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  • 1.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seascape configuration influences connectivity of reef fish assemblagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow-water habitats within tropical seascapes are intimately connected through ontogenetic and/or feeding migrations of fish. Knowledge on connectivity in the Indo-Pacific region is however sparse. Landscape ecology has been suggested as a useful approach when studying seascape connectivity. In this study, we examine the influence of habitat connectivity on reef fish assemblages in shallow-water habitats surrounding Zanzibar (Tanzania), using a seascape approach. We tested the relationships between a set of landscape and habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups and life stages. Habitat data was collected at scales ranging from 1m to >2km using aerial photography and ground-truthing. Fish data was collected using a standardised point census method. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews with 127 fishers in the bay were conducted to account for different fishing activity. We show that coral reefs in a complex seascape of Zanzibar are connected to seagrass beds through migration of fish. Habitat connectivity of seagrass and seagrass/coral mix within a 750m radius of coral reefs had a positive influence on fish abundances in the functional group of invertebrate feeders/piscivores, especially within the family Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae. Within-patch seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on fish assemblages, highlighting the importance of considering a third dimension, not accounted for in terrestrial studies. Generally, fishing activity between sites did neither influence species richness nor abundance, except for the abundance of juvenile parrotfish. We demonstrate that a landscape ecology approach, combining connectivity and habitat variables, is important for understanding and managing the tropical seascape, although it must be applied at relevant scales, habitat metrics and seascape configurations to fully capture ecological connectivity.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Golz, Anna-lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conservation Success as a Function of Good Alignment of Social and Ecological Structures and Processes2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1371-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources.

  • 3.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Swartz, Wilf
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This paper examines the usefulness of fish price as a feedback signal to consumers about the state of fisheries and marine ecosystems. We suggest that the current nature of fisheries systems and global markets prevent transmission of such price signals from source fisheries to consumers. We propose several mechanisms that combine to weaken price signals, and present one example - the North Sea cod - to show how these mechanisms can be tested. The lack of a reliable price feedback to consumers represents a challenge for sustainable fisheries governance. We therefore propose three complimentary approaches to address the missing feedback: (i) strengthening information flow through improved traceability and visibility of individual fishers to consumers, (ii) capitalizing on the changing seafood trade structures and (iii) bypassing and complementing market mechanisms by directly targeting citizens and political actors regarding marine environmental issues through publicity and information campaigns. These strategies each havelimitations and thus need to be pursued together to address the challenge of sustainability in global marine fisheries.

  • 4.
    Lokrantz, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Johansson, C.
    The non-linear relationship between body size and function in parrotfihes2008In: Coral reefs (Print), ISSN 0722-4028, E-ISSN 1432-0975, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 967-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parrotfishes are a group of herbivores that play an important functional role in structuring benthic communities on coral reefs. Increasingly, these fish are being targeted by fishermen, and resultant declines in biomass and abundance may have severe consequences for the dynamics and regeneration of coral reefs. However, the impact of overfishing extends beyond declining fish stocks. It can also lead to demographic changes within species populations where mean body size is reduced. The effect of reduced mean body size on population dynamics is well described in literature but virtually no information exists on how this may influence important ecological functions. The study investigated how one important function, scraping (i.e., the capacity to remove algae and open up bare substratum for coral larval settlement), by three common species of parrotfishes (Scarus niger, Chlorurus sordidus, and Chlorurus strongylocephalus) on coral reefs at Zanzibar (Tanzania) was influenced by the size of individual fishes. There was a non-linear relationship between body size and scraping function for all species examined, and impact through scraping was also found to increase markedly when fish reached a size of 15-20 cm. Thus, coral reefs which have a high abundance and biomass of parrotfish may nonetheless be functionally impaired if dominated by small-sized individuals. Reductions in mean body size within parrotfish populations could, therefore, have functional impacts on coral reefs that previously have been overlooked.

  • 5.
    Nyström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Steneck, Robert S.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Confronting Feedbacks of Degraded Marine Ecosystems2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 695-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal areas, marine ecosystems have shifted into contrasting states having reduced ecosystem services (hereafter called degraded). Such degraded ecosystems may be slow to revert to their original state due to new ecological feedbacks that reinforce the degraded state. A better understanding of the way human actions influence the strength and direction of feedbacks, how different feedbacks could interact, and at what scales they operate, may be necessary in some cases for successful management of marine ecosystems. Here we synthesize interactions of critical feedbacks of the degraded states from six globally distinct biomes: coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass beds, shallow soft sediments, oyster reefs, and coastal pelagic food webs. We explore to what extent current management captures these feedbacks and propose strategies for how and when (that is, windows of opportunity) to influence feedbacks in ways to break the resilience of the degraded ecosystem states. We conclude by proposing some challenges for future research that could improve our understanding of these issues and emphasize that management of degraded marine states will require a broad social-ecological approach to succeed.

  • 6. Oteros-Rozas, Elisa
    et al.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    Butler, James R. A.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Martin-Ortega, Julia
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Ravera, Federica
    Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi
    Palomo, Ignacio
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Waylen, Kerry A.
    Beach, Dylan M.
    Bohnet, Iris C.
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Vilardy, Sandra P.
    Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1) the context; (2) the original motivations and objectives; (3) the methodological approach; (4) the process; (5) the content of the scenarios; (6) the outputs of the research; and (7) the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  • 7.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Fish for Food and Ecosystem Function: Fisheries, Trade and Key Ecosystem Processes in Coral Reefs2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish is a key source of food and income to millions of people living along tropical coastlines. They also play essential roles underpinning key ecosystem processes in coral reefs. For example, herbivorous fish keep algae in check that otherwise may outcompete corals, reducing the reef’s social-ecological values. New fishing methods and globalization have turned fish into global commodities, threatening the ecological resilience of many reefs. This thesis addresses the delicate balance between social and ecological aspects associated with fisheries and trade with reef fish in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Paper I examines how parrotfish contribute to keeping reefs free from algae and shows a non-linear relationship between fish body size and function, hence illustrating that maintaining large fish individuals on coral reefs is particularly important. Gear-based management (GBM) has been suggested as an alternative to no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) to sustain ecosystem processes without threatening fishers’ livelihood. Paper II investigates fishers’ use of different gears and how these gears select different functional groups of fish. Results indicate that gear restrictions could be used to reduce fishing pressure on particularly important groups of fish, but also that such an approach is far from simple. MPAs and GBM are both restrictions targeting fishers, but with increasing global demand for reef fish, it is neither realistic nor fair to place the sole burden of sustainable fisheries on them. Papers III & IV analyze the value chain of fish, from fishers to traders and consumers. Results show that the Zanzibar fishery targets a wide range of fish species and sizes, intended for different markets. The thesis concludes that a sound understanding of the functional properties of fish and more nuanced approaches to regulate fishing may contribute to the management of reef fisheries, but that sustainable solutions will require that measures are taken far beyond the oceans.

  • 8.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Tracing value chains to understand effects of trade on coral reef fish in ZanzibarArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jiddawi, N.
    Tracing value chains to understand effects of trade on coral reef fish in Zanzibar, Tanzania2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 246-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reef fish are an important source of food security and income for human coastal populations. They also underpin ecosystem processes vital for the future ability of coral reefs to generate ecological goods and services. Identifying socio-economic drivers behind the exploitation of fish that uphold these key ecosystem processes and the scales at which they operate is therefore critical for successful management. This study addresses this issue by examining the reef-associated fish value chain in Zanzibar, and how it links to functional groups of fish and maturity stage of fish within these groups. Semi-structured interviews with 188 respondents (fishers, traders and hotel staff) involved in the fisheries and trade with reef-associated fish in Zanzibar and participatory observations were used. The trade with reef fish in Zanzibar is a complex structure involving many different agents and this study shows that these different agents exhibit differential preferences regarding fish functional groups and/or maturity stages within these groups. Consequently, both high and low trophic species, as well as small and large fishes are fished and sold, which leaves no refuge for the fish assemblage to escape fishing. When other market agents than fishers have so much influence and there are few alternative income generating activities, it is not possible to put all burden on fishers. Management measures that extend down the value chain to include all market agents as well as their links to ecosystem processes are thus likely to be needed to reach the target of sustainable fisheries.

  • 10.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Trading with resilience: parrotfish trade and the exploitation of key-ecosystem processes 2011In: Coastal Management, ISSN 0892-0753, E-ISSN 1521-0421, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parrotfish play two important roles in coral reef social–ecological systems; first as important sources of food for reef dependent people, and second by underpinning the ecological function of herbivory (i.e., grazing of algae) on coral reefs. Overfishing of herbivores can be detrimental to coral reef ecosystems because their removal may allow algae to outcompete corals. However, little is known about the drivers behind the exploitation of parrotfish. We describe the trade of parrotfish in Zanzibar with the aim to visualize the linkages between ecological function, market price, and socioeconomic drivers behind their exploitation. Three interesting findings emerge. First, parrotfish are an important part of the fish trade in Zanzibar and are traded at all market scales (from local consumers to international tourists). Second, size is an important determinant of price, with larger fish generating much higher values. Third, size determines which market parrotfish are sold to. Overall the study shows that all sizes of parrotfish are exposed to exploitation, leaving no size-refuge for escaping harvest. In light of an increasing global demand and high market prices, we thus propose that traditional fisheries management be complemented with assessments of both ecological understanding and socioeconomic dynamics to take into account of global market drivers behind parrotfish exploitation at local scales.

  • 11.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dilasser, Q.
    The influence of different fishing gear on ecosystem processes in artisanal coral reef fisheriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 11 of 11
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