
    et al.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Grunow, Daniela
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sayer, Liana S.
    The Economic Gap Among Women in Time Spent on Housework in Former West Germany and Sweden2015In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 181-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative scholarship on domestic labor has documented the existence of a gender gap in its performance in all countries for which data are available. Only recently have researchers begun to analyze economic disparities among women in their time spent doing housework, and their studies have been largely limited to the U.S. We extend this line of inquiry using data from two European countries, the former West Germany and Sweden. We estimate the economic gap in women's housework time, which we define as the difference between the time spent by women at the lowest and highest deciles of their own earnings. We expect this gap to be smaller in Sweden given its celebrated success at reducing both gender and income inequality. Though Swedish women do spend less time on domestic labor, however, and though there is indeed less earnings inequality among them, the economic gap in their housework is only a little smaller than among women in the former West Germany. In both places, a significant negative association between women's individual earnings and their housework time translates into economic gaps of more than 2.5 hours per week. Moreover, in both countries, women at the highest earnings decile experience a gender gap in housework that is smaller by about 4 hours per week compared to their counterparts at the lowest decile.

  • 28.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fathers’ Uptake of Parental Leave: Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102019In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.

  • 29. van Breeschoten, Leonie
    et al.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    When does part-time work relate to less work-life conflict for parents? Moderating influences of workplace support and gender in the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom2019In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 606-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working part-time can potentially be a great means of reducing work-life conflict for parents of young children. However, research has not univocally found this attenuating relation, suggesting it may not be universal, but rather contingent on other factors. This study investigates whether the relation between part-time work and work-life conflict is contingent on workplace support and gender. Results show that short part-time work (<25 h) relates to lower levels of work-life conflict for both women and men. We find some evidence that workplace support affects this relation: short part-time working women in an organization with a family supportive organizational culture had lower levels of work-life conflict than short part-time working women in organizations with an unsupportive organizational culture. For men working short part-time we find tendencies in the same direction, although this falls short of conventional statistical significance. In addition, long part-time work (25–35 h) is not significantly related to (lower) work-life conflict for either women or men. In line with previous research, managerial support is found to be linked to lower levels of work-life conflict, irrespective of whether one works full-time or part-time. Notably, the relation between working part-time and work-life conflict does not differ for mothers and fathers, suggesting that this work-family policy could help both men and women reduce work-life conflict.

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