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  • 1. Chyleński, Maciej
    et al.
    Ehler, Edvard
    Somel, Mehmet
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Dabert, Miroslawa
    Juras, Anna
    Marciniak, Arkadiusz
    Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal the Absence of Maternal Kinship in the Burials of catalhoyuk People and Their Genetic Affinities2019Inngår i: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id 207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Çatalhöyük is one of the most widely recognized and extensively researched Neolithic settlements. The site has been used to discuss a wide range of aspects associated with the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle and the social organization of Neolithic societies. Here, we address both topics using newly generated mitochondrial genomes, obtained by direct sequencing and capture-based enrichment of genomic libraries, for a group of individuals buried under a cluster of neighboring houses from the classical layer of the site's occupation. Our data suggests a lack of maternal kinship between individuals interred under the floors of Çatalhöyük buildings. The findings could potentially be explained either by a high variability of maternal lineages within a larger kin group, or alternatively, an intentional selection of individuals for burial based on factors other than biological kinship. Our population analyses shows that Neolithic Central Anatolian groups, including Çatalhöyük, share the closest affinity with the population from the Marmara Region and are, in contrast, set further apart from the Levantine populations. Our findings support the hypothesis about the emergence and the direction of spread of the Neolithic within Anatolian Peninsula and beyond, emphasizing a significant role of Central Anatolia in this process.

  • 2. Günther, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmström, Helena
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico
    Kılınç, Gülşah M.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Uppsala University, Sweden; Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Fraser, Magdalena
    Edlund, Hanna
    Munters, Arielle R.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    Simões, Luciana G.
    Vicente, Mario
    Sjölander, Anders
    Jansen Sellevold, Berit
    Jørgensen, Roger
    Claes, Peter
    Shriver, Mark D.
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Netea, Mihai G.
    Apel, Jan
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Skar, Birgitte
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia: Investigating early postglacial migration routes and high-latitude adaptation2018Inngår i: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikkel-id e2003703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the routes and genetic composition of these postglacial migrants remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated from 9,500-6,000 years before present (BP). Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. Our results suggest two different early postglacial migrations into Scandinavia: initially from the south, and later, from the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along which novel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups met and mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns of genetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These potential adaptations include high frequencies of low pigmentation variants and a gene region associated with physical performance, which shows strong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans.

  • 3.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Price, Neil
    Günther, Torsten
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics2017Inngår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 164, nr 4, s. 853-860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.

    Materials and methods

    Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.

    Results

    The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.

    Discussion

    The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.

  • 4. Juras, Anna
    et al.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Nikitin, Alexey G.
    Ehler, Edvard
    Chylenski, Maciej
    Lukasik, Sylwia
    Krenz-Niedbala, Marta
    Sinika, Vitaly
    Piontek, Janusz
    Ivanova, Svetlana
    Dabert, Miroslawa
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 43950Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to huntergatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians.

  • 5.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Bäckström, Ylva
    Ingvarsson, Anne
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Rodríguez Varela, Ricardo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Elucidating recent history by tracing genetic affinity of three 16th century miners from Sweden2018Inngår i: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 19, s. 651-657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sala Silver Mine in central Sweden was an important manufacturer of silver from at least the 16th till the early 20th century, with production peaking in the 16th, mid 17th and 19th centuries. The job opportunities offered by the mine attracted people to the area resulting in the development of a small township with an associated cemetery in the vicinity of the mining center. People affiliated to the mine were buried on the cemetery for around 150 years. Written sources reveal that common criminal convicts from Sweden-Finland and war prisoners from the numerous wars fought by Sweden during the time were exploited in the mine, and some of them were likely buried on the cemetery. The cemetery has been excavated on several occasions and the recovered human remains were divided into two different groups based on burial custom, demography and biochemical results. One group was believed to contain war prisoners; the aim of this study was to produce and interpret genomic data from these individuals to test if their genetic ancestry is consistent with the hypothesis that they were non-locals. Materials: Teeth from seven different individuals were sampled for dentine. Results: Three of the analyzed teeth contained sufficient amounts of endogenous human DNA for the generation of genomic sequence data to a coverage of 0.04, 0.19 and 0.83, respectively. Discussion: The results show that despite seeming heterogeneity the three individuals grouped within the range of genetic variation of modern and contemporary Swedes, yielding no statistical support to the hypothesis that they were foreign captives. However, due to the lack of contemporary or modern Danish genomic data we cannot refute these individuals originated in Denmark which was suggested as one of possible sources of the 17th century Swedish prisoners of war.

  • 6.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bjørnstad, Gro
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Olason, Pall Isolfur
    Bill, Jan
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hagelberg, Erika
    Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway2015Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 370, nr 1660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  • 7.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Günther, Torsten
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Omrak, Ayça
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Somel, Mehmet
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Evans, Jane
    Knipper, Conine
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Genomic and Strontium Isotope Variation Reveal Immigration Patterns in a Viking Age Town2018Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, nr 17, s. 2730-2738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of human mobility on the northern European urban populations during the Viking and Early Middle Ages and its repercussions in Scandinavia itself are still largely unexplored. Our study of the demographics in the final phase of the Viking era is the first comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation that includes genetics, isotopes, archaeology, and osteology on a larger scale. This early Christian dataset is particularly important as the earlier common pagan burial tradition during the Iron Age was cremation, hindering large-scale DNA analyses. We present genome-wide sequence data from 23 individuals from the 10th to 12th century Swedish town of Sigtuna. The data revealed high genetic diversity among the early urban residents. The observed variation exceeds the genetic diversity in distinct modern-day and Iron Age groups of central and northern Europe. Strontium isotope data suggest mixed local and non-local origin of the townspeople. Our results uncover the social system underlying the urbanization process of the Viking World of which mobility was an intricate part and was comparable between males and females. The inhabitants of Sigtuna were heterogeneous in their genetic affinities, probably reflecting both close and distant connections through an established network, confirming that early urbanization processes in northern Europe were driven by migration.

  • 8.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Juras, Anna
    Koptekin, Dilek
    Chylenski, Maciej
    Nikitin, Alexey G.
    Shcherbakov, Nikolai
    Shuteleva, Iia
    Leonova, Tatiana
    Kraeva, Liudmila
    Sungatov, Flarit A.
    Sultanova, Alfija N.
    Potekhina, Inna
    Łukasik, Sylwia
    Krenz-Niedbała, Marta
    Dalén, Love
    Sinika, Vitaly
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads2018Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, nr 10, artikkel-id eaat4457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

  • 9.
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. University of Oslo, Museum of Cultural History, Norway.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Sümer, Arev Pelin
    Yüncü, Eren
    Shergin, Dmitrij
    Ivanov, Grigorij Leonidovich
    Kichigin, Dmitrii
    Pestereva, Kjunnej
    Volkov, Denis
    Mandryka, Pavel
    Kharinskii, Artur
    Tishkin, Alexey
    Ineshin, Evgenij
    Kovychev, Evgeniy
    Stepanov, Aleksandr
    Alekseev, Aanatolij
    Fedoseeva, Svetlana Aleksandrovna
    Somel, Mehmet
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 8969Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c. 13,790 BP and c. 1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region. We observed a decrease in genetic diversity over time and a reduction of maternal effective population size (Ne) approximately seven thousand years before present. Coalescent simulations were consistent with genetic continuity between present day individuals and individuals dating to 7,000 BP, 4,800 BP or 3,000 BP. Meanwhile, genetic differences observed between 7,000 BP and 3,000 BP as well as between 4,800 BP and 3,000 BP were inconsistent with genetic drift alone, suggesting gene flow into the region from distant gene pools or structure within the population. These results indicate that despite some level of continuity between ancient groups and present-day populations, the region exhibits a complex demographic history during the Holocene.

  • 10. Price, Neil
    et al.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Günther, Torsten
    Sobrado, Verónica
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Viking warrior women? Reassessing Birka chamber grave Bj.5812019Inngår i: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 93, nr 367, s. 181-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The warrior woman has long been part of the Viking image, with a pedigree that extends from the Valkyries of Old Norse prose and poetry to modern media entertainment. Until recently, however, actual Viking Age evidence for such individuals has been sparse. This article addresses research showing that the individual buried at Birka in an ‘archetypal’ high-status warrior grave—always assumed to be male since its excavation in 1878—is, in fact, biologically female. Publication, in 2017, of the genomic data led to unprecedented public debate about this individual. Here, the authors address in detail the interpretation of the burial, discussing source-critical issues and parallels.

  • 11.
    Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Günther, Torsten
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Gillingwater, Thomas H.
    MacCallum, Malcolm
    Arsuaga, Juan Luis
    Dobney, Keith
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
    Genomic Analyses of Pre-European Conquest Human Remains from the Canary Islands Reveal Close Affinity to Modern North Africans2017Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, nr 21, s. 3396-3402.e5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5th century BCE [1–3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6–8]. These results are in agreement with some linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological data indicating an origin from a North African Berber-like population [1, 4, 9]. However, to date there are no published Guanche autosomal genomes to help elucidate and directly test this hypothesis. To resolve this, we generated the first genome-wide sequence data and mitochondrial genomes from eleven archaeological Guanche individuals originating from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Five of the individuals (directly radiocarbon dated to a time transect spanning the 7th–11th centuries CE) yielded sufficient autosomal genome coverage (0.21× to 3.93×) for population genomic analysis. Our results show that the Guanches were genetically similar over time and that they display the greatest genetic affinity to extant Northwest Africans, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a Berber-like origin. We also estimate that the Guanches have contributed 16%–31% autosomal ancestry to modern Canary Islanders, here represented by two individuals from Gran Canaria.

  • 12.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    The river Fyris route: a stop at Vendel period Tuna in Alsike, Sweden2019Inngår i: Early medieval waterscapes: Risks and opportunities of (im)material cultural exchange / [ed] Rica Annaert, Braunschweig, 2019, s. 185-196Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main water route leading into the core of the realm Svithiod is discussed and especially Tuna in Alsike, a site that is situated along it. The identity of a male buried in the late 6th century at Tuna is discussed in detail using osteological, isotope and aDNA analysis in combination with the material objects in the richly furnished burial as well as the settlement context itself.

  • 13.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    The "lynx ladies": Burials furnished with lynx skins from the Migration and Merovingian Periods2019Inngår i: Sächsische Leute und Länder: Benennung und Lokalisererung von Gruppenidentitäten im ersten Jahrtausend / [ed] Melanie Augstein & Matthias Hardt, Braunschweig: Verlag Uwe Krebs, Wendeburg , 2019, s. 103-119Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Graves furnished with lynx skin from Iron Age Sweden represents an interesting group of individuals. These burials cluster in time and space and consist mainly of adult or older cremated individuals from the Migration and Merovingian period, c. 400-800 AD. This tradition is especially marked in in Uppland and Gotland, i.e. eastern Sweden. The individuals consist of adult or older women with brooches interred in well furnished burials. In Uppland these women belong to settlements of social standing and memorial rituals were performed at their graves. In Gotland, these women are present at the burial sites of harbours. Some of them were buried with small children. It is concluded that the women would have belonged to a group of ladies, mistresses of wealthy households. Furthermore, the role of the lynx and its possible connection to a female deity is discussed. It is suggested that these "lynx ladies" could have stood under the protection of the godess Freyja and been especially associated with her.

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