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  • 1.
    Allodi,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Amnå,
    Eriksson,
    Johansson,
    Theodorsson,
    Munck,
    Zetterberg,
    Ekman,
    Ungas demokratiskolor i internationell belysning2007In: Resultatdialog, forskning inom utbildningsvetenskap, Vetenskapsrådet , 2007, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Specialpedagogiska insatser internationellt och i det svenska utbildningssystemet2017In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 1, p. 6-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillsammans med studenter i mastersprogrammet genomfördes en analys av specialpedagogiskt stöd i några utbildningssystem som var möjliga att jämföra med det svenska systemet och som verkade framgångsrika eller åtminstone intressanta. Från en jämförelse av dessa olika modeller identifieras några komponenter som jag föreslår att vi skulle inspireras av för att kunna genomföra mer effektiva specialpedagogiska insatser i det svenska skolsystemet. En undersökning av vad som görs i andra sammanhang kan göra det tydligare för oss vad det är som saknas i specialpedagogisk praxis och ge indikationer om vilka uppfattningar som ligger bakom dessa val.

  • 3.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Byråkrati, marknad eller lotteri?: Organisation och styrning av utbildning: effekter och risker för specialpedagogiska verksamheter2009In: Offentlig sektor och komplexitet: Om hantering av mål, strategier och professioner / [ed] Petra Adolfsson och Rolf Solli, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 199-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Emerging themes in the meeting between teachers and parents: when the children have special needs disabilites or are at risk2011In: Educazione familiare e servizi per l'infanzia: Education familiale et services pour l'enfance. XIII Congresso Internazionale. Firenze, 17-19 novembre 2010 / [ed] Catarsi, Enzo; Pourtois, Jean Pierre, Firenze: Firenze University Press , 2011, p. 99-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations characterised by collaboration and alliance between staff and parents of children with particular needs, experiencing developmental challenges or disabilities are necessary conditions of a favourable educational situation. Several studies testimony the protective role of positive educational experiences for children at risk, but the educational experiences of these children are not always satisfactory and propitious for their future development. Studies on the experiences of the meetings between parents and educational staff describe which difficulties may arise in the form of conflicts, communication problems, loss of trust and reciprocal devaluation and critique. The meetings between families and the services are not just personal encounters; they are also influenced by the characteristics and structures of the surrounding educational context. The themes emerging from several studies can be related for instance to the fight for the support and the resources, and to the definition of the child’s needs, potential and of what is the best for the child. The analysis and reflection on these themes and their motives should help the teachers to understand and prevent these risks, changing the responses to the parents adequately.

  • 5.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 207-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 6.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Lärarens val: att göra motstånd mot en förtryckande organisation eller mot elever som inte passar in2010In: Pedagogik som motstånd / [ed] Gunilla Alba & Ylva Wibaeus, Stockholm: Svenska Korczaksällskapet , 2010, 1, p. 77-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få möjlighet att utbilda sig är en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Skolan ska bidra till att barnets personlighet samt fysiska och mentala förmågor utvecklas till dess fulla potential. Men när är skolan verkligen en rättighet och när blir den i stället en belastning för barnet? Kapitlet analyserar villkoren för att utbildningen ska upplevas som en rättighet av alla elever och hinder som finns på vägen dit, samt reflekterar kring vad det kan innebära för lärarna att välja att ta ansvar för sina elever.

  • 7.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Perché dare voce alle esperienze dei bambini a scuola e perché no: Motivi e sfide per la ricerca pedagogica2009In: Infanzia Rivista di studi ed esperienze sull'educazione 0-6, ISSN 0390-2420, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational research is concerned with the observation and understanding of the experiences of children. Listening to the voices of children is a necessary enterprise in educational research. However, the practice of this activity is connected with obstacles and challenges. This paper describes the nature of some of these difficulties and identify the need of self-reflection.

  • 8.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Stoccolma: dove la questione dei bambini non è solo una questione privata2011In: Infanzia, ISSN 0390-2420, no 5, p. 371-372Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [it]

    In Svezia, ancor oggi, persiste un sistema di Welfare che dedica molte risorse alle politiche per l'infanzia e al sostegno delle famiglie. Ció si traduce sia sul piano politico, sia su quello della produzione culturale, consolidando un diffuso atteggiamento di tutela e cura dei minori, ampiamente dimostrato nella dimensione quotidiana.

  • 9.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Temi emergenti negli incontri tra genitori e personale nel contesto educativo svedese2011In: Educazione familiare e servizi per l'infanzia: Education familiale et services pour l'enfance.  XIII Congresso Internazionale. Firenze, 17-19 novembre 2010 / [ed] di Catarsi Enzo, Pourtois Jean Pierre, Firenze (Italia): Firenze University Press , 2011, p. 237-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [it]

    In questo testo vengono presentate riflessioni sui rapporti tra genitori ed educatori e sui programmi di prevenzione per genitori, sulla base di studi condotti personalmente, di studi di colleghi e su sintesi e ricerche compiute da enti nazionali svedesi, valutazioni di ricerche e rapporti di commissioni parlamentari

  • 10.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The experiences of mental health and well-being of Swedish children and youth with a focus on educational situations: Some results and reflections from a review of qualitative studies2010In: Trender i barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: Program & abstracts 12-14 april 2010, Stockholm: Kungliga vetenskapsakademien , 2010, p. 17-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of including in reviews people’s experiences and perceptions, which are collected with non-experimental and qualitative studies, has been developed recently in the field of mental health studies. These approaches and methodologies have inspired the review of research on Swedish children and adolescents experiences of mental health and well being, with a focus on their educational situation, that was conducted as a part of a systematic review of research on School Learning and Mental health, performed by appointment of the Royal Academy of Sciences. The aim of the review was to gather testimonies that can give indications of the experiences of mental health and well being in this specific context. The results from the studies that were relevant for the aims of the review are structured in four themes: general views, protective factors, risk factors, individual factors. They are presented in a narrative synthesis, giving a particular weight to the direct and indirect report of children’s and adolescents’ own views. The adolescents defined mental health as emotional experiences, seen both as internal feelings and as relational feelings. Family, friends and educational environments as social and physical environments were perceived as determinants of mental health. A great number of feelings were related to school, both related to satisfaction and pain, in particular when the school attendance is presented as an obligation. Harassment and rejection at school, performance stress, worries about grades and future prospects could be threats against self-worth and self-esteem, while teachers that do not care could generate negative experiences. Various kind of stress could be described and various strategies to resist stressful situations: for instance emotional support, safety and involvement. The educational environments can be an arena for social, cognitive and emotional experiences, relationships and accomplishments that are enriching the individuals and increase their well being. General structural characteristics of the educational environments may also affect well being in different directions: performance, evaluation and feedback, freedom of choice and responsibility for the future may be perceived as a burden. The following reflections can be made: the experiences of children and adolescents change when they grow older, go through developmental processes and encounter different educational situations; the studies reporting views of younger children on the matters of this review were less well represented; the negative experiences may be expressed in rather cautious and non dramatic terms by younger children; there are unique contribution of the review of qualitative studies, but also several interesting correspondences with the results of the review of quantitative studies.

  • 11.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The meaning of social climate of learning environments: some reasons why we do not care enough about it.2010In: Learning Environments Research, ISSN 1387-1579, E-ISSN 1573-1855, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments: presenting evidence of its effects; its importance in special needs and inclusive education; presenting existing differences between settings; discussing the contribution of social climate to teachers’ professional autonomy. The arguments support the view that social climate is an essential factor in educational processes and make incomprehensible the scarce attention reserved to it in educational policy, research and teacher programs. Indications of neglect in the Swedish context are presented. The resistance towards the concept of social climate is related to a) dualistic and hierarchic views; b) characteristics of bureaucratic systems; c) reductionist interpretations; d) difficulties in handling and evaluating social values and goals; e) post-modern criticism of scientific knowledge and psychology. Implications for counteracting reductive interpretations and meeting resistance and criticism are discussed.

  • 12.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Vad gör skolan för utsatta barn?2010In: Se de tidiga tecknen: Forskare reflekterar över sju berättelser från förskola och skola, Stockholm: Elanders AB , 2010, p. 101-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Job engagement and perceptions of work environment in Swedish junior-high school teachers2009In: Theory construction and multivariate analysis: Applications of Facet approach, Bar-Ilan University: FTA Publications , 2009, p. 231-241Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Organisational characteristics of educational environments: the contribution of teachers' assessment2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the organisational characteristics of educational environments, to identify typologies of work environments and to investigate the relationships between the type of work environment and the school’s functioning.

    The Swedish version of the Organizational Checkup survey (Leiter & Maslach, 2000) is a general and expanded version of the Maslach burnout inventory. This study analyses the 16 items concerning Energy, Involvement and Accomplishment (Relation to work) and 29 items concerning Workload, Control, Reward, Community, Fairness and Values (Fields of work).

    The sample consists of 749 Swedish high school teachers from a stratified selection of 31 schools.

    The means of the answers from teachers from the same school were dichotomized and analysed with POSAC (Partial Order Scalogram Analyses). The polarizing variables contributing to the identification of four main profiles are Reward and Workload.

    The answers are also analysed with a SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) approach.

    The results show that there are differences in the work environment of teachers and that the variables from the Organizational Checkup survey that contribute most to these differences are Workload and Reward. The results are discussed in relation to the effort-reward imbalance theory. The results can contribute to a better understanding of significant differences in school’s organisational functioning, as they are perceived by the teachers, and they can be employed in planning adequate interventions.

  • 15.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Zappaterra, Tamara
    Users' needs on play for children with disabilities2017In: Handicap, Reconnaissance et “Vivreensemble” [Recognition and “Community living”]: Diversité des pratiques et pluralité des valeurs Disability [Diversity of practices and plurality of values], European Society for Disability Research , 2017, p. 10-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” is devoted to the enhancement of play for children with disabilities. In order to develop policies, practices and professional training on the topic of play for children with disabilities, it is necessary to take account of the users’ needs. Aim. The aim of the study is to investigate the users’ needs on play for children with disabilities. Method. Surveys directed to disability associations and parents, developed by the COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” were distributed to 31 coordinators and translated into 23 languages. 75 answers were collected from association in 24 countries and 129 from parents in 26 countries. Results from Associations. Play for play sake is important and essential for a wide range of reasons. Play conduces to an array of positive outcome for the child, even if it is experienced as a free activity without specific objectives. Results from parents. Play is an activity that fulfil essential needs for the child. The child’s needs were to have friends and peers, adapted and specialized toys, a knowledgeable adult; improved skills necessary to play; accessible outdoor environments; available time; societal attitudes, policy and resources. The children’s experiences of play were reported. Play is an engaging activity in which the children observe, communicate, share and experience participation. Play means positive emotions as joy, happiness, relax, excitement and fun. The children experience agency when they play. The children wanted to play for more time, to have more options, adaptions, and to overcome barriers.

  • 16. Dovigo, Fabio
    et al.
    Bunar, Nihad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína
    Atanasoska, Tatjana
    Veck, Wayne
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Including the Excluded Other: Rights, Policies and Refugees and Migrants in European Educational Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Olsson, Tina
    Sedem, Mina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Ginnner Hau, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Herkner, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Domitrovic, Celene
    Culture and Young Children’s Social Emotional Competence: Findings and Implications for the Cultural Adaptation of Interventions2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Fischbein, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Grosin, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skarlind, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Organizational Climate and Working Conditions of Teachers2011In: New Horizons for Facet Theory: Searching for Structure in Content Spaces and Measurement / [ed] Yael Fisher & Isaac A. Friedman, Israel: FTA Publications, 2011, p. 227-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Alin Åkerman,, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Folkhälsoinstitutet.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ljungdahl, Sophia
    Folkhälsoinsitutet.
    Ogden, Terje
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    School, Learning and Mental Health: A systematic review2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en systematisk översikt av forskning om skola, lärande och barns psykiska hälsa. Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens Hälsoutskottet har givit uppdraget att genomföra en sådan översikt till en arbetsgrupp som har arbetat med uppdraget från hösten 2008 till mars 2009.

    Det första syftet med översikten är att genomföra en kartläggning av forskning inom det breda fält som behandlar frågor om skola, lärande och barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Det andra syftet är att genomföra en narrativ syntes av forskning som undersökt orsaksförhållanden mellan psykisk hälsa å ena sidan och skolresultat och lärande å den andra sidan. Det tredje syftet är att redovisa resultat från forskning som har studerat svenska barns och ungdomars erfarenheter och upplevelser av skola och undervisningssituationer. För att uppnå de första två syftena genomfördes systematiska litteratursökningar i bibliografiska databaser av artiklar publicerade i vetenskapliga internationella tidskrifter inom olika discipliner. Det tredje syftet undersöktes med litteratursökningar av kvalitativa svenska studier i bibliografiska databaser.

    Slutsatser

    På grundval dels av kartläggningen av forskning om skola, lärande och psykisk hälsa, dels av de två fördjupade översikterna kan följande slutsatser dras:

    • Omfattningen av forskning som undersöker relationerna mellan olika aspekter av skola och psykisk hälsa är begränsad och i synnerhet gäller detta forskning som undersöker organisationsfaktorer och undervisnings-faktorer, aktiviteter, läroplaners utformning, resurser, specialpedagogiskt stöd, och olika former av betyg och bedömning.

    • Tidiga svårigheter i skolan och i synnerhet läs- och skrivsvårigheter kan orsaka internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem.

    • Svårigheter i skola och psykiska problem tenderar att vara stabila över tid.

    • Skolrelaterade hälsoproblem tenderar att minska när eleverna börjar på gymnasiet och får tillgång till nya områden av aktiviteter, roller och valmöjligheter.

    • Att genomföra stora ansträngningar utan att detta leder till resultat är relaterat till utveckling av depression.

    Problem i skolan med skolresultat och prestationer orsakar inter-naliserande symptom för flickor under tonåren.

    • Det finns samband mellan olika typer av psykiska problem och de är också relaterade till ett brett spektrum av somatiska och psykosomatiska symptom.

    • Internaliserande och externaliserande psykiska problem har negativa effekter på skolprestationer genom mekanismer som är delvis ålders- och genusspecifika.

    • Kompetenser och prestationer i skolan är relaterade till psykisk hälsa.

    • Goda resultat i skolan har en positiv effekt på självuppfattning.

    • En god självuppfattning bidrar inte direkt till bättre resultat, men andra faktorer som är relaterade till självuppfattning (motivation och upplevd inre/yttre kontroll) påverkar lärande och resultat

    • Relationer med klasskamrater och lärare bidrar till processer som kopplar skolmisslyckande till psykisk ohälsa. Relationer med kamrater och lärare kan också skydda mot utvecklingen av psykiska problem.

    • Jämförelser med klasskamrater påverkar självuppfattningen, med effekter som varierar beroende på gruppsammansättning och typ av skola.

  • 20.
    Helldin, Rolf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Dwyer, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Specialpedagogiska nybyggare: En historisk antologi om organisation, funktionshinder och särskilt stöd under 1900-talet2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin innehåller texter om Karin Danell och Charlottendals skolhem, den första specialskola för elever med grav språkstörning (av Agneta Ahlin-Emilsson); om Alfhild Tamm, en pionjär inom läs- och skrivforskning (av Toura Hägnesten); om systrarna Runströms och Björsgårdens skol- och feriehem i Leksand (av Torsten Lundberg); om specialpedagogiska synsätt i läroplaner (av Gunilla Sandberg); om en skoldaghem i Mälardalen (av Elisabet Ekegren Johansson); om livet på en institution för personer med utvecklingsstörning (av Ingela Lindkvist Larsson)

  • 21.
    Herkner, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Early identification or broken promises?: A comparison of literacy assessment performance in 112 Swedish third graders2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national standardised literacy assessment (NSLA) for Swedish Language was introduced in 2009 as a grade-three compulsory assessment and includes the assessment of reading ability. It was introduced as a measure of relatively early identification of reading difficulties among nine-years old students. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the NSLA is able to identify students with word decoding problems from a sample of third graders (N = 112; n = 57 girls; n  = 55 boys) attending six schools in a Swedish municipality. Eleven students (10%) performed below the cut-off value for word decoding ability in students of this age group. Only three of these students were identified as not achieving the goals posed by the NSLA. In contrast, eight students with low word decoding ability managed to meet the NSLA requirements. Gender differences were observed, since all of the students who passed the NSLA, notwithstanding having low performance in WD, were boys. Although the NSLA was specifically introduced at this level to identify weakness in reading at an early stage, the results of this study indicate that approximately three quarters of students with poor word decoding ability may remain unidentified by the NSLA. These findings call into question the validity of the NSLA in recognising pupils in need of additional support in reading.

  • 22.
    Linikko, Jari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Simulation of working with an individual education plan for a virtual pupil2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Characteristics of Swedish preschools that provide education and care to children with special educational needs2016In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and quality. The purpose was also to provide reflections on the usefulness of different structured observation rating scales designed to assess preschool quality. Eight preschool units located in four Swedish districts were visited. A total of sixteen 5-year-old children with special educational needs/disability and forty typically developing children of the same age participated. The data sources were structured observation rating scales (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Caregiver Interaction Scale and Inclusive Classroom Profile), ABILITIES Index questionnaire, unstructured observation, interviews, conversations and documents. Two overall typologies of preschool units were identified: the comprehensive units enrolled children with various special educational needs/disability, while the specialised units enrolled children with the same disability. The staff resources were greater in the specialised units. The overall quality in the observed units ranged from low to good. In units educating children with a disability diagnosis, the quality was never low. None of the preschool units was scored as having a good inclusive environment. The structured observation rating scales complemented each other and covered, in part, different quality aspects of the units. The study shows that there is a large variation in quality between the units and that there is a need to further develop the quality of the preschool units and of the services for children with special educational needs in Swedish preschools.

  • 24.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Children's views and experiences of early years education in the context of Sweden: A longitudinal StudyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Ensuring the rights of children to be heard: Children’s views on their early years education in the context of Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Inclusive Education, Support Provisions and Early Childhood Educational Pathways in the Context of Sweden: A Longitudinal Study2015In: International Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0827-3383, E-ISSN 1917-7844, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational pathways of a group of children with and without special educational needs from the last year in preschool to 1st grade. Fifty-six children participated and 65 educational settings were visited. A longitudinal and mixed method approach was adopted. Data was collected via observations, conversations, interviews and a questionnaire. Over the early school years, the number of children with special educational needs increased. Their need of support ranged from some needs, to high and to very high needs. The support was integrated into ongoing activities and offered among peers, as well as provided in the form of one-on-one training and therapy, one-on-one conversation and after school training. The settings were comprehensive or specialised in a certain diagnosis, and the application of inclusion ranged from non-existent, to integrated activities and partial and full inclusion. The findings are related to national and international discussions on the topics of inclusive education, support provisions and early childhood educational pathways.

  • 27.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Special Educational Needs and Support Provisions in Swedish Preschools: A Multiple-Case Study2015In: International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, ISSN 1308-5581, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 270-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this multiple-case study was to investigate the abilities and needs of children in some comprehensive and specialised preschools adopting some form of inclusive education, and to describe the provided support that was designed to enhance children’s participation and learning. Fifty-six children and eight preschools located in four municipalities were enrolled. The data was collected via observations, conversations, interviews and a questionnaire. The abilities of the children varied and the need of support among the children ranged from some needs to high and very high needs. Environmental and interpersonal support was integrated into ongoing activities, routines and plays, both in the comprehensive and specialised preschools. In the specialised preschools, one-on-one training and speech therapy, as well as an extended timeframe, were also provided. The descriptions of the preschool practices are related to national and international discussions concerning the topics of inclusive education and support provisions in preschools.    

  • 28. Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    To be free and to belong: the views of children with and without special educational needs about what matters for them in their early school years2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate children’s perspectives, both of those children with and without special educational needs, of their early years education and to describe matters that children consider to be of importance for their well-being and development during these years. The study is part of a larger study (Lundqvist, 2016) in which the same group of children was followed from preschool to first grade. A total of 56 children, between 5 and 7 years of age, in 65 educational settings in Sweden were included in the study. Twenty-nine children were described as having special educational needs. The children’s views of what matters for them in their early school years were collected during 2012 to 2015 using drawings and interviews, and analysed with a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Research ethics in research with children (Siljehag, 2015) are discussed. Nine themes were identified that reflected matters of importance for the children as well as needs and values. In order to thrive in early years education, the children needed to have a sense of belonging with peers; opportunities for play, creative activities and thinking; experiences of speed, excitement and physical challenges; elements of coziness, withdrawals and comfort for recreation; to feel safe; to experience growth in knowledge and understanding of the world; to feel free and autonomous; to have comfort objects and bonds with home and family; and to connect with nature. These themes are discussed and linked to previous research (e.g., Allodi Westling, 2002), educational evaluation models (i.e., the ECERS-R and the ICP), and theories of needs and motivational values such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2008) and Schwartz’s model of universal human values (Schwartz, 2012). Theoretical frameworks of the study are these theories of needs and values. The results of the study cannot be generalised in terms of other children or contexts. The study has relevance on Nordic educational research because it can form a basis for discussion needs and values of children and facilitate the development of educational settings that meet the needs of children, contribute to their well-being and are experienced as joyful and meaningful by them. Allodi Westling, M. (2002). Children’s experiences of school: Narratives of Swedish children with and without learning difficulties. Scandinavian Journal of Education Research, 46(2), 181-205. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182-185. Lundqvist, J. (2016). Educational pathways and transitions in the early school years: special educational needs, support provisions and inclusive education. Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, 2016. Stockholm. Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-20. Siljehag, E. (2015). Research ethics in research with children. In B. Qvarsell, C. Hällström, & A. Wallin (Eds.), The problematic ethic. Views of children in research and practice (pp. 117-142). Göteborg: Daidalos förlag.

  • 29.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Values and Needs of Children With and Without Special Educational Needs in Early School Years: A Study of Young Children’s Views on What Matters to Them2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how children experience life in educational settings should be an imperative for educational practitioners, evaluators, and researchers. Listening to children’s points of views would facilitate the development of educational settings that meet the needs of children and contribute to their wellbeing and development so that their experiences are both joyful and meaningful. A total of 56 children between the ages of 5 and 7 in 65 educational settings located in central Sweden were included in the study. Amongst the 56 participating children, 29 were identified as having special educational needs. The children’s views were collected from 2012 to 2015 using drawings and interviews, and these were analysed using a thematic analysis. Nine themes that reflected matters of importance for the children, both those with and without special educational needs, are described. These themes are discussed and linked to previous research, educational evaluation models, and theories of values and needs.

  • 30.
    Siljehag, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Play and Social Interactions for Children with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Preschool Settings: Adaptation and Development of Approaches for Special Educators2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    A Critical Review of Ideology, Policy and Circumstances in the Swedish Context Related to Inclusive Education Organisational Climate and Students’ Wellbeing2017In: Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Practices: An International Perspective / [ed] Fabio Dovigo, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2017, p. 97--116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning environment in the classroom with its daily interactions involves processes that can be developed and utilised to strengthen educational environments, preventing difficulties and enhancing learning for the students. Yet the classroom environments are imbedded in educational organisations that are influenced by local and national policies and by societal factors as ideologies and values. Based on analyses of reforms introduced in the Swedish Educational system and of their effects, this paper will analyse influences on the educational organisation that may thwart the traditionally agreed upon humanistic values of fairness and equity, and therefore may counteract the efforts to build developmentally healthy and effective learning environments. In planning interventions for more inclusive and successful learning environments in school, it would be opportune to consider the influence of organizational factors at broader levels, if they represent forces and values to combat.

  • 32.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    A two-level analysis of classroom climate in relation to social context, group composition and organisation of special support2002In: Learning Environment Research, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 253-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated classroom climate in relation to social context, heterogeneity (disability, multiculturalism) in class composition, and the occurrence of differentiated learning environments for children who need special support. Pupils aged 8–12 (679 from 39 classes in Swedish compulsory schools) responded to a questionnaire about classroom climate. Eighty of these students receive special support at school using various modalities. Multilevel factor analysis was applied to data to estimate differences within and between groups. Three significant climate factors were found. They pertained to the level of friction, satisfaction, and cohesiveness in the classroom.

    Social context was related to these three factors and to the occurrence of differentiated learning environments. The inclusion of pupils with disabilities appears to be related to less friction and higher cohesiveness among children. The article proposes increased interventions aimed at improving the school climate in disadvantaged neighborhoods. It also suggests that aspects of the placement of pupils with disabilities and of the organization of special support should be considered as indicators in studies of school effectiveness.

  • 33.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Assessing the quality of learning environments in Swedish schools.: Development and analysis of an instrument2007In: Learning Environment Research, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 157-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Goals, Attitudes and Values in School (GAVIS) questionnaire was developed on the basis of theoretical frameworks concerning learning environments, universal human values and studies of students’ experience of learning environments. The theory hypothesises that learning environments can be described and structured in a circumplex model using the factors of creativity, stimulation, achievement, efficacy, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence. The answers from a group of Swedish students in compulsory schooling and optional secondary schooling were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis. The analysis showed that a model with 10 latent variables corresponding to the model fitted the data well. A perfect circumplex structure of the covariance matrix between the latent variables, however, was not confirmed with structural equation modelling

  • 34.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Child care and pre-school in Sweden: An overview of practices, tendencies and research2007In: Rivista di Pedagogia e Didattica, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The system and policy for child care and pre-school education in Sweden are overviewed: its structure and goals in the context of the Swedish society and its general welfare system are described. New challenges and actual problematic tendencies revealed by national evaluations and research are identified: the increasing quality variation, the broader attendance, the lack of qualified teachers, a narrowly interpretation of the curriculum, the rising numbers of children identified as having special educational needs. Some interpretations of the relationships among these emerging factors are suggested.

  • 35.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Children with cognitive disabilities in a Swedish educational context: reflections from a case study2007In: Disability & Society, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 639-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyses the experience of parents of children with cognitive disabilities attending compulsory school in regular classes or in special units. It relates this experience to the arguments presented by the staff of special education services in a Swedish municipality, their administrative decisions and the organization of special education services. The parents had different standpoints: some defended the existence of special units and the resources available to them, while some fought to have their children accepted in regular classes, while other parents accepted the special units but were critical of certain aspects of their functioning. The situation presented here seems likely to generate conflicts between parents and educational administrators, and even among parents.

  • 36.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Children's experiences of school:: narratives of Swedish children with and without learning difficulties2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 181-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The content of texts written by Swedish school children is analysed in order to gain a picture of their experiences of school and these experiences are put in relation to the democratic goals of integration and practices of selection and segregation which are emerging in the Swedish school systems with the increase in pupils enrolled in special units. In a project concerning educational organizations and children receiving special support, 185 children living in 10 Swedish municipalities and attending 16 different schools wrote a text about their school situation. Ninety of these children received special support at school because of learning disabilities/difficulties. The 185 texts have been analysed using narrative approaches. The children experienced school as a place where they are protagonists and pointed out those activities that are meaningful to them. Social relations, ethical issues and learning are areas pertaining to school. Problems at school are mainly due to a lack of stimulation, adult control and influence. The children with support at school were not a homogeneous group. Several of these children, however, treat situations concerning personal rights and justice in their narratives, themes that were not common in the texts of the other children. The perspectives of children with different experiences are thus important in understanding the characteristics and the deficits of educational environments.

  • 37.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Decline, Crisis and Turnaround in the Swedish School Market: the Case of a School that has Come Through2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Det sociala klimatet: Den dolda sidan av skolan som lärandemiljö2011In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN ISSN 0033-3212, no 4, p. 58-65Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sociala klimatet som uppstår i en grupp av elever i skolan kan upplevas med tydlighet när man befinner sig i en sådan grupp under en tid och observerar samspelssituationer mellan elever, mellan lärare och elever, och ser hur elever och vuxna uttrycker sig, tittar på och behandlar varandra, samt vilka aktiviteter som utspelar sig. Som observatör har jag upplevt en känsla av förtryck, meningslöshet och en önskan att fly, i vissa miljöer där de vuxna i stor utsträckning ägnar sig åt att tillrättavisa elever och där de aktiviteter som erbjuds inte fungerar. I vissa miljöer skapas även rädsla och osäkerhet när elever är rädda för att göra fel, för att bli kritiserade eller till och med hånade. I andra fall har jag blivit tagen av skolmiljöer som sjuder av glädje och hopp, där det finns tillit mellan vuxna och elever, och där elever utstrålar självförtroende och är engagerade i meningsfulla aktiviteter.  I min erfarenhet är skillnaderna mellan dessa undervisningsmiljöer inte beroende på elevernas inneboende egenskaper, utan beror på den arbetsmiljö som i stor utsträckning kommer att skapas av lärarna över tid. Det sociala klimatet som uppstår i skolans lärandeaktiviteter är med andra ord även en indikator på pedagogisk kvalité, förutom att det påverkar deltagarnas välbefinnande, tillfredställelse och prestationer. Trots att dessa egenskaper av skolans miljöer verkar betydelsefulla, kan de tendera att bli bortglömda eller osynliggjorda, i synnerhet om vi förmås att tro att skolans verksamhet består huvudsakligen av en samling av administrativa och byråkratiska regel- och kontrollsystem. Betydelsen av dessa aspekter i skolans miljö har studerats och definierats med flera näraliggande begrepp som klassrumsklimat, skolklimat eller skolans organisatoriska klimat. Flera studier har visat att det finns skillnader mellan skolor och att det finns ett positivt samband mellan indikatorer av socialt klimat och elevernas välbefinnande och resultat. I denna artikel vill jag dra uppmärksamheten till de sociala, relationella och känslomässiga aspekter som bidrar till att skapa skolans sociala miljö och som definieras som skolans sociala klimat. Några egenskaper av det sociala klimatet presenteras som gör det till ett utomordentligt verktyg för att utveckla skolans verksamhet, i synnerhet om man vill skapa skolmiljöer som svarar mot elevernas behov och motverkar exkludering och utslagning.  Erfarenheter från ett pågående forskningsprogram redovisas.

  • 39.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Equal opportunities in educational system: the case of Sweden2007In: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is stated as a basic right, but school attendance can become a burden for pupils experiencing school failure or difficulties. The aim of this article is to reflect about general and specific factors of the Swedish educational system and to identify facilitators and obstacles to the possibility to offer equal opportunities to all pupils. Findings from research and trends in the official statistics are related to social and educational theories in order to identify their meanings and implications.

  • 40.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Exercising Governance by State Funding in a Decentralized System: the National Investment on Supplementary Tuition for Newly-Arrived Students in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Förbjudet område? Utbildning och kompetensutveckling om högbegåvade barns behov i skola och förskola2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education and professional development for teachers, special educators and other professions about the special educational needs of gifted children have been developed at Stockholm University during several years, since it was noticed that there was a gap in the teachers’ knowledge about the needs of support and stimulation of precocious children and of youth that show high ability and potentials in one or several domains. A review of international policy, resources and provisions, teacher training and in-service training about the needs of children with high ability and potential shows a multifaceted landscape. Even if this educational research topic is not particularly strong in Sweden, there is a growing interest for these issues in the media and among students and professionals. Some studies give interesting insights in how the educational situation of gifted children may look like in the Swedish schools and give indications of important development areas. From these experiences and insights present problems and future visions are outlined.

  • 42.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Gränser i skolan.: Vilka funktioner har differentierade grupper?2002In: Locus: tidskrift för forskning om barn och ungdomar, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1990-talet ökar antalet elever i särskolan dramatiskt. Detta trots att den centralt uttalade intentionen är att skolan ska vara ”en skola för alla” och att segregeringen av elever med funktionshinder ska minska. Hur kan denna motsägelse förklaras? I denna artikel utgår Mara Westling Allodi från intervjuer med specialpedagoger i tre segregerade grupper och diskuterar de förändringar som inträffat i grundskolan under de senaste tio åren.

  • 43.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Internationellt perspektiv på särskilt begåvade elever2015Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Lärandemiljön: en modell för goda relationer2014In: Elevhälsa, ISSN 2000-5296, Vol. 3, p. 41-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Möjligt att vända en skola i kris genom interna utvecklingsprocesser: Lärandemiljö: skolutveckling genom det sociala klimatet2013In: Resultatdialog 2013, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2013, p. 18-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är möjligt att vända en situation av kris i en skola genom interna initiativ, diskussion av målsättningar i lärandemiljön och gemensamt utvecklingsarbete. Detta visar en studie där man har undersökt två kommunala grundskolor i årkurs 6-9 som företog sig att förändra sin organisation och förbättra elevernas resultat genom återkommande utvärderingar, professionell utveckling, samt planering av pedagogiska insatser som hade ett särskilt fokus på socioemotionella aspekter av lärandemiljön. Teorier om lärande, psykosociala miljöer och humanistiska värderingar har varit den breda teoretiska referensramen för forskningsprojektet. Båda skolor har under tiden varit med om dramatiska förändringar som beskrivs med fallstudier: en skola fick bära rollen av syndabock, medan den andra gjorde en turnaraound. Studien visar också att skolor är utsatta för konkurrens, prestationsmätningar och kontroll, vilka kan påverka deras organisation så att de hamnar i en negativ spiral. De kan också vara utsatta för välmenande men missriktade externa åtgärder som kan försvåra kvalitetsutvecklingen.

    De relationella och socioemotionella aspekter av lärande verkar kunna erbjuda till lärare och skolledare professionella verktyg för en autentisk och hållbar skolutveckling.

  • 46.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Narrow-minded Accountability Measures Create Failure Schools in Disadvantaged Contexts: A Case Study of a Junior-High School2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Pojkars och flickors psykiska hälsa i skolan: en kunskapsöversikt2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en kunskapsöversikt över forskning om skolfaktorers inverkan på flickors och pojkars psykosociala hälsa. Det är vanligare att flickor i skolan är oroliga, stressade och deprimerade, från de tidiga tonåren. Pojkar har i stället fler uppmärksamhetsstörningar, koncentrationssvårigheter och skolsvårigheter redan från tidig ålder.

  • 48.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Schooling and student well being: a review of qualitative studies2011In: EARLI 2011 Education for a global networked society: Book of abstracts and extended summaries / [ed] EARLI, 2011, p. 290-291Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic literature review of qualitative studies on the experiences and perceptions of school of Swedish children and adolescents was performed after literature searches in international and national databases. A narrative synthesis of 38 studies is presented focusing on the relationship between schooling and students' well being and mental health. Four themes were identified: general experiences (emotions, self-concept, choices); protective experiences (activities, participation, supportive relationships), risk experiences ( tests, stress, school failure, negative evaluations, learning difficulties, lack of interest, negative relationships with teachers and peers); specific individual risks (disability, stigma, family problems, abuse, addiction, body image). The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories, special educational practices and current evaluation practices. The methodology of systematic review of qualitative studies applied in the field of educational research is discussed.

  • 49.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Self concept in children receiving special support at school2000In: European Journal of special needs education, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the variations of self-concept in pupils attending basic compulsory schools and special units. It also examines self-concept in pupils receiving support according to different models. The study involved 183 pupils aged nine to 13 years, attending basic compulsory schools or special programme units in Sweden. Seventy-seven pupils were receiving support from special educators, who have completed a supplementary programme in special education. A comparison was made between pupils receiving support and pupils receiving no support and between pupils in different organization models of support. Global self-concept at school does not seem to be related to the model of special support. Pupils at compulsory schools who are receiving support differ from pupils who receive no support, in that peer relations appear to be more important for their self-concept at school. This could be interpreted as being a compensatory strategy to maintain a good self-concept in spite of difficulties at school. Some implications for educational strategies are discussed.

  • 50.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Simple-Minded Accountability Measures Create Failing Schools in Disadvantaged Contexts: A Case Study of a Swedish Junior High School2013In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 331-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principles of new public management – market mechanisms, accountability and standards – have been applied in the education system. These methods are supposed to increase efficiency, but there is also a risk of negative consequences from the services provided if the measures of performance target a reduced range of goals, ignore relevant variables or are not valid measures. Indicators used to compare schools’ performance are aggregate measures, such as the percentage of students who have access to secondary education and the average qualification value. This study reports how accountability policy and procedures may affect the functioning of the education system through the case study of a school serving a diverse student population. The school organisation was influenced by measures of performance, external events and contextual and selection variables. The average qualification value measure seems to be a limited measure of performance at the school level, since it largely reflects school composition and school segregation. Even the available performance measures adjusted for background variables do not take account of relevant variables that may influence the school’s need of resources and its results, such as students’ language proficiency and special educational needs. Other performances that are not easily measured – such as the prevention of dropout, improvement of school attendance and provision of an equitable education for all students – are disregarded. Schools serving those students with the most needs risk being penalised by an approximate and restricted range of accountability systems because there is a risk that the schools will appear to be failing when they are working with more complex and advanced tasks than average schools. Based on these inaccurate performance measurements, the school may be targeted with wide-ranging, severe and basically unjust interventions.

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