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  • 1. Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Chefen som regissör: ledarskap och medarbetarskapets självorganiserande processer2006In: Ledarskap för fria medarbetare: ledarskap och medarbetarskapets självorganiserande processer / [ed] Casten von Otter, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2006, p. 123-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Johansson, Peter
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hazy, James K
    Simulating the emergence of the organizing structures of work2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a first step toward a visualization and classification system for studying dynamic organizing structures of work. As a first step toward this research objective, this study brings together two active projects. One called “relatonics” studies work group formation and is primarily empirical and inductive. The other called “Human Interaction Dynamics (HID)” imports concepts, relationships and modeling from complexity science and is therefore primarily theoretical and deductive. The vision is to use social media, data gathering, and process simulation technologies to rigorously describe, systematically visualize, and validly model the complex dynamics of work processes of different types. This work will serve as a means to classify, study and improve the performance of work systems. We describe our progress to data and suggest further research.

  • 3. Broms, Gunnar
    et al.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Development of work and enterprise survival: Introduction2009In: OSH for development: occupational safety and health for development / [ed] Elgstrand, Kaj & Petersson, Nils, Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology , 2009, p. 457-460Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction to the section

    Enterprise survival is about competition on growing and shrinking markets. Behind the façade created by such a self-evident statement is however room for what is normally thought of as opposed to competition, namely collaboration. Below a competitive surface lie demands for a variety of forms for co-operation, since to be able to compete today requires collaborative abilities. Abilities to be dealt with and realised within the enterprise as well as in networking between companies.

    This section focuses on development within the enterprise. Our intention is to provide understanding and encourage action for change. The aim is to argue for a changed view on employees and introduce the potential of employees as being decisive contributors to enterprise development and survival. The idea is to move away from the belief that workers have to be controlled and instructed in detail to be able to carry out even a limited work task. The possibilities are explored of a point of departure where workers are regarded as part of the thinking and development of the company, part of production in the sense that workers and teams take responsibility for work tasks and quality. Our hope is that the section as a whole will inspire various organisational actors to take action, and encourage leaders to identify new opportunities for development.

  • 4. Broms, Gunnar
    et al.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Enterprise survival - challenges and options2009In: OSH for development: occupational safety and health for development / [ed] Elgstrand, Kaj & Petersson, Nils F., Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology , 2009, p. 461-464Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter has the following structure and content:• Enterprise survival – a background • Globalisation and competition • Staying competitive through the development of work

    Enterprise survival – a background

    Here we will argue for the standpoint where the improvement of working conditions and work organisation is considered an important means of strengthening the enterprise in its striving for keeping competitive. We will argue for a situation where both employees, their unions and the employers look upon the development of work as a way to create safe and developing jobs as well as a way to improve the efficiency of the company and its ability to meet new challenges. The framework that we want to provide and the questions we raise are based on our own lengthy experiences as practitioners and researchers in the fields of work life learning, work and production development, and accident prevention in Sweden as well as in developing countries.

    In order to understand the challenges and options available to develop enterprises and work it is necessary to get a hold of the governing structures, i.e. the conditions under which companies live and compete. The increasing globalisation of markets put new demands on companies. Companies all over the world are now exposed to competition from both domestic as well as international companies. These changes call for development where competence is in focus and where co-operation and participation is encouraged. This is the case in developing countries as well as in the more industrialised part of the world.

  • 5.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alternative organising of leadership among managers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Arbetsplatsens relationik: Om vardagens lärande och kompetens i relationer2004In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kompetensen i en organisation avgör dess framgång. Genom en kritiskanalys av förutsättningarna för lärande och kompetensutveckling kan kompetensen höjas. Artikeln utgår från de redan kunnigas lärprocesser och hävdar vikten av att uppvärdera kontinuitet och stabilitet. Då blir begrepp som relationik och kompetensbärande relationer intressanta. Ökad förståelse skapas för vikten av att organisera arbetet för lärande.

  • 7.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Genom arbetsuppgiftens glasögon – ett uppgiftsperspektiv på organisatoriska förändringsprocesser2008In: Arbetsliv & pedagogik, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kompetensbärande relationer i en stadig bank2011In: Organisationspedagogik: en introduktion / [ed] Otto Granberg och Jon Ohlsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 51-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här presenteras en liten del av en större studie där en forskargrupp tog sig an frågor om organisering och lärande i arbetsvardagen. Den studerade organisationen är en bank med stark tradition av att arbeta decentraliserat och lägga viktiga beslut nära kunden, det vill säga hos vanliga rådgivare till privatpersoner eller företag, och långt från huvudkontoret. En bank där mycket förändrats och förändras i fråga om teknik, kundkrav, produkter och marknad; samtidigt en ovanlig organisation där stabilitet och kontinuitet varit ledstjärnor i tider då täta omorganisationer ägt rum i arbetslivet. Den fråga som här ges organisations­pedagogisk belysning gäller medarbetarnas syn på sina möjligheter att hitta information och kunskap i vardagsarbetet på fyra bankkontor. Det handlar om interaktion och om kompetens­bärande relationer. Kapitlet är i huvudsak uppbyggt som en redovisning av en vetenskaplig studie och utgör ett exempel på organisationspedagogisk forskning.

  • 9.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning at work2009In: OSH for development: occupational safety and health for development / [ed] Elgstrand, K & Petersson, N, Stockholm: Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology , 2009, p. 475-486Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What knowledge on learning qualifies for presentation and reflection in the context of a book dealing with prevention and in a chapter where develop­ment of work and enterprises are as well in focus? For managers and leaders as well as for workers in thriving companies it is useful to have at least some basic insights into the processes and conditions of experiential learning. An ongoing competence development and learning within the enterprise has turned out to be of competitive advantage. This chapter aims at reflecting learning issues from an angle of use for practice – especially the kind of practice in focus of this book where we place ourselves at the junction between healthy workplaces as the result of competent preven­tion, and prosperous company development. After having reflected the fact that we are all learners all the time the following points will be treated:

    • The quality and usefulness of what is learnt
    • Some basic learning principles
    • Collective and organisational learning

    Several are the attempts to deal with everyday learning theoretically. Ex­planations have been offered on how learning comes about when learning is not in focus of the activity. From different angles re­searchers have entered the scene and made sense of what is going on that comes out in increased skill, competence and know-how at a certain work­place. In common during the last two decades has been a growing interest in the learning processes of everyday working life as opposed to didactical concerns in education and courses. Also the interest for learning levels above the individual, i.e. collective learning like organisa­tional and team learning has increased. Furthermore these interests are widely shared with practitioners like managers of successful companies and other organisa­tions. To learn briefly means to change and develop one’s con­ception and understanding of something, and is in this chapter thought of as a process. Competence is regarded as a task related capability to make use of knowledge in acting.

  • 10.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organising leadership differently2010In: The 9th International Studying Leadership Conference. Proceedings: Leadership: Missions, Myths and Mysteries, Lund: The School of Economics and Management, Lund University , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is for the most part thought of as important for how organisations perform in terms of quality and effectiveness. This paper argues that leadership is organised and thought of in a number of different ways, and that the way leadership is organised has potential to make a difference. The basic form for organising leadership is to appoint one manager to one managerial position. However, such a position can be organised differently if leadership is seen as distributed among two or three people sharing the position on full time basis. Such shared leadership among managers is a scarcity in both organisational and leadership literature. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by introducing three empirically based perspectives elucidating the phenomenon of sharing managers and what constitutes such leadership: the organisation structural perspective, the task perspective, and the experience perspective. In essence shared leadership among managers entails close cooperation, the sharing of work tasks, and joint responsibility. The most far-reaching form is the joint leadership. Sharing the managerial position is not uncommon in Swedish working life, and can make a difference to organisational performance, influences power relations in unexpected ways, and enhances managers learning. The conclusion is that this alternative way of organising leadership is of value for organisations and an option to offer to managers. This indicates that general leadership arguments ought to take the issue of how leadership is organised into consideration.

  • 11.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Together as one: shared leadership between managers2015In: International Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 1833-3850, E-ISSN 1833-8119, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the current paper is the formally shared leadership between managers. Position-sharing within pairsof managers demonstrates an alternative way of organising leadership within a managerial position. This paperaims to contribute knowledge about how to understand the phenomenon of formally shared leadership betweenmanagers, and to suggest concepts for its different forms. In the research literature, a range of different terms isused and it is difficult to see how or when this variation in labels is useful. Shared leadership between managersis here studied in relation to three perspectives: organisational structure, managers’ experiences, and tasks andresponsibilities. Future research has several questions left to answer in order to further understand the relativelywidespread but under-researched issue of shared leadership between managers.

  • 12.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backström, Tomas
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Isolated cases or widespread practice?: The occurrence of sharing managers in Swedish working life2012In: Economics and Business Letters, ISSN 2254-4380, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In investigating whether shared leadership can be tracked on a work-life level, this study aims to contribute knowledge about how common shared leadership is among managers in Sweden. A search was made for equal assumption of responsibilities and, specifically, for joint leadership, i.e. a formal mandate for decision-making affecting the full range of responsibilities attaching to the managerial post. The results show that shared leadership is tracked on a work-life level, and that the most far-reaching form joint leadership was found among 5 % of the managers. Thus, the phenomenon cannot be ignored as anecdotal. This adds relevance to influencing perceptions of leadership towards more pluralism, in which questions of leadership naturally incorporate more interactive variations than does the hitherto accepted theory of singular leadership. 

  • 13.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fåhraeus, Eva
    Alvemark, Karin
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Competent Web Dialogues: Text-Based Linking of Thoughts2009In: Information Communication Technologies for Enhanced Education and Learning: Advanced Applications and Developments, Hershey, USA: IGI-Global , 2009, p. 219-233Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting a dialogue on the Web is a matter of linking thoughts in digital conversations. Dialogue differs from discussion by not being aimed at beating or convincing other participants in the conversation. The present chapter highlights group dialogues as conversations in which people learn with and from each other. Learning dialogues have the potential of developing the learners’ capacities for critical thinking and complex problem solving. The model of dialogue competence is suggested in order to improve the linking of thoughts in web dialogues. The chapter concludes with considerations when developing dialogue-based communication forms for learning purposes and contributes to teachers’ demand for more support in pedagogic and educational issues.

  • 14.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hanson, Marika
    Backström, Tomas
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hemborg, Åsa
    Delat ledarskap i svenskt arbetsliv – kartläggning av förekomst och chefers inställning2005Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Backström, Tomas
    Att synliggöra samarbete: bilder och begrepp för förändring2015In: Skolledning: scener från den organiserande vardagen / [ed] Jan Löwstedt, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 149-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel presenteras begrepp och bilder som är användbara för att bättre förstå och lyckas med förändring. Det många sätt att arbeta med förändring av organisationer liksom en rad myter om hur förändringsarbete bör genomföras, inte minst i skolsammanhang. Den bärande tanken med de begrepp och bilder som presenteras här är att de har potential att understödja förändring av vardagssamarbetet. Det handlar om tillfällen då man önskar förändra samarbetsprocesser i riktning mot något som lokalt ses som önskvärt. Det man ser kan man tala om och kvalificerade tankar och samtal bygger i detta sammanhang på att kunna använda ord som benämner hur människor lär i arbete. Kapitlets syfte är att exemplifiera hur arbetsintegrerade relationer mellan människor i organisationer kan synliggöras och förstås, samt att diskutera bilders potentiella bidrag och användbarhet vid förändring. Utgångspunkt tas i ett forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt (FoU) som utforskat visualiseringar som verktyg i uppgiftsbaserad utveckling i organisationer med begreppet relationik som bas. Arbetet med att leda och organisera för lärande och kompetensbärande relationer kallar vi lärorienterat ledarskap.

  • 16.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backström, Tomas
    Images and the understanding of organisational change: Visualising work-integrated competence flows between people2013In: WORK - Continuities and Disruptions in Modern Life 21 - 23 August 2013, Turku, Finland: Abstracts, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines organisation images where there is a need to understand the facilitation of change, and focuses on the space where learning and emergence in organisations meet with the design of organisations. It is based on the assumption that people, including managers and other agents of change, act and make decisions according to their own conceptions. Intended change and development in organisations are as necessary as they are challenging. Shortfalls are common and failure is frequently the outcome. The aim here is to explore how work-integrated relations may be visualised, and to discuss qualities of three different types of organisation images in terms of their potential contribution to understanding intended change. In addition to the usual organisational chart the visualisations organisation as circle and task as network are displayed and discussed.

  • 17.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige.
    Backström, Tomas
    Organisationsbilder och förståelse vid förändring – visualisering av arbetsintegrerade relationer2014In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilder har inverkan på hur människor förstår arbete och förändring i sin organisation. Att synliggöra arbetsintegrerade relationer som bär kompetens framstår som angeläget för förändringsförmåga och är avsikten med att presentera de organisationsbilder som denna artikel handlar om. I tillägg till det klassiska organisationsdiagrammet presenterar och undersöker vi två andra bilder: organisation som cirkel och uppgift som nätverk.

  • 18.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter E.
    Backström, Tomas
    Making people’s work-Integrated relations visible: useable organisational images for managerial enabling of change2015In: International Yearbook of Adult Education: Theory, Methods, Empirical Findings / [ed] Michael Schemmann, Köln: Böhlau, 2015, p. 89-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the potential contribution of organisation images where there is a need to understand and lead change. It is theoretically based on the dual assumption that leaders and co-workers learn when carrying out their work tasks, and that they act and make decisions according to their own conceptions. Intended change and development in organisations are as necessary as they are challenging. The paper aims to advance the idea of understanding organisational images as potential practical and pedagogical tools for informal change. Therefore, the paper discusses qualities of different types of organisation images in terms of their potential contribution to intended informal change, and how these images may provide support in the leading and organising of learning and development in organisations. In addition to the usual organisational chart, the visualisations ‘organisational circle’ and ‘task network’ are displayed and discussed and suggested to aid the asking of new questions, which may qualify the understanding of organisational change.

  • 19.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Beyond being present: learning-oriented leadership in the daily work of middle managers2015In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 408-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In their daily work, managers influence the organisation’s learning conditions in ways that go beyond face-to-face interaction. Neither the influencer nor those influenced are necessarily aware that they are engaged in learning processes. This paper contributes to the understanding of learning-oriented leadership as being integrated in managers’ daily work. The particular focus is on managers’ efforts to change how work is carried out through indirect acts of influence.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research was part of a larger case study. The data set comprised interviews with nine middle managers about ways of working during a period of organisational change. A learning-theoretical analysis model was used to categorise managerial acts of influence. The key concept concerned pedagogic interventions.

    Findings – Two qualitatively different routes for indirect influence were identified concerning social and organisational structures: one aligning, that narrows organisational members’ discretion, and one freeing, that widens discretion. Alignment is built on fixed views of objectives and on control of their interpretation. The freeing of structures is built on confidence in emerging competence and involvement of others.

    Research limitations/implications – The study was limited to managers’ descriptions in a specific context. An issue for future research is to see whether the identified categories of learning-oriented leadership are found in other organisations.

    Practical implications – The learning-oriented leadership categories cover a repertoire of acts of influence that create different learning conditions. These may be significant for the creation of a learning-conducive environment.

    Originality/value – The study contributes an alternative way of thinking about how work conditions are influenced that impact on learning in organisations. Managerial work that creates conducive conditions for learning doesn't need to be a specific task. Learning-oriented elements are inherent in aspects of managerial work and managers’ daily tasks can be understood as expressions of different kinds of pedagogic intervention.

  • 20.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organizational learning as an analogy to individual learning? A case of augmented interaction intensity2015In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to explore an analogy between individual and organizational learning within experiential learning theory (ELT). The focus is on both the possibility of identifying a learning subject that learns in action, and on the genesis process behind the learning of a suggested learning subject at organizational level. The exploration uses an empirical study of a global software communication organization. The research adopts a qualitative approach, with data from three middle-management layers of a research and development (R&D) unit with 5,000 employees. During the study, shifts of emphasis occurred between two organizational logics, which required work-integrated learning. Metaphorically speaking, the organization was portrayed as ‘teeming with interaction’, and a growing wave of change decisively altered both the thinking and work processes within the organization. The organizational learning process is theoretically understood as an ‘augmented intense interaction’ around a specific content. The subject that learns and upholds the outcome is suggested to be the teeming activity, comprehended as a living organism. In practice, the awareness of an organization as a body that teems with interaction has potential to offer new understanding about how to manage change.

  • 21.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organizational learning as waves of remaking a teeming activity: A middle managers' construction and breaking of structures2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which organizations compete include abilities to develop competence, ways of working, and leadership. Issues of organizational learning (OL) come to the forefront. This paper aims to develop new conceptual understanding of OL. The study departs from and fills a gap in the theory of experiential learning within which a claim is made for analytical generalization. From an organizational pedagogical stance, organizational learning is reflected as waves of remaking a teeming activity. Ripples in the ongoing teeming activity are seen as foreboding signs of the wave to come. In conclusion, the contribution concerns the recognition of the teeming activity as being the learning entity where the OL process and its resulting content are situated.

  • 22.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Pär
    Den kompetenta arbetsplatsen: Forskning om kompetens i arbetsplatsens relationer. Programkatalog2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lena, Wilhelmson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning-orientated leadership: Actionable knowledge when looking outside the school setting2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s organisations learning and competence issues have entered both the task responsibilities of managers and the strategic level agendas. Sandberg and Targama (2007) identify such priorities in management practice and a need for managers to develop a “more important pedagogical role” (p 9). There is an increasing amount of evidence of the importance of workplace learning for organisational performance and success (Cedefop 2011). The interest in forwarding work-integrated learning is based on the fact that adequate competence is a side effect of learning processes that occur whilst carrying out work tasks (Billett 2004; Döös 2007).

    In Swedish school settings the concept of pedagogic leadership has a lengthy story and is described as tenacious political rhetoric lacking scientific ground (Nestor 2006). In times when leadership transition is asked for, we argue the fruitfulness of going outside the school context to find actionable knowledge in other sectors of working life. Especially as pedagogical leadership in school contexts seems contaminated with pedagogy being the core activity of a school organisation.

    By presenting an empirical study from the software communication industry we introduce learning-orientated leadership as an alternative concept to pedagogical leadership. The aim is to contribute knowledge about learning-orientated leadership as part of managers’ everyday work and to discuss this knowledge as relevant to the educational leadership in the school sector. Learning-orientated-leadership is defined as a task that intervenes into learning processes integrated in the carrying out of an organisations’ main tasks (Döös et al. 2013; Wilhelmson et al. 2013).

    Two theoretical strands are used: theory on work-integrated learning and on learning-orientated leadership. Work-integrated learning is closely connected to the development of skills and competence (Ellström 2001), and a key part of organisations’ performance. Such learning has the potential to enable people to individually and jointly carry out tasks in adequate ways in relation to intentions and goals. This theoretical lens opens up for identifying everyday learning processes that are intervened into, and to focus an aspect of managers’ everyday leadership actions as a learning-orientated task.

    Data was collected in semi-structured interviews with nine middle managers belonging to the top management team of a 1200 people R&D unit. In the analysis of managers’ influencing activities, we use a distinction between direct and indirect influence, and a fostering – enabling dimension to identify different qualities of learning orientated-leadership. Managers are found to facilitate work-integrated learning as direct influence of individual co-workers but also indirectly through the organising of work tasks. This knowledge is potentially useful for school principals in relation to their strive to fulfil the national educational goals.

  • 24.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Madestam, Jenny
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Örnberg, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The principle of singularity: A retrospective understanding of losing a collaborative potential through the legislation process behind Sweden’s Education Act2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of a principal’s position by two people on equal footing is described as a way of decreasing an often heavy burden and as favourable to principals and schools. However, when Sweden’s current Education Act (2010:800) became operative in 2011, it wetblanketed the issue of shared principalship. The act states the principle of singularity in that there must be a person with the title of principal in each, so-called, school unit and that this principal must be one. Thereby the collaborative potential of joint principalship (i.e. complete cooperation, where formal hierarchic equality is in place and work tasks are merged) was extinguished. This paper aims to shed light on how and why this prohibition was introduced in the legislative process. The fact that the prohibition of joint principalship came into effect may be understood as a con­sequence of the length, forms of work, extent and political prestige of the legislative process; shared leadership was at most a marginal issue. In the cathedral-building project there was no intent to question traditional ideas about leadership. The important lines of argument concerned lack of trust in the way the municipalities organised their schools. Therefore, there was a wish for increased direct state control by going via the principals as the appointed responsible authority., This, together with the late invented school unit concept had unforeseen effects for the organising of the principal’s position. The principle of singularity ruled and a ban on joint leadership was the consequence – with­out consideration whether this favoured the overarching aim of the law: increased pedagogical re­sponsibility and leadership with a focus on the students’ learning, results and democratic upbringing.

  • 25.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ohlsson, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Granberg, Otto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vad är organisationspedagogik?2011In: Organisationspedagogik : en introduktion / [ed] Otto Granberg och Jon Ohlsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 9-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel ger vi en introduktion till organisationspedagogik. Vi inleder med en beskrivning över pedagogikens utveckling inom arbetslivet och hur organisationspedagogik successivt vuxit fram till att bli en egen forskningsdisciplin. Därefter för vi en diskussion om vad som kännetecknar näraliggande forskningsområden som till exempel organisationssociologi, organisationspsykologi och knowledge management. Vi diskuterar kortfattat hur områdena förhåller sig till varandra. Kapitlet avslutas med ett konkret exempel på en organisationspedagogisk interaktiv ansats med fokus på pedagogiska ingripanden.

  • 26.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ohlsson, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Granberg, Otto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Varför organisationspedagogik?2011In: Organisationspedagogik:  en introduktion / [ed] Otto Granberg och Jon Ohlsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 27-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På frågan ”varför organisationspedagogik?” finns både teoretiskt och praktiskt inriktade svar. Det här kapitlet inleds med en utblick i omvärlden och med att några bilder tecknas av dagens arbetsliv och organisationers omvärld. Det är problematiserande bilder som gäller förutsättningar och krav på organisationer och på människor, och som organisations­pedagogisk forskning kan belysa. Därefter ringar vi i resten av kapitlet in handlingsteoretiska utgångspunkter och begrepp för organisationspedagogiken. Utgångspunkter som kan användas för att analysera organiserandeprocesser i arbetslivet, både inom ramen för forskning och när yrkesverksamma människor, som till exempel chefer, HR-specialister och organisationskonsulter, vill förstå sin samtid och de organiserandeprocesser som äger rum på arbetsplatser.

  • 27.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vinell, Helene
    von Knorring, Mia
    Going beyond "two-getherness": Nurse managers' experiences of working together in a leadership model where more than two share the same chair2017In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 43, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore nurse manager experiences of working in leadership constellations where more than two managers share leadership, and to compare this multilateral sharing form to what is known about experiences of working in joint leadership in pairs.

    Design and setting: A qualitative design based on semi-structured interviews with nurse managers in two multilaterally shared leadership constellations at two intensive care units at an emergency hospital in Sweden. Data were analysed using a thematic and comparative approach.

    Findings: The comparative analysis identified four aspects that differ decisively from the positive picture in the literature on joint pair leadership: the perception of mandate with reduced decision-making power and reduced access to forums, the way of working with a strict division of tasks and a rotating schedule, a need to cope with the increasing number of internal relations and a feeling of doubt concerning trust.

    Conclusion: Shared leadership between nurse managers has gone from being a tight collaboration based on a feeling of “two-getherness”, to being an organisational solution multilateral in character. In this transformation, a weakening of leadership qualities has occurred. Further research is necessary on how this new organisational solution impacts the nurse managers, their staff and the care provided in healthcare organisations generally.

  • 28.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vinell, Helene
    Karolinska sjukhuset.
    von Knorring, Mia
    Multi-shared leadership between nurse managers: Experiences when more than two share the same chair2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of employees in units with the most advanced healthcare has increased to unreasonable sizes for a single manager to handle. New organisational solutions have been looked for and has in recent years resulted in a reorganisation of the nurse manager role so that three to five nurse managers together work in multi-shared leadership constellations. The aim of this paper is to contribute knowledge about multi-shared leadership within healthcare through describing nurse manager experiences of multi-shared leadership in relation to what is previously known about shared leadership in pairs. The issue of shared leadership seems to have gone from being a bottom-up tight cooperation emerging based on a need from the managers themselves, to a top-down initiated solution of an organisational problem. In this transformation there seems to be losses in leadership qualities.

  • 29.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Waldenström, Kerstin
    Chefskap i fokus2008In: Chefskapets former och resultat: Två kunskapsöversikter om arbetsplatsens ledarskap, Vinnova, Stockholm , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Waldenström, Kerstin
    Chefskapets former och resultat: Två kunskapsöversikter om arbetsplatsens ledarskap2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CHEFSKAPETS FORMER OCH RESULTAT lyfter fram befintlig forskning och identifierar kunskapsluckor relevanta för framtida forskning. Rapporten innehåller kunskapsöversikter om två viktiga områden för chefs- och ledarskap. Det ena området är ledarskapets alternativa former. Där berörs hur chefer skapar nya förutsättningar och söker alternativa arbetssätt för sig själva och medarbetare i syfte att nå resultat och leva upp till förväntningar. Det andra området handlar om det goda chefskapet i meningen ett chefskap som är bra för både anställdas hälsa och för verksamhetens resultat och effektivitet.

    Alternativa former av ledarskap är skriven av Tomas Backström, Otto Granberg och Lena Wilhelmson. Författarna går igenom de senaste två decenniernas forskning om alternativa former för chefers ledarskap. Man pekar på att en hel del av det alternativa tänkandet inom ledarskapsområdet, såväl internationellt som i Sverige, handlar om själva relationen mellan ledare och följare (med andra ord mellan chef och medarbetare). Just denna relation är ett exempel där svenskt ledarskap skiljer sig från andra länders och här finns anledning att förtydliga hur och på vad sätt det är fördelaktigt. Flera alternativa ledarskapsformer presenteras.

    Det goda chefskapet är skriven av Anna Nyberg. Författaren går igenom vetenskapliga studier av hur chefskap påverkar effektivitet och hälsa. Dessa studier finner stöd för att chefers ledarskap har samband med anställdas hälsa och med hur arbetsgrupper, enheter och organisationer presterar och fungerar. Översikten pekar på att det finns vissa svagheter i forskningsdesign som bör undvikas i kommande studier för att säkrare kunna dra slutsatser om kausalitet, förstå mekanismer och den tid det tar för effekter av chefskap att utvecklas. Översikten går också igenom studier som undersöker effekten av chefsutbildningar.

  • 31.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att förändra organisatoriska förutsättningar: Erfarenheter av att införa funktionellt delat ledarskap i skola och förskola2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assignment as principal and pre-school manager is extensive and not seldom heavy. This paper contributes knowledge about the experience of a local educational organiser when implementing managerial shared leadership in the form of function-shared leadership (FSL) in schools and pre-schools. The implementation aimed at achieving better results by means of improved pedagogical leadership, better health and use of resources. The study builds on recorded meetings and interviews with the local educational authority’s management group that initiated and organised the new leadership form. Important contributions concern recruitment, equality in practice and the need for a collaborative zone.

  • 32.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Categories of learning-oriented leadership: A potential contribution to the school context2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, no 3, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents knowledge about learning-oriented leadership as part of managers’ daily work. The aim is to contribute findings from an empirical study in the software communication industry, and discuss their potential contribution to leadership in the school context. Through an empirical and learning-theory based analysis of managerial acts of influence, learning-oriented leadership is suggested as an analytical concept. In the educational leadership literature concerning instructional, pedagogic or learner-centred leadership, the interpretation of each concept is shifting and thus unstable. The studying of a non-school empirical context contributes to an analytical separation of the pedagogical leadership task from the pedagogical core task, which may be useful when returning to the school context. The learning-oriented categorisation of managerial acts of influence presents different routes for managers – including school principals – to intervene in their employees’ learning and competence on both individual and collective levels. Here, we offer an alternative suggestion for how to understand what principals do to influence the work in their organisations.

  • 33.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Collective learning: Interaction and a shared action arena2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the ability of an organization to learn and renew competence is as interesting as it is problematic. The aim of the paper  is to examine the genesis processes of collective learning. The theoretical contribution deals with the detection of variations in collective learning in different action contexts when moving from face-to-face learning within local teams, to networking across both internal and external organizational borders. The empirical foundation is derived from a case study of new product development in the telecom industry. Conclusions concern how collective learning can be comprehended in distributed and changing contexts and points at the importance of a shared action arena.

  • 34.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Collective learning: Interaction and a shared action arena2011In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 487-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The paper argues for a theoretical contribution that deals with the detection of collective learning. The aim is to examine and clarify the genesis processes of collective learning. The empirical basis is a telecom context with task-driven networking across both internal and external organizational borders.

    Methodology/approach: The research draws upon an integration of organizational learning theory and a relational and contextual branch of experiential learning theory framed as organizational pedagogy. A case study of R&D work serves as the empirical foundation. Four teams were studied through interviews, focus groups, and observations. Data were analyzed in interplay between empirical findings and theoretical concepts.

    Findings: Collective learning does not only occur within the boundaries of well-defined groups where previously identified. Characterized by distributed work processes and rapid changes in the telecom context, collective learning is associated with individual distribution of tasks, insufficiency as a foundation, a question-and-answer space, and the imprints of others in a shared action arena.

    Research limitations/implications: Conclusions concern how collective learning can be comprehended. The paper points to the importance of interaction and a shared action arena. The way in which knowledge develops is, to some extent, context-dependent. This indicates that the characteristics of the shared action arena vary.

    Practical implications: Differentiating learning processes have a practical significance for organizations wanting to focus upon competence issues.

    Originality/value: This study identified the importance for collective learning of the presence of a shared action arena. The theoretical contribution fills a gap in the understanding of how collective learning arises when moving from face-to-face learning within local teams, to networking across both internal and external organizational borders. This contributes to the understanding of how the learning of individuals links with the learning of an organization.

  • 35.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Delat ledarskap – en trend i vardande?2003In: Ute och inne i svenskt arbetsliv – forskare analyserar och spekulerar om trender i framtidens arbete, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2003, p. 323-344Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Distans och närhet. Om intersubjektiv dataanalys i forskarlag2007In: Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 135-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    In search of the high road: companies' efforts to organise for competitiveness2009In: Organising work for innovation and growth: experiences and efforts in ten companies. / [ed] Marianne Döös & Lena Wilhelmson, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kollektivt lärande: om betydelsen av interaktion i handling och gemensam handlingsarena2005In: Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärorienterat ledarskap: om chefsarbete som pedagogiska ingripanden2016In: Kollektivt lärande: - i arbetslivet / [ed] Otto Granberg och Jan Ohlsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 123-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet presenterar en del av en större studie angående lärande över intra-organisatoriska gränser. I studien utvecklades tankar om organisatoriskt lärande i vardagens myller av interaktioner och rela­tioner samt om hur vågor av förändring sveper igenom och sätter ny färg på myllrandet. I såväl var­dagsmyller som förändringsvågor identifierade vi ett lärorienterat ledarskap som påverkar bland annat riktning och styrka. I den studerade organisationen, här kallad Ypsilon, arbetar cirka 5000 per­soner och verksamhetsuppgiften är att utveckla mjukvara för kommunikationssystem. Utveckling av mjukvara går där hand i hand med utveckling av ledarskap och arbetssätt för att verksamheten ska vara konkurrenskraftig. I detta kapitel ges orga­nisationspedagogisk belysning avseende mellan­chefers tankar och handlingar när de som en del i sitt vardagsarbete avsiktligt försöker påverka och därigenom förändra, såväl människors tanke- och arbetssätt som organisationens strukturer.

  • 40.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organising work for innovation and growth: Experiences and efforts in ten companies2009Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Phases of proximity and distance: Intersubjective data analysis in a research team2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as its starting point difficulties associated with data analysis in qualitative studies. Its aim is to bring about a development of method by describing and discussing the analysis of qualitative data as an intensified research team activity. It addresses how research design and qualitative analytical method can be used by a research team so that empirical data are given the possibility of making a difference within a certain theoretical perspective. Phases and active ingredients are discussed in a methodical approach characterised by intersubjective data analysis integrated with data collection, by a shared meaning context, the use of footnotes, question marks and metaphors. Well-organised teamwork provides an opportunity for depth, elevation of quality and concentrated time use. Intradisciplinary research teams, however, should consider the risk of groupthink and critically scrutinise their analytical work in this respect.

  • 42.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Proximity and distance: phases of intersubjective qualitative data analysis in a research team2014In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 1089-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In qualitative field studies, researchers frequently deal with comprehending a multifaceted reality. Large quantities of data are collected for analysis at a later stage. Alternation between proximity and distance is a crucial mechanism in the analysis of qualitative data. This article’s aim is to make intersubjective analysis of qualitative data comprehensible through the investigation and description of phases and key components in a case of productive team co-operation. The argument is methodological, and addresses how empirical data can make a difference within a certain theoretical framework in analytical generalisation. Experiences from a case of intersubjective analysis work between four researchers are described and made sense of. Phases and key components are discussed. Close co-operation of a research team is suggested as a possibility in qualitative fieldwork and analysis. It is concluded that: (a) the idea of collectivity has hitherto been an underdeveloped possibility for qualitative research; (b) purposely intertwining data collection with analysis can be a powerful route for gaining reliable qualitative research; and (c) data analysis as close teamwork is promising as a means of keeping an openness to discoveries, thus gaining validity in the qualitative research endeavour. Coordinating with others in concentrated teamwork may defend the analytical task against other demands an academic post entails. 

  • 43.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Två på chefsstolen - om delat ledarskap2004In: Chefer & Ledare i vården, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utveckling över vuxenlivet2004In: Lärprocesser i högre utbildning, Stockholm: Liber , 2004, p. 92-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Work Processes of Shared Leadership2003In: The British Academy of Management Annual Conference, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backlund, Thomas
    Kollektivt lärande på individualistiskt vis – ett lärdilemma för praktik och teori2001In: Lärdilemman i arbetslivet, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2001, p. 43-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backlund, Thomas
    Dixon, Nancy
    Functioning at the Edge of Knowledge – a Study of Learning Processes in New Product Development2004In: The Workplace Learning from the Learner´s Perspective Conference, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backlund, Thomas
    Dixon, Nancy
    Functioning at the Edge of Knowledge: A Study of Learning Processes in New Product Development2005In: Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 481-492Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Delat ledarskap: om chefer i samarbete2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mycket av det man tar för givet kan ses med andra ögon. Det gäller inte minst frågor kring ledarskap där det finns många förutfattade meningar och fördomar. Ledarskap vilar i dagens organisationer på en föreställning om att en chefsposition bör tillsättas med en enda ansvarig person. Den föreställningen bygger på tron att ledarskap som utförs av en enda person också är ett välfungerande och ansvarstagande ledarskap. Men i arbetslivet är det tvärtom allmänt känt att ledarskap ofta inte leder till önskat resultat och att chefers utövande av ledarskap är förknippat med en rad svårigheter.

    Delat ledarskap är ett exempel på att ledarskap kan organiseras annorlunda, mer kollektivt. Med delat ledarskap avses ett ledarskap som är kollektivt genom att det utövas av två eller flera personer tillsammans, i uppdelad eller gemensam form.

    Samledarskap är en av flera olika former av delat ledarskap och bygger på andra principer än tanken om att som singelchef delegera uppgifter. I samledarskap gäller likställdhet i organisationshierarkin, gemensamt ansvar och gemensamma arbetsuppgifter, såväl formellt som i praktiken. Det innebär att två chefer innehar chefsuppdraget tillsammans och samleder sin enhet.

    När chefer utvecklar ett välfungerande samledarskap kan de både hantera svårigheter och utveckla verksamheter på sätt som de menar att de inte kunde göra som singelchefer. Utifrån teori om erfarenhetslärande är detta förklarligt. När arbetsuppgifter och ansvar är gemensamma finns förutsättningar för utveckling av gemensam förståelse och gemensam kompetens, kompetensbärande relationer byggs. Samledarskapets interna samarbetsprocesser har såväl nödvändig interaktion som friktion inbyggd i sig vilket visat sig främja chefernas egen utveckling och bidra till verksamhetsutveckling.

    Det är rätt vanligt att tro att delat ledarskap är antingen bra eller dåligt, i sig självt. Inget kan vara mer fel. Som med de flesta saker som vi människor gör så beror bra eller dåligt på hur det utövas och görs.

    Kunskap om kollektiva former av ledarskap finns alltså, men har av olika skäl svårighet att få fäste på bred front. Ändå skulle man kunna säga att fenomenet finns lite varstans, det vill säga i organisationer där chefer går in i tätare samarbeten än vad som är brukligt att uppmärksamma. Att bara en person antas bära chefens ledarskap döljer då den verkliga karaktären av hur samarbetet sker.

  • 50.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hemborg, Åsa
    Delat ledarskap som möjlighet2003In: Förnyelse på svenska arbetsplatser: Balansakter och utvecklingsdynamik, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2003, p. 182-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
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