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  • 1. Andersson, Christin
    et al.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Almkvist, Ove
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, Maria
    Differential CSF biomarker levels in APOE-epsilon 4-positive and -negative patients with memory impairment2007In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the relationships between episodic memory, APOE genotype, CSF markers (total tau, T-tau; phospho-tau, P-tau; beta-amyloid, A beta 42) and longitudinal cognitive decline. Methods: 124 memory clinic patients were retrospectively divided into 6 groups based on (i) episodic memory function (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT): severe, moderate or no impairment (SIM, MIM or NIM), and (ii) APOE genotype (epsilon 4+ or epsilon 4-). CSF marker levels and cognitive decline were compared across groups. Results: Episodic memory function, according to RAVLT scores, was significantly correlated with CSF marker levels only among epsilon 4+ subjects and not among epsilon 4- subjects. When comparing the 6 subgroups, SIM epsilon 4+ and MIM epsilon 4+ groups showed significantly lower A beta 42 levels than the other groups. T-tau and P- tau levels were significantly increased in SIM epsilon 4+ when compared to all the other groups, including the SIM epsilon 4- group. However, both SIM epsilon 4+ and SIM epsilon 4- declined cognitively during the follow-up. Conclusion: It remains to be determined whether APOE genotype affects the expression of biomarkers in CSF, or whether the different biomarker patterns reflect different types of disease processes in patients with progressive cognitive dysfunction. 

  • 2. Degerman Gunnarsson, M.
    et al.
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Santillo, A.F.
    Wall, A.
    Engler, H.
    Lannfelt, L.
    Basun, H.
    Kilander, L.
    Re-Evaluation of Clinical Dementia Diagnoses with Pittsburgh Compound B Positron Emission Tomography2013In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting. Results: The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18) had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18) during follow-up. Conclusions: The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.

  • 3.
    Degerman Gunnarsson, M.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wall, A.
    Blennow, K.
    Darreh-Shori, T.
    Basu, S.
    Nordberg, A.
    Larsson, A.
    Lannfelt, L.
    Basun, H.
    Kilander, L.
    Pittsburgh Compound-B and Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarkers in CSF, Plasma and Urine: An Exploratory Study2010In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) is an in vivo ligand for measuring β-amyloid (Aβ) load. Associations between PET PIB and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1–42 and apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) have been observed in several studies, but the relations between PIB uptake and other biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are less investigated. Method: PET PIB, PET 18Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and different AD biomarkers were measured twice in CSF, plasma and urine 12 months apart in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild to moderate AD. Results: PIB retention was constant over 1 year, inversely related to low CSF Aβ1–42 (p = 0.01) and correlated positively to the numbers of the APOE ε4 allele (0, 1 or 2) (p = 0.02). There was a relation between mean PIB retention and CSF ApoE protein (r = –0.59, p = 0.07), and plasma cystatin C (r = –0.56, p = 0.09). Conclusion: PIB retention is strongly related to CSF Aβ1–42, and to the numbers of the APOE ε4 allele.

  • 4.
    Hiort, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Löfgren, Monika
    Young pain patients’ experience in primary care: A qualitative study2017In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 83-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore interview data from young adults with long-standing pain about their experience of contacts with caregivers in a primary care setting, in order to synthesize and qualitatively analyse their reports about how they were received. Method: An emergent qualitative design was used. Open thematic research interviews were conducted with 11 young people (1 man, 10 women) (aged 20–31 years) with long-term pain. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic content analysis. Result: The analyses resulted in three themes; distrust experienced from care staffslonelinessand hopelessness forming the main theme Young adult with long-term pain. The informants described how they struggled with living with the pain, fighting with the care system and to obtain help. They reportedly felt they were not trusted and that they were not given any explanations or information why the pain spread and worsened. This left them feeling abandoned and alone and without hope concerning their pain, their feelings; and with doubts concerning their prospects. Much concern and doubt were expressed about their future work situation; whether they would be able to do work for which they had trained, and whether they would ever get any career opportunities. Conclusion: Living with long-term pain as a young adult and experiencing mistrust when in care might lead to feelings of loneliness, dependence and hopelessness and an existence marked by suffering and dependence. The experienced mistrust confined the young adult instead of allowing growth towards an adult identity and opportunities.

  • 5.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Mohammed, A.
    Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory2016In: Stress: concepts, cognition, emotion, and behavior / [ed] George Fink, Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2016, 1, p. 153-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bjork, R.
    Anosognosia and Anosodiaphoria in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease2014In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 465-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To evaluate the occurrence of anosognosia (lack of awareness) and anosodiaphoria (insouciance) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the influence of a worsening of dementia on these phenomena. Methods: A self-evaluation scale was used assessing degrees of anosognosia and anosodiaphoria; furthermore, a neuropsychological assessment and statistical analyses with nonparametric tests which could cope with data on an ordinal scale level and small samples were employed. Results: Cognitive ability was lower in AD (n = 9) than in MCI patients (n = 12), but AD patients self-rated lower cognitive disabilities, which is interpreted as one relative sign of anosognosia in AD. Awareness of the reasons for cognitive problems was also lower in AD, which is considered as another sign of anosognosia. The main pattern in MCI found that the higher the awareness, the lower the cognitive ability. In AD low awareness paralleled low cognitive functioning. Anosodiaphoria was present in AD but not in MCI. Conclusion: According to the literature anosognosia and anosodiaphoria seem to increase with progression of dementia from MCI as a result of right hemispheric alterations.

  • 7.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Najström, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cross-cultural applicability and reduction of the American seven-subtest short form of the WAIS on a Swedish non-clinical sample2019In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed at investigating whether the seven-subtest short form based on WAIS-R (Ward 1990) was statistically valid to use on the Swedish version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV), if this abbreviation was fit to catch the heterogeneity in test performance across age and if this brief measure was possible to abbreviate even more. WAIS-IV data from a non-clinical sample consisting of 261 participants ranging between 18 and 74 in age was analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression analyses, a prorating method for calculation of Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices as well as paired-samples t-test. The results were contradictory. When the original WAIS-IV was compared to the seven-subtest short form the results showed a good congruence on FSIQ-level between the two sets, but on index level there were several cases of mismatches. In the younger and middle aged sample (<55 years) results on FSIQ as well as index level were in accordance, whereas in the elderly group (∼55 years) they were incongruent. The best reduction of the seven-subtest short form was a four-subtest model, encompassing Block Design, Similarities, Arithmetic and Coding, one subtest from each index, but the t-tests indicated several cases of mismatches between the full WAIS-IV measures and the prorated scores. Applied on the Swedish version of the WAIS-IV the seven-subtest formula appears to be applicable on an FSIQ level, to be suitable for a younger sample, but not for an elderly. Otherwise, this model and the four-subtest model are recommended to be used with caution.

  • 8.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Najström, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Predictive accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, forth ed., (WAIS-IV) seven- and four- subtest short form models in estimating full scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices in a Swedish non-clinical sample2016In: Proceedings of 4th Global Experts Meeting on Neuropharmacology, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodegenerative disorders usually show characteristic cognitive profiles, determined by the anatomical dispersion of neuronal loss. Short-term/memory decline is a presenting symptom on Alzheimer’s disease, but atypical early signs also occur. The Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) may be used to differentiate between normal and sub-normal cognitive performance levels, such as pre-dementia stages, AD and related disorders. According to Meyers et al., (2013), a brief measure consisting of a seven-subtest short form (SF) of the WAIS-IV including Block Design (BD), Similarities (SI), Digit Span (DS), Arithmetic (AR), Information (IN) Coding (CD) and Picture Completion (PC) provides a valid means of measuring cognitive level. In order to validate a short form of WAIS-IV on a Swedish non-clinical sample the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of the seven-subtest SF as well as a reduction of the number of subtests in the SF based on standardized β-values, to predict the full scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices. WAIS-IV scaled score data from 98 healthy individuals (19-90 years M=46 years, SD=23 years, females=48, males=50) were analyzed with linear regression, which showed that the seven predictors explained 92.5% of the variance in FSIQ. When reducing the SF-set the four highest β-values were obtained from the following subtests: CD, β=0.34 (Processing Speed), SI, β=0.31 (Verbal Comprehension), BD, β=0.25 (Perceptual Reasoning), and AR, β=0.23 (Working memory), which showed to be one subtest from each of the four indices. FSIQ prediction rate of these four subtests was 88.1%. Each of the four subtests correlated significantly on p=<0.01 level with its index. To conclude, FSIQ prediction accuracy for the seven-subtest SF is very high, as well as for the four-subtest model. Since the four-subtest model strongly predicts FSIQ, as well as all its indices, it may be a valid, and timesaving, instrument to assess short-term memory (AR, partly CD) deficits typical for different stages of AD, signs on non-amnestic decline in AD, as well as typical clinical manifestations of frontotemporal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, ischemic brain disorders and cognitive dysfunctions associated with depression. In unclear cases additional testing is necessary. Further analyses will reveal possible influences on the norms of age, genus and education.

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