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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012In: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 2.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    A Multiscalar Approach for Identifying Clusters and Segregation Patterns That Avoids the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem2017In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 555-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem encountered in analyses based on data aggregated into areal units is that the results can depend on the delineation of the areal units. Therefore, a particular aggregation at a specific scale can yield an arbitrary result that is valid only for that specific delineation. This problem is called the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), and it has previously been shown to create issues in analyses of clusters and segregation patterns. Many analyses of segregation and clustering use the ratio or difference between a value for an areal unit and the corresponding value for a larger area of reference. We argue that the results of such an analysis can also be rendered arbitrary if one does not examine the effects of varying the geographical extent of the area of reference to test whether the analysis results are valid for more than a specific areal delineation. We call this the part of the MAUP that is related to the area of reference. In this article, we present and demonstrate a multiscalar approach for studying segregation and clustering that avoids the MAUP, including the part of the problem related to the area of reference. The proposed methods rely on multiscalar aggregation of the k nearest neighbors of a location in a statistical comparison with a larger area of reference consisting of the K nearest neighbors. The methods are exemplified by identifying clusters and segregation patterns of the Hispanic population in the contiguous United States.

  • 3.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990–20122018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geocoded individual-level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 409,600 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries, face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that already have high proportions of non-European migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if segregation is measured as differences in the neighbourhood concentration of migrants, segregation has increased.

  • 4.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990-20122016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geo-coded individual level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 400,000 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that have high proportions of nonEuropean migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if unevenness is measured as variation in the neighbourhood proportion of migrants across neighbourhoods, segregation has increased.

  • 5.
    Meinild Nielsen, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Segregation of Residents with Tertiary Education in Sweden from 1990 to 20122019In: Professional Geographer, ISSN 0033-0124, E-ISSN 1467-9272, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people with tertiary education in Sweden, partly due to the governmental policy of making higher education more geographically available. In this study, we analyze how educational expansion and the governmental policy of offering tertiary education outside of old academic centers affected segregation patterns in 2012 compared to 1990. We analyze the spatial distribution of those with tertiary education using neighborhoods based on k-nearest neighbors and measure the segregation of residents with tertiary education using a multiscalar method. Additionally, we compare local labor market regions that include old, new, or no institutions of higher education. The results show an overall higher share of tertiary-educated people age twenty-five to sixty-four in all parts of Sweden in 2012 and a decrease in the levels of population-weighted mean segregation at all geographical scales. Segregation was mostly introduced on the city or city district level (for larger cities) and regional level rather than the neighborhood level. Segregation also decreased in all three types of labor market regions. The segregation patterns remained similar between 2012 and 1990, however, and a higher share of the population lived in segregated areas in 2012 compared to that in 1990.

  • 6.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Migrant neighborhoods in Sweden: Classification of locations based on the proportion of European, non-European, and total migrants in neighbourhoods encompassing the nearest 200 to 409,600 neighbours, 1990-20122018Other (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    MAUPing Workplace Clusters2014In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 211-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is seldom accounted for in economic geography cluster studies. This issue is particularly problematic as clusters play such a central role in regional development policy. In this study, we tested for the appearance of the MAUP when examining workplace category clusters over three different administrative scales in Stockholm County, Sweden. The measures used were the standardised ratio, global autocorrelation, and local autocorrelation. We discovered not only that the appearance of clusters depended on the administrative unit scale but also that the location of the clusters, based on the local indicator of spatial association, fluctuated wildly over the various administrative scales. Thus, our conclusion was that the robustness and validity of workplace category clusters should always be challenged if the MAUP has not been taken into account, or at least tested for.

  • 8.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Extraction of urban areas with different functions and underlying planning theories and practices using Window Independent Context SegmentationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Inferring Land Use from Remote Sensing Imagery: A context-based approach2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis investigates the potential of classification methods based on spatial context to infer specific forms of land use from remote sensing data. The problem is that some types of land use are characterized by a complex configuration of land covers that traditional per-pixel based methods have problems classifying due to spectral heterogeneity. The problem of spectral heterogeneity is also present in classification of high resolution imagery. Two novel methods based on contextual information are evaluated, Spatial Relational Post-Classification (SRPC) and Window Independent Context Segmentation (WICS). The thesis includes six case studies in rural and urban areas focusing on the classification of: agricultural systems, urban characteristics, and dead wood areas. In the rural case studies specific types of agricultural systems associated with different household strategies are mapped by inferring the physical expression of land use using the SRPC method. The urban remote sensing studies demonstrate how the WICS method is able to extract information corresponding to different phases of development. Additionally, different urban classes are shown to correspond to different socioeconomic profiles, demonstrating how urban remote sensing can be used to make a connection between the physical environment and the social lives of residents. Finally, in one study the WICS method is used to successfully classify dead trees from high resolution imagery. Taken together these studies demonstrate how approaches based on spatial context can be used to extract information on land use in rural and urban environments where land use manifests itself in the form of complex spectral class and land cover patterns. The thesis, thus, contributes to the research field by showing that contextual methods can capture multifaceted patterns that can be linked to land use. This, in turn, enables an increased use of remote sensing data, particularly in the social sciences.

  • 10.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Remote sensing for urban planning and management: The use of window-independent context segmentation to extract urban features in Stockholm2015In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 52, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strategic scale of urban planning and management is concerned with the planning and monitoring of general land use in a city, such as different types of residential, industrial and commercial areas. Because of the poor results of standard per-pixel-based classification methods in urban areas, visual interpretation of remote sensing data is often preferred. This paper empirically tests the ability of a novel method, called window-independent context segmentation, to extract information that is useful at the strategic scale of urban planning and management. The method is implemented in a theoretical framework that is a response to Bibby and Shepherd's call for a new ontology in the application of geographic information systems and remote sensing to land use issues. In a case study using a SPOT5 satellite image of central Stockholm, the window-independent context segmentation method extracts urban features that correspond to the strategic scale of urban-planning and management and that differ in function and underlying planning theory and practice.

  • 11.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Socioeconomic residential profiles in urban areas classified by the WICS methodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    Classification of different urban categories corresponding to the strategic spatial level of urban planning and management using a SPOT4 scene2015In: Journal of Spatial Science, ISSN 1836-5655, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 99-117Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about the spatial and structural properties as well as different indicators of social and economic functions cannot be easily extracted from remote-sensing data in an urban milieu. This paper focuses on the extraction of information that is relevant to the strategic spatial level of urban planning management, i.e., more general land-use descriptions, using the window-independent context segmentation method to extract urban area categories from a SPOT4 satellite scene. In this study, we were able to extract three different urban categories, industrial/commercial, and two residential categories that belong to different suburbanisation phases.

  • 13.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Changes in the residential segregation of immigrants in Sweden from 1990 to 2012: Using a multi-scalar segregation measure that accounts for the modifiable areal unit problem2017In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 87, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the levels of residential segregation of immigrants in Sweden during the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012 are calculated. This paper applies a novel method for calculating segregation that is multi-scalar and addresses the modifiableareal unit problem (MAUP). The level of segregation is evaluated for each populated location by identifying the population that includes the kappa-nearest neighbours. The share of immigrants in this assessment population is then compared to the share in the reference population that comprises the kappa-nearest neighbours. One of the strengths of this method is the possibility to modify the reference population, thus making it possible to measure the difference in the results due to the size of the reference population. This study demonstrates that the results can considerably differ depending on which reference population is used. Furthermore, this study indicates that using different reference areas can produce completely different trends over time, such as decreasing or increasing segregation. The results demonstrate a general increase in segregation between 1990 and 1997, followed by a more complex pattern from 1997 to 2012. The segregation values are presented for all populated locations in Sweden, and population-weighted means are calculated for the whole of Sweden, in addition to the Stockholm, Malmo, and Gothenburg metropolitan areas.

  • 14.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Heurich, Marco
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Brun, Anders
    Automatic mapping of standing dead trees after an insect outbreak using the Window Independent Context Segmentation method2014In: Journal of forestry, ISSN 0022-1201, E-ISSN 1938-3746, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, there has been an increase in the spruce bark beetle population in the Bavarian Forest National Park in southeastern Germany. There is a need for accurate and time-effective methods for monitoring the outbreak, because manual interpretation of image data is time-consuming and expensive. In this article, the window independent context segmentation method is used to map deadwood areas. The aim is to evaluate the method’s ability to monitor deadwood areas on a yearly basis. Two-color infrared scenes with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 cm from 2001 and 2008 were used for the study. The method was found to be effective with an overall accuracy of 88% for the 2001 scene and 90% for the 2008 scene.

  • 15.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Migrant labor market integration: the association between initial settlement and subsequent employment and income among migrants2019In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 118-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neighborhood effects literature indicates that a person’s place of residence may affect their socio-economic situation. This study examines the association between initial settlement and immigrants’ employment and income. Previous studies mostly used administratively defined geographical units of study, which may have led to an underestimation of neighborhood effects. The current study uses individualized neighborhoods, where neighborhoods are constructed based on each individual’s closest neighbors using geocoded register data, on different scales. In this way, more of the individual’s actual neighborhood is captured. The longitudinal study follows three cohorts of migrants and examines the relationship between the initial neighborhoods that migrants settle in and their employment and income, in the short and medium-long term. The results show clear associations between neighborhoods of initial settlement and labor market integration. Starting off in neighborhoods with high levels of deprivation is associated with lower levels of employment, while settling in affluent neighborhoods is associated with higher incomes. Findings are stable for different migrant cohorts and in the short and long term. Neighborhood effects are substantial especially for those settling in the most deprived or the most affluent neighborhoods.

  • 16.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Boende och integration: Samband mellan invandrades initiala bosättning och deras sysselsättning och inkomst2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the association between residential segregation and immigrants’ employment and income. Residential segregation, i.e. when individuals or groups with different characteristics live at geographical separate locations, is usually seen as problematic given its consequences for individual outcomes such as educational achievement and employment. When individuals live separately, they can be affected differently depending on what kind of neighbourhood they live in, through so-called neighbourhood effects. These neighbourhood effects have positive as well as negative outcomes for the individual’s socio-economic situation. For example, local norms concerning attitudes to higher education may influence the individual’s choice to seek higher education. There are studies showing that immigrants’ earnings may be affected positively if they settle in areas with a high share of immigrants, due to them benefitting from ethnic networks. On the other hand, several studies point to negative effects from living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas on employment integration. Generally, three political strategies to counteract the negative effects of segregation have been used in Sweden. The strategy of mixed housing is based on the idea that a mixed development of different forms of tenure, types of properties and housing sizes leads to a mixed population composition. Refugee allocation, i.e. spreading the refugee population evenly over Swedish municipalities, has been another strategy to decline segregation. Finally, the Metropolitan Development Initiative was launched as a strategy where conditions for economic development were created in a number of vulnerable areas in metropolitan municipalities. Research has shown that none of these strategies managed to counteract the levels of residential segregation to any significant degree. With a background of increasing ethnic segregation trends in Sweden, this study aims to answer the following research question: How are the initial neighbourhoods that migrants settle in associated with their labour market integration, both on the short and the medium long term? Previous studies that analysed changes in levels segregation over time and the association between segregation and individual outcomes only used administratively defined geographical units of study. This may have led to an underestimation of neighbourhood effects. The current study uses individualized neighbourhoods, where we construct neighbourhoods based on each individual’s closest neighbours using geocoded register data, on different scales. In this way, we can better capture individuals’ actual neighbourhoods. The longitudinal study follows three cohorts of migrants and examines the relationship between initial settlement after registration and employment and income on the short and medium long term. The migrant cohorts arriving to Sweden in the years 1995, 2001 and 2007 were included. The reason for studying three different migrant cohorts is to analyse whether a possible association between initial neighbourhood and labour market integration is sustainable over time and across cohorts. Labour market integration was measured as employment status and income four and ten years after arrival. We tested the association between initial residential neighbourhood and labour market integration through a model including both individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, whether people moved, municipal labour market conditions, and type of initial neighbourhood. We find a negative association between starting off in neighbourhoods with a high level of deprivation and the probability that migrants find employment, both in the short and medium long run. In addition, there is a clear association between initial neighbourhood and income level among those that have a job, by and large on the short and medium long term. The higher the level of wealth in the initial neighbourhood, the higher the probability for employment and the higher the income among those with a job, both on the short and long term. Similarly, the higher the level of deprivation in the neighbourhood, the lower the probability for work on the short and medium long term and the lower the income level on the short term. We also show that the association between migrants’ labour market integration and individual characteristics, especially for gender, education and mode of legal entry, is stronger than the association with initial neighbourhood. Our results show a negative correlation between initially residing in deprived areas and individual socio-economic outcomes. The results also show that there is a positive correlation between initially residing in neighbourhoods with high levels of affluence and individual socio-economic outcomes. A weakness of this type of study is that it is not possible to determine whether the measured correlations are causal, i.e. the associations may be due to other non-measured variables. Our model controls for mobility patterns and individual background factors, but there may be other factors that are not captured in our study. For example, we have no information about immigrants’ individual motivations, economic capital, contacts, etc. we can therefore not draw causal conclusions about how the initial neighbourhood affects immigrant labour market integration. Notwithstanding the study’s shortcomings, the results do give lead to reconsiderations of past policies. Firstly, the findings point in the direction of support for investment in new construction in prosperous areas to create better conditions for newly arrived immigrants. Since newly built apartments generally have higher rents or higher housing prices, they can be difficult to access for new immigrants. Therefore, we encourage solutions that enable housing opportunities for newly arrived immigrants in such areas to be cre- ated. Secondly, our findings also give support for strategies where new immigrants are allocated housing across geographical areas. One possibility might be to not only allocate newly arrived refugee migrants to municipalities, but also to consider what type of neighbourhood these groups are placed in. Thirdly, our results also hint at support for area-based initiatives that seek to counteract the negative correlations between settling in deprived areas and individual labour market outcomes. Previous research has advocated areabased initiatives that take into account disadvantages for immigrants to settle in disadvantaged neighbourhoods as well as advantages of settling close to the own ethnic group. Finally, we would like to point out that immigrant labour market integration is influenced by many different factors. The neighbourhood is one of these factors, but our results and previous research point to the importance of other factors, especially individual-level factors such as gender, mode of legal entry and educational level. This study has demonstrated the importance of individual socio-economic background, the municipal labour market and migration within the country, but there are more factors that influence labour market integration. Strategies aimed at improving the entrance of immigrants into the labour market need to take into account all these factors.

  • 17.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Jansson, Johanna
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Moström, Jerker
    Nielsen, Michael
    Fjärranalys i kulturmiljövårdens tjänst2007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tegenu, Tsegaye
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Qualitative satellite image analysis: Mapping spatial distribution of farming types in Ethiopia2012In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 465-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite images have enormous potential for qualitative land use analysis. This paper presents empirical results that demonstrate how normally invisible dimensions produced by land use can be identified by enriching satellite data with qualitative information from field studies.

    Land use can be defined as the intentional use of a specific piece of land resulting in patterns of ecological responses that are visible in the land cover and landscape. Responses to land use often result in a heterogeneous combination of reflectance in satellite images. Statistical methods used in the classification of satellite imagery are limited in their capacity to handle categories consisting of heterogeneous combinations of spectral values. To overcome this limitation, a contextual post-classification method has been used to map land cover configurations as related to different agricultural practices in the district of Sodo, Ethiopia.

    The results show that it is possible to map socio-spatial distribution of different agricultural and socioeconomic practices on a regional level by combining field observations and spatial contextual information. The empirical findings show local agricultural activity variations in cash crop production and subsistence agriculture in the Sodo district of Ethiopia.

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