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  • 1. Albertini, Marco
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy.
    Moving back to “mamma”? Divorce, intergenerational coresidence, and latent family solidarity in Sweden2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most obvious consequences of divorce is the moving out of one or both ex‐partners from the formerly common household. Here we focus on a particular postdivorce residential move, the return to the parental home in Sweden, where intergenerational coresidence is uncommon. We ask whether family dissolution increases the likelihood of intergenerational coresidence among separated/divorced individuals who have at least 1 child below age 18. Furthermore, we ask whether the strength of the effect depends on socio‐economic and geographical factors. Our analysis of 670,777 individuals from Swedish population register data shows that even if living with parents is, in absolute terms, not a common intergenerational support strategy, its likelihood increases considerably after a family dissolution. This event increases the probability of living with one's parents especially among men, those with low incomes, and those who live close to their parent(s). We discuss the implications of our findings for the literature on patterns of intergenerational support across Europe.

  • 2.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 3.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 4.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 795-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood is a major cause. As long as women and men are childless and single, the gender gap in supervisory authority is marginal, even reversed. When men become fathers, however, they strongly increase their chances for supervisory authority whereas women's chances remain unaffected when they become mothers. We also find a male "marriage premium" on workplace authority, but this premium is generated by selection.

  • 5.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner – en familjeangelägenhet?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner - en familjeangelägenhet?2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The gender gap in workplace authority in Sweden 1968–2000 – a family affair?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We assess whether the gender gap in authority in Sweden has changed during the period 1968–2000, and investigate to what extent family factors are respon-sible for this gap. We find that the gap has narrowed modestly during this period, and identify the life-event of parenthood as a major cause of the gap. When men become fathers, they gain authority; when women become mothers, they do not. Our fixed effects panel estimates of the effects of family factors deviate from the cross-sectional estimates, suggesting that unobserved individ-ual heterogeneity – routinely neglected in this line of research – matters.

  • 8.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Gender Gap in Workplace Authority in Sweden 1968-2000 - A Family Affair?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9. Cooke, Lynn Prince
    et al.
    Erola, Jani
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hewitt, Belinda
    Jolovaara, Marika
    Kan, Man-Yee
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Mencarini, Letizia
    Mignot, Jean-Francois
    Mortelmans, Dimitri
    Poortman, Anne-Rigt
    Schmitt, Christian
    Trappe, Heike
    Labor and Love: Wives' Employment and Divorce Risk in its Socio-Political Context2013In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 482-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize how social policy affects marital stability vis-à-vis macro and micro effects of wives' employment on divorce risk in 11 Western countries. Correlations among 1990s aggregate data on marriage, divorce, and wives' employment rates, along with attitudinal and social policy information, seem to support specialization hypotheses that divorce rates are higher where more wives are employed and where policies support that employment. This is an ecological fallacy, however, because of the nature of the changes in specific countries. At the micro level, we harmonize national longitudinal data on the most recent       cohort of wives marrying for the first time and find that the stabilizing effects of a gendered division of labor have ebbed.  In the United States with its lack of policy support, a wife's employment still significantly increases the risk of divorce. A wife's employment has no significant effect on divorce risk in Australia, Flanders, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In Finland, Norway, and Sweden, wives' employment predicts a significantly lower risk of divorce when compared with wives who are out of the labor force. The results indicate that greater policy support for equality reduces and may even reverse the relative divorce risk associated with a wife's employment.

  • 10. Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vad hände med 1990-talets stora förlorargrupper? Välfärd och ofärd under 2000-talet2007In: Socialvetenskaplig Tidskrift, Vol. 14, no 2-3, p. 110-133Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11. Fritzell, Sara C.
    et al.
    Gähler, H. Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Structure, Child Living Arrangement and Mothers’ Self-rated Health in Sweden — A Cross-Sectional Study2017In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 298-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternate living, i.e. children living 50-50 with their parents following separation is emerging as a new family form. This study is the first to differentiate separated mothers with sole/main custody from mothers with alternately living children, analysing health outcomes and using a sample representative of the population. The association between the self-rated health (SRH) of mothers and different family structures are examined. Parental cooperation is included in the analyses as a potential mediator. Data on 755 mothers from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Single mothers with sole/main custody reported poorer SRH than couple mothers in intact families while the difference was not significant for single mothers with children living alternately and mothers in stepfamilies. Controlling for potential confounders, probabilities for poor SRH for single mothers were reduced. The excess risk among mothers with sole/main custody may be due to poorer socioeconomic conditions. Employment was significantly more common among mothers with alternate living and an important explanatory factor for their better health compared to single mothers with sole/main custody. Adjusting for parental cooperation lowered the increased probability for poor SRH among single mothers with sole/main custody compared to single mothers with alternate living.

  • 12.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental divorce during childhood in Sweden: Changed experience, unchanged effect2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Garriga, Anna
    Has the association between parental divorce and young adults’ psychological problems changed over time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-20002013In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 784-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from two waves of the Swedish Level of Living Survey, conducted in 1968 and 2000, to analyze whether the association between parental divorce and psychological adjustment in 19- to 34-year-olds (i.e., born during 1934-1949 and 1966-1981) has changed between the two survey years. Results indicate a weakening association over time, but the change does not reach statistical significance. A reason for the persisting link seems to be that parental divorce is still associated with economic hardship and, above all, family dissensions, two conditions that in turn are strongly associated with psychological problems in children.

  • 14.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hong, Y.
    Bernhardt, E.
    Parental divorce and union disruption among young adults in Sweden2009In: Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 688-713Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Intergenerational transmission of divorce: the swedish trend2014Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    D5.2. Cohort trends in effects of family dynamics on children’s life chances2014Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ett sekel av förändrade uppväxtförhållanden. Familj, boende och socioekonomiska förutsättningar under barndomen2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 52-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental divorce, psychological well-being and educational attainment: changed experience, unchanged effect among Swedes born 1892-19912015In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 601-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century, the proportion of children and adolescents who have experienced a parental divorce or separation has increased dramatically, in Sweden and elsewhere. Vast research has shown that children in these families fare less well than children in intact families, both in the short and in the long run and on a number of outcomes. Much less is known about whether parental divorce means the same for children and adolescents today as it did a century ago. Have living conditions changed and, if so, how? Moreover, has the association between parental divorce and child well-being changed in magnitude over time? To answer these questions six waves of the Swedish Level of Living Survey were used. The data set contains indicators on childhood living conditions for an entire century of Swedes, born 1892–1991. We show that living conditions for children of divorce have indeed changed on a number of dimensions but there is no evidence of magnitude change in the association between parental divorce/separation and two child outcomes, psychological well-being and educational attainment.

  • 19.
    Gähler, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palmtag, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Skilda föräldrar, skilda liv? Familjeförhållanden som barn och levnadsförhållanden som vuxen2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Oláh, Livia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gender equality perceptions, division of paid and unpaid work, and partnership dissolution in Sweden2014In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 571-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in female employment and the decrease in gender labor specialization, there has also been a marked change in gender role attitudes. An increasing proportion of women and men has come to prefer gender egalitarianism. Yet a marked gender division of labor persists. Here, we study the interplay between individual gender role attitudes and behavior in terms of sharing paid and unpaid work with one’s partner, and implications for partnership stability. We focus on Sweden, a country with long experience of the dual-earner model and policies supporting female labor-force participation while also promoting men’s active engagement in family tasks. We test two hypotheses: first, that gender egalitarianism in attitudes and behavior per se strengthens partnership stability (the gender egalitarian model) and second, that consistency in individual attitudes and couple behavior, whether egalitarian or traditional, strengthens partnership stability (the attitude-behavior consistency model). We use data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS) conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2009. We find no difference in dissolution risk between the consistent egalitarian and the consistent traditional individuals, and both categories exhibit lower dissolution risks than individuals holding gender egalitarian views but dividing workload with their spouse/partner in a gender-traditional way. These results speak in favor of the attitude-behavior consistency model of marriage.

  • 21.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gender Equality Perceptions, Division of Paid and Unpaid Work, and Partnership Dissolution in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
  • 22. Tosi, Marco
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nest-leaving, childhood family climate and later parent–child contact in Sweden2016In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 249-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we ask whether the time spent in the parental home promotes the frequency of contacts between generations, and whether violating social norms regarding the socially accepted time for leaving home is related to less frequent interactions with parents in later life. We also devote particular attention to union dissolution and family conflict during childhood and adolescence as possible mechanisms behind this relationship. Employing multilevel linear probability models, data from two waves of the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000 and 2010) are used to analyze earlier family history and face-to-face contacts between parents and their adult children. The findings reveal that the duration of co-residence is likely to foster family interactions in later life, and this positive relationship is only marginally explained by childhood family experiences. However, late home leavers tend to maintain frequent contacts with parents in part owing to having moved shorter geographical distances, and this is more evident for adult daughters than for sons. In addition, adult daughters who stay at home for longer have more opportunities to form binding relationships with mothers than with fathers.

  • 23.
    Tärnfalk, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    COUNSELLING OCH JURIDIK I SOCIALT ARBETE:  ETT ERFARENHETSBASERAT PERSPEKTIV2010In: Counselling: STÖDSAMTAL I SOCIALT ARBETE / [ed] Sam Larsson, Sven Trygged, Stockholm: Gothia , 2010, 1:a, p. 151-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Van der Heijden, Franciëlla
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Are Parents with Shared Residence Happier ? Children’s Post-divorce Residence Arrangements and Parents’ Life Satisfaction2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether shared residence parents experience higher life satisfaction than sole and non-resident parents, and whether frequent visitation is similarly related to parents’ life satisfaction as shared residence. Regression analyses on data from 4,175 recently divorced parents show that shared residence parents report higher life satisfaction than other, particularly non-resident, parents, but that this relationship can largely be explained by benefits and opportunity costs of parenthood. Shared residence fathers enjoy a better relationship with their child and their ex-partner and are more engaged in leisure activities than nonresident fathers. Shared residence mothers are more involved in leisure activities, employment, and romantic relationships than sole resident mothers. These differences contribute to the shared residence parents’ higher life satisfaction. Frequent interaction between the non-resident father and the child could partly, but not completely, substitute for shared residence, increasing both non-resident fathers’ and sole mothers’ life satisfaction.

1 - 24 of 24
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