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  • 1.
    Drougge, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Männikkö, Sirkku
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Going Global – Lessons learned from developing an online Master’s in ICT4D2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) is a rapidly expanding field where successful outcomes require interdisciplinary collaborations. Stakeholders involved in ICT4D projects have a wide variety of educational backgrounds and ICT4D training. Literature and education on ICT4D has been compared to a lost sheep but currently there exists six master programmes in ICT4D at university level (University of Colorado, Boulder, Berkeley University of California, University of Cape Town, Royal Holloway University of London, University of East London and University of Manchester). However, none of these existing programmes are entirely available online and possible to complete by distance studies only. The aim of the present study is to analyse and discuss the needs and requirements for a master’s programme in ICT4D given entirely online as distance education. Applicants to a new online master’s programme developed at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences at Stockholm University have responded to an online questionnaire on what they find important in an ICT4D programme. Findings show that even though online education has been around for quite a while, there are still a lot of issues to address and globally oriented distance education does have particular pedagogical, cultural, administrative and technical challenges. The lack of interdisciplinary programmes in ICT4D is evident and we definitely think that there is a need for a new master’s programme that is given in distance mode only. Furthermore, our vision is to open up the programme in the line of open access principles in a near future when course content and pedagogical ideas have been evaluated more in detail.

  • 2.
    Göransson, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sköld, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Automatised examination of programming courses: design, development and evaluation of the autoexam online system2013In: The joy of learning: enhancing learning experience improving learning quality / [ed] Morten Flate Paulsen, András Szűcs, European Distance and E-Learning Network , 2013, p. 625-632Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional hand-written exams are still the main assessment method in programming courses at Swedish universities. Several conducted research studies indicates that computer based examination is a more natural environment for student examination and that the most authentic form of examination for programming courses should be to solve problems at a computer. The aim of this study is to describe the development of the web-based AutoExam system and discuss how the software system might contribute to modern programming education. AutoExam is designed and deployed as an online system and the artefact is constructed by using the Python programming language and the Django framework with a three folded Model-View-Controller division. As a main approach for this study methods defined in Design Science to be able to cover all the phases in the design, implementation, evaluation and communication of the AutoExam software artefact. The implemented automatised assessment system was evaluated in test examination by students with basic skills in the Python programming language. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two programming teachers at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences at the Stockholm University. Answers from the students’ tests were analysed by using the One-Way Anova analysis method. The results were insignificant but showed a slightly better result for answers that were generated in the AutoExam environment. Both the interviewed teachers posit that there are positive aspects of computer generated examination answers both from the teachers’ and the students’ point of view. Our recommendation is that the kind of automatised examination of programming skills that is described in this article ought to be tested and evaluated in larger student groups and during longer time than what has been done in this limited study.

  • 3.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Megammaana, Niranjan
    Lifelong Learning: Telecentres in Semi-rural Areas as a Bridge between Formal, Non-formal, and Informal Learning2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of telecentres has been the main initiative in many countries to provide information and communications technology in rural areas in a try to address the digital divide. In this paper, we analyse the situation in Sri Lankan semi-rural areas, discussing whether telecentres in the Nenasala network has a potential to act as local knowledge centres; bridging formal, non-formal, and informal learning. The visited telecentre is located about 50 kilometres east of Colombo. A qualitative design has been used where interviews with managers and users, and passive observations were conducted. Findings show that the visited telecentres play an important role in bridging formal, non-formal, and informal learning and education in the local community. Nevertheless, there are gender-based differences among pupils in the acquisition of provided content. Some children claim that they learn more by undergoing classes at the telecentres than in formal classes.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wettergren, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    ICT4D with a Nordic Flavor - a Stepwise and Multithreaded Approach2009In: IST-Africa 2009 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham & Miriam Cunningham, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Qazi, Hadia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Online Digital Mentorship: How Might a Digital Communication Tool Facilitate Informal Learning and Integration of Newly Arrived in Sweden2017In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on e-Learning - ECEL 2017 / [ed] Anabela Mesquita, Paula Peres, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, p. 178-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of large groups of refugees is one of the great challenges in Europe today. In Sweden around 100 000 new immigrants is expected to arrive from Syria only during 2017 and there are large groups from various countries already staying in Sweden that are not properly integrated. There are no quick and smart solution to solve the inclusion of the large number of new citizens and the idea should rather be a holistic approach combining several initiatives. Lack of language skills is one of the underlying reasons for new arrivals exclusion from the labour market and social networks. Online informal language learning and digital mentorship with two way communication between New Arrivals and established Swedes might be a way to facilitate the inclusion and integration process. The aim of the study was to examine to which extent a digital communication tool could act as a resource in order to make the integration process more effective for newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Research was carried out as a qualitative cross‐sectional study with data gathered by semistructured interviews. Five educators who are actively working with newly arrived immigrants and refugees were interviewed with use of the Skype tool. A thematic analysis was conducted to find patterns and to create themes and categories that could answer the main research question: How might a digital communication tool be designed to facilitate the integration and inclusion of new arrived refugees in Sweden? The answers could be structured according to two overall themes: “Usable” and “Flexible”. The theme “Usable” consisted of three sub‐themes Ease of Access, Improved language skills and Integrity Facilitation, while the theme “Flexible” was divided into two subcategories Adaptable and Educational content. The findings confirm that a digital communication tool would support integration of new arrivals by facilitating personal dialogues with established Swedes. The recommendation is to create an online platform that supports language learning and enables multi‐way digital mentorship in a social network with benefits for the established Swedes as well.

  • 6. Jurkovic, Rahela
    et al.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lowden, Kevin
    How to keep learners motivated and excited in technology enhanced learning2013In: The Joy of Learning. Enhancing Learning Experience - Improving Learning Quality: Proceedings of the European Distance and E-Learning Network 2013 Annual Conference, 2013, p. -156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 21st century there have been several reports on students’ lack of engagement and academic motivation and that motivation is a prime key to academic success. The aim of the article is to describe and discuss how some selected models for motivation of students/adult learners can be applied in contemporary technology enhanced learning. The main approach in this article is the case study strategy where a case study is defined as an empirical inquiry investigating real world contemporary phenomena (Yin, 1989). The case study consists of three embedded units: the Zagreb unit, the Stockholm unit and the Glasgow unit, and three models for motivation explored in each unit. The conclusions based on comparison of the three models’ findings are the following. Effective learning for adults or children occurs when they are given opportunities to engage in shaping their own learning through practical experience as part of the learning process. Learners should be able to test their knowledge via interacting in an enquiring way with their learning context and solve real world problems.

  • 7.
    Ljungkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Educational Games for Self Learning in Introductory Programming Courses - a Straightforward Design Approach with Progression Mechanisms2012In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GAMES BASED LEARNING / [ed] Patrick Felicia, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International Limited , 2012, p. 285-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the relatively short history of Computer science and programming education the pass rate has been low in most introductory programming courses at university level. Students taking courses have had severe problems in the understanding of how to construct algorithms and also with the implementation of more basic programming techniques. There are identified bottlenecks in theoretical concepts but there have also been problems with the solving of assignments and more practical parts of programming courses. Educational games aimed at teaching programming has been frequently discussed in academic research during the last years. Many of them feature studies of developed games and some point to good results in learning. The developed games range from puzzle games to Massive Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games (MMORPG) and with all from per purpose built games to embedding learning content in existing games. Although per purpose built games have proven to be most efficient an objection has been that they are too expensive. What features are really needed to engage students in a programming game? Do we need to make games that resemble the gaming industry’s AAA games to a cost of 20 to 30 million euros per title in order to motivate students? This study evaluates an approach using different progression mechanisms to attempt to motivate the players along with a straight forward narrative that situates the learning of various programming concepts for the player. Players get various programming missions on different levels to solve in different Swedish cities. After a completed mission players get points related to the quality of their code solutions in the Python programming language. If they have enough points they get access to a higher level where more advanced programming techniques are required. A game prototype has been developed in the Flash environment using the ActionScript programming language. A quantative approached with semi-structured interviews has been used in the evaluation of the prototype. Findings show that the game could help students to improve their programming skills and our recommendation is that educational games should be used for self learning in introductory programming courses if they can be designed in a way that attracts the students.

  • 8. Lowden, Kevin
    et al.
    Jurkovic, Rahela
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    How to motivate adult learners through e-learning - Some key insights from research case studies2013In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on e-Learning – ECEL 2013 / [ed] Mélanie Ciussi, Marc Augier, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International , 2013, p. 266-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the Council of the European Union set out five priorities for adult learning over the period 2012-14. Within this context, our paper draws on the findings of a number of research case studies to investigate how technology and e-learning can improve the quality and efficiency of adult education and training and, in particular, how they can engage learners and promote motivation to learn. The aim of the article is to reflect on approaches used or highlighted in these case studies to explore and discuss how selected models of learning and motivation for adult learners can be applied, supported and enhanced by contemporary technology enhanced learning (TEL). It is not our aim to provide a summary or overview of ICT/ TEL approaches that have been used to motivate and adults and vulnerable groups. The main research approach used to provide evidence for the article is the case study strategy; with a case study being defined as an empirical inquiry investigating real world contemporary phenomena (Yin, 1989). The case studies consisted of two sites or units: the Stockholm unit and the Glasgow/Zagreb unit. The Stockholm unit comprises of a description and analysis of a web-based course for multimedia programming with participants across various age groups and a considerable geographical spread. The Glasgow/Zagreb unit is based on emerging results from the ongoing Grundtvig ITELEAD project that, among other partners, includes the University of Glasgow /Scotland and an adult learner provider WYGS / Croatia. This project is identifying and reviewing innovative practices of adult education across certain European countries that use ICT and Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) and innovative methodologies to address the needs of vulnerable groups including: economically disadvantaged, minority groups, immigrants, rural communities and people with disabilities. The paper presents the emerging findings from the Sweden and Scotland/Croatia projects regarding e-learning practices that motivate learners. Our emerging findings indicate that while ICT/ TEL is used to support learning in adult education, it is done in a rather basic way and that often lacks innovation that matches the potential of developments in technology. We also posit that while TEL and ICT can play a role in facilitating learning and promoting motivation to learn, it is other factors that are perhaps more important and include those that are common to promoting learner engagement generally.

  • 9. Malliarakis, Christos
    et al.
    Tomos, Florica
    Shabalina, Olga
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Cristina Balan, Oana
    How to Build an Ineffective Serious Game: Worst Practices in Serious Game Design2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Robin Munkvold, Line Kolås, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2015, p. 338-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning and teaching through immersive technologies has been an essential research topic in the last decades. Educators are trying to combine difficult topics that usually discourage students from learning with engaging tasks or technologies that will seem more attractive and thus supporting students’ participation in learning. On the other hand, the students of the 21st century have been raised in a digital world, and therefore they learn and react differently. Computer games have become an active part of their everyday lives from a very early age, resulting in young people’s familiarization with such technologies and their features. Furthermore, computer machines have greatly increased their capacities and capabilities, allowing the installation of game platforms with impressive graphics and special effects. This novelty fosters the usage of such games by users, where they are free to use all of the game’s functionalities and immerse themselves in an interactive and attractive environment. These aforementioned benefits pose a significant challenge that is to investigate which elements constitute a successful serious game, what are the ways in which such games can be effectively embedded in the learning process and which are the factors that determine the success components in a game. However, it is essential also, to find out which are the elements that lead to the development of a game with no educational interest or benefits and with no facilitating features for both the teachers and the students. More specifically, this paper includes an analysis of learning principles, mistakes that lead to the non acquisition of long-term memories, and the lack of motivation of learners to keep playing and learning. Further, the paper elaborates on what is the mixture of learning and entertaining elements and features that produce either an unsuccessful or a successful serious game. Moreover, the research study will emphasize on the role of laughter and will highlight the implications of humor and comics for student successful learning. Furthermore, elements of humor such as humor creator and humor receiver will also be approached and discussed. Finally, it is stated how important it is to set achievable and measurable learning objectives and align these to clear learning pathways as well as how to take appropriate feedback regarding learners’ performance. The paper also describes all the concepts that are related to the development of an unsuccessful serious game, including the main mistakes that should be avoided. This proposed model will elaborate on the factors that hinder effective serious games development and will highlight that serious games can only support education when they properly link the “fun” elements of computer games with the essential educational elements required for in-depth learning.

  • 10.
    Mardanian, Haleh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Reliable, Efficient, Affordable and User-friendly Approach for Online Assessment in Distance Education2011In: Never Waste a Crisis!: Inclusive Excellence, Innovative Technologies and Transformed Schools as Autonomous Learning Organisations / [ed] Sofoklis Sotiriou & András Szucs, 2011, p. 18-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the assessment of the students in higher education, cheating and plagiarism have always been of major problem. This problem is also a rapidly growing phenomenon in Sweden. The number of students suspended from courses in tertiary education increased by 56% in 2010 and the plagiarism has been the most common violation. Online distance courses with students spread out geographically need online assessment approaches to save time and avoid travel expenses. E-learning and distance education have during a long period been criticized for the overuse of “True/False tests” and Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) tests. To assure deep learning we want to promote the idea of open ended project assignments where students can practice techniques from the course content in real world applications. To verify authentication and avoid plagiarism we have developed a low cost approach that we have tried to make user-friendly and efficient. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how our video conference presentation approach for online assessment in distance courses could be conducted in a reliable, efficient and affordable manner. Course content and the assessment approach were developed in parallel iteratively during the first half of 2011. Ideas and techniques have been discussed with colleagues and students before the course starts. Technically the presentations worked perfectly, but on slow Internet connections the video transfer was not clear and the voice was not synchronized with the video. From a psychological perspective the presentations were a bit stiff and formal but that is often the case in other forms of assessment and authentication as well. Findings show that the approach is a very reliable and accurate way of assessment in a sense that the teacher can see and hear the student while he is presenting his work and also saves time and travel costs for students and teachers. We do not think that any courses ever will be 100% protected from plagiarism and no model for assessment will ever make all students happy. But we find our approach to be secure enough for university courses and that it does not make the students more uncomfortable and stressed than what the case is in traditional written exams.

  • 11.
    Mardanian, Haleh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Design and Development of a Web-based Support System for Teaching and Learning of Business-IT Alignment Assessment2012In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2012 / [ed] T. Bastiaens & G. Marks, Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) , 2012, p. 711-720Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT Alignment (BITA) is an important matter especially for researchers and practitioners but both groups frequently find it complicated and time consuming to learn about BITA. To facilitate the teaching and learning of the alignment process a web-based tool for the assessment of business-IT alignment has been designed, developed and evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss the design and evaluation of the web-based BITA software’s usability and functionality as a teaching asset. Findings show that the BITA tool enables the students to assess and analyze business-IT alignment in an efficient manner. Moreover the BITA tool enables students to understand companies’ behavior regarding the business-IT alignment over time. The BITA tool also helps the researchers in their respective areas to focus on one or a group of companies and conduct research regarding their business-IT alignment.

  • 12.
    Mardanian, Haleh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The BITA-tool: How Can a Web Based Application Support Business-IT Alignment Learning in Higher Education?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As IT is gaining its importance in today’s competitive business environment, alignment of IT with business goals and objective is becoming essential in the industry as well as in higher education. Business-IT alignment can be described as the harmony between the business unit and the IT unit in organizations. This is also an essential part of the Strategic Management of IT course taught in the master program in Strategic IT Management at Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. The BITA-tool has iteratively been developed during 2010 and 2011 according to the main principles in design science with the purpose to extend the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative digital artifacts. During the Strategic Management of IT course the learning opportunities of the BITA-tool has been identified and discussed with students and the course tutors. The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss how the web-based BITA-tool might support learning when it is used in university courses on management of information systems. Results show that the tool has helped the students in the study of business-IT alignment in different companies and that the BITA-tool can support a shift towards a more learner-centric education. However, the replacement of traditional teaching and learning with an online tool can sometimes make the students feel a bit lonely and abandoned.

  • 13.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Education for all by ICT4D Hubs: a Sri Lankan Case Study2014In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Learning – ECEL 2014 / [ed] Örngreen, R.; Levinsen, K. T., Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2014, p. 347-353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT4D, here defined as the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing regions, has been classified as one of the most powerful and cost efficient ways to improve the standard of living in the developing world. Many regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development where information technology has made a drastic change to urban regions and globalisation but often left rural areas without much investment with further urbanisation as result. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss how a number of ICT4D initiatives and the creation of eLearning hubs in Sri Lanka have been supporting education for all and local development. ICT4D hubs can have various physical as well as virtual shapes and organisational models but should always facilitate education and development by the use of ICT. Some examples of studied eLearning hubs are telecentres, primary schools, online distance programmes, eLibraries and learning object repositories. A number of case studies have been conducted between 2006 - 2012 using interviews, observations and participatory action research for the data collection. Findings show that many of the analysed hubs have contributed in positive ways to the general progress of the country and most urban areas in the Western region have had a rapid development where ICT has been an important catalyst. Sri Lanka has had an outcome that must be classified as better than average with increased opportunities to education and ICT hubs as multipurpose meeting points. Contributing main factors to the successful development is the high literacy rate, the chain of ICT4D projects and a committed implementation of eServices. Several initiates have contributed to development but the internal gap has rather grown and knowledge sharing and inter-project cooperation has failed. What could be seen as a strength in the Sri Lankan ICT4D model is the way top-down management sometimes is combined with bottom-up activities. At the same time as the gap between Sri Lankan cities and the developed world has diminished the internal digital divide has increased and there exists a need for further support of the islands eastern and northern regions. The recommendation is to enhance the islands existing rural ICT4D Hubs and upgrade them to more autonomous and service-oriented ICT4D routers that could handle the islands future eGovernance and eHealth services. Found keywords for successful outcomes are commitment, collaboration, communication and coordination.

  • 14.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Education for All in Sri Lanka: ICT4D Hubs for Region-Wide Dissemination of Blended Learning2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT4D, here defined as the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in developing regions, can be seen as one of the most powerful and cost efficient ways to improve the standard of living in the developing world. Many regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development where information technology had a drastic impact on development but often with the problems related to ICT4D 1.0: lack of sustainability and lack of scalability.

    This study analysed the Sri Lankan infrastructure for region-wide dissemination of blended learning in the 21st century based on the exploration of some selected ICT4D hubs and educational initiatives. The overall aim of the research was to observe, describe and analyse how the selected ICT4D initiatives and the creation of ICT4D hubs in Sri Lanka might support region-wide dissemination of blended learning and local development. A longitudinal case study has been the overall approach where a number of embedded thematic units were explored in long-term fieldwork conducted between 2006 and 2012. Data has been collected from a combination of observations, interviews, group discussions, surveys and document analysis.

    Findings showed that several of the studied ICT4D hubs have contributed to the general development but the country’s internal digital divide has in fact grown, as urban growth has been so much faster than the growth in rural areas, leaving the country with geographic as well as socio-economic gaps. Some of the former war zones have definitely been left behind and there is a need for further support of the Eastern and Northern regions of the island. Sri Lanka has had an outcome that must be classified as better than average compared to other developing regions with increased opportunities for education and with some ICT4D hubs as multipurpose meeting points. Contributing factors to the successful development are the high literacy rate, the chain of ICT4D projects rolled out in the right order and a committed implementation of educational eServices. On the other hand there were other, more negative findings indicating that sustainability, knowledge sharing and inter-project cooperation and coordination have often failed.

    The identified strength in the Sri Lankan model, which can be recommended for other parts of the world as well, is the way top-down management of infrastructure sometimes is combined with bottom-up grass-root activities. Other recommendations, that also are global, are to extend existing ICT4D hubs and upgrade them to more intelligent, autonomous and multi-service ICT4D routers that could also handle the future need for eServices in the fields of eHealth, eFarming and eGovernance.

  • 15.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Game Based Learning: a Way to Stimulate Intrinsic Motivation2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on e-Learning ICEL-2014 / [ed] Teresita Arenas Yanez, Oscar Saavedra Rodriguez, Paul Griffiths, Reading: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2014, p. 272-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using games in educational contexts is an old concept that got a renaissance in the 1980s when Thomas Malone did an analysis of computer games and why they are fun and motivating. Later Malone discussed his findings with similar results extracted from studies by Mark Lepper in a merger that resulted in the Taxonomy of intrinsic motivation. How well designed digital games can support intrinsic motivation has often been discussed in research during the last decades, but less has been written on course design that stimulates learning for learning’s sake. In today’s blended learning with an increased part of distance education there are several reasons to build courses on mechanisms that strive for more than just having students to answer multiple choice questions. The aim of this study is to explore how the various parts in the Taxonomy of intrinsic motivation might be used in course development to design blended learning and online courses that motivate students without the traditional carrots and sticks. This case study is based on a course in Games Based Learning (GBL) where students build their own learning games based on presented and discussed GBL theories. Data has been gathered from group discussions with students at examination seminars, evaluation questionnaires, and online discussion fora in the virtual course platform. Findings show that the basic components from the Taxonomy of intrinsic motivation have a potential to stimulate students both on the level of internal motivation and on the level of interpersonal motivation. Ideas and theories for learner motivation might also be presented to the students to stimulate the design of the game prototypes. However, if a course built on the concept of intrinsic motivation is given simultaneously as a course with sticks and carrots as prime motivational ingredients, the extrinsic motivation design in the latter course will override the intrinsic motivation.

  • 16.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Game‐based learning as a bedrock for creative learning2016In: Proceedings of The 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, p. 479-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when massive online courses are providing stereotypic learning content with auto-assessment the need to stimulate creative learning is stronger than ever. If all assignments are of the closed typed with solutions that fit auto-correction students will never use their creativity. The stimulating use of games and game-based learning in educational contexts has been widely discussed in research during the last decade. There are also studies indicating that excessive playing might be a passivating obstacle for students. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss how game-based learning might be used as a catalyst for creative learning with open ended project assignments with constructionism as the didactic idea. The research setup is a case study strategy consisting of three separate units. Each unit is a programming course where the author is the subject matter expert, course designer and the main teacher. Data has been collected in a combination of evaluation questionnaires, group discussions and analyses of games created by students in the three courses. Most ideas presented in this paper have also been discussed with teaching assistants and research colleagues. Findings indicate that open ended assignments where students design, implement and test digital games could kick-start creativity at the same time as students will increase their programming skills. However, the recommendation is not to go for open ended assignments only, but rather a mix with some introductory exercises where games, or other software solutions, are built with more strict and formal instructions. From a teachers’ perspective it is not necessary to build games in each and every course, what is important is rather to stimulate and encourage creativity in course assignments.

  • 17.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning by building – the Lunarstorm generation constructing their own ePortfolios2013In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on e-Learning - ECEL 2013 / [ed] Ciussi, M.; Augier, M., Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International , 2013, p. 319-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ePortfolio has sometimes been defined as a collection of digital artifacts combined with demonstrations and descriptions of the artifacts. Another definition is that an ePortfolio is a web-based collection of work, descriptions of the work and reflections over the work. Several studies have showed that student ePortfolios can be a useful tool for learning and assessment tool in eLearning and in online courses. They can in courses at university level serve at least three different purposes, as learning systems for professional development, for formative as well as summative assessment and as employment portfolios after the course is completed. It has been widely discussed in research which software systems and ePortfolio frameworks an educational organisation should purchase and use. Some researchers recommend Open source systems, others licensed software and there are also solutions that are integrated in virtual learning environments. Less has been investigated in research about the more constructionist approach of students designing and building their own ePortfolios as part of the learning process. Lunarstorm was a commercial Swedish social networking website that started around the millennium shift. 8 years later Lunarstorm was Swedens largest web community with about 10 percent of the Swedish population as active members. The Lunarstorm members were mainly teenagers using chats to communicate and creating their own multimedia presentations with tools provided in the online environment. Lunarstorm was shut down in 2010 but many former members have kept their interest for web technologies and entered various Computer science programmes. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss how students’ construction of online ePortfolios can be an integrated in the assessment process of a web programming course. This study has been carried out with a case study approach where data has been gathered by group discussions, interviews and analyses of ePortfolios. Findings show that the constructionist idea of students building their own ePortfolios works for university students in general and former Lunarstorm members in particular. Further some students claimed that the ePortfolios extended with CVs have been valuable in applications for employment and further studies. From a teacher’s perspective the ePortfolios reflections and work descriptions can be useful as an anti-plagiarism strategy in the attempt for a fair examination.

  • 18.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Gap between "Generation Y" and Lifelong Learners in Programming Courses – How to Bridge Between Different Learning Styles?2012In: Open Learning Generations: Closing the Gap from "Generation Y" to the Mature Lifelong Learners. Book of Abstracts / [ed] Morten Flate Paulsen & András Szucs, European Distance and E-learning Network , 2012, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming courses’ outline and their pedagogy are as many other phenomena of evolutionary nature and even if computer science is a relatively young discipline several shifts has already been seen. When Generation X took programming courses at university level the older and more pragmatic programming languages were replaced in the 1990s by the more well-structured Java language and object-orientation became an integrated part of most Computer science curricula. But during the relatively short history of Computer science and system development education the pass rate has often been low in programming courses. Still in the 21th century novice students have had severe problems in the understanding of even basic programming techniques. This has not only been related to more theoretical concepts and there have been problems with the practical parts of programming as well. In the current situation at Swedish universities where the course batches often is a mix of Generation Y and Lifelong learners the approach to pedagogy and course content design is not an easy choice. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss the shift of heterogeneity in the student batches in university programming courses during the last decade. Which are the main challenges of the different generations and their learning styles and how could they be addressed? The study is a combination of a literature study and an analysis of 12 years of work with programming courses at university level. My observations and notes have been compared with students’ answers in about 25 online questionnaires for course evaluation and the assessment during the last decade. Findings show that there is a difference in learning styles and a need for updating the courses in an overloaded manner where students with different learning styles could chose to learn the same basic programming in different ways. Another idea discussed in this article is to omit object-orientation in the first programming course and introduce basic programming in a traditional straightforward imperative style. The tested approach where programming courses are given without object-orientation and with multi-modal content in a virtual learning environment seems to reduce the gap between Generation Y and Lifelong learners, but there are still a lot of challenges like plagiarism and lack of commitment amongst students. Feedforward instead of feedback and an iterative approach in the presentation of course material seem to support both the discussed student groups. If a high intake is the aim distance education will increase the enrolment. If a high pass rate is the measurement of success blended learning and overloading of multi-modal course content online could be the key to success but with an extra initial cost for the development of digital content.

  • 19.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Two promising approaches to game-based learning in programming courses2014In: Computer games: technology, educational uses and effects on cognitive development, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of games in educational contexts is an old tradition where mathematical and strategical concepts have been demonstrated and practised for thousands of years by playing board games like Chess and Kalaha. Discussions on pedagogical aspects of playing games for learning started in the 1970s based on ideas by the pedagogues Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. In the early 1980s Thomas Malone analysed and described why it is fun and motivating to play computer games. Some years later Malone discussed his findings with his colleague Mark Lepper and together they specified the components of the taxonomy of intrinsic motivation. Programming is still a core subject in computer science but several research studies shows that students are facing difficulties even with basic programming techniques. These problems are not only related to theoretical programming concepts and studies indicate that students get stuck in practical programming and code construction as well. Some researchers see this as a pedagogical problem but also as a psychological and motivational issue. Other researchers and pedagogues have discussed the idea of using the documented strong catalytic effect of gaming in computer science education. There are at least two different approaches to game-based learning for programming education. In the first one the main idea is that students learn to program by playing tailor-made educational or serious games that are designed for learning programming concepts in one or several programming languages. The second approach is based on the idea that students design and build their own computer games. By using their creativity and imagination in order to construct their own executable computer games students will simultaneously learn traditional programming techniques. This study will describe, discuss and compare these two approaches based on data collected at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences at Stockholm University. Findings show that both the approaches seem to have a learning stimulating potential and that they also might be combined. One of the main differences between the described approaches is while Learning by Playing must be classified as an extra resource for self-learning the idea of Learning by Game Construction could be seen as the bedrock for complete programming courses.

  • 20.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    What can be Learned From Playing Digital Games Outside School?2014In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Games Based Learning – ECGBL 2014 / [ed] Busch, C., Reading: Academic Conferences Limited, 2014, Vol. 1, p. 415-422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Games based learning (GBL) in educational contexts is an old tradition where mathematics and strategy have been learned for thousands of tears by playing board games like Kalah/Mancala and Chess. The African game Kalaha is a member in the board game group called Mancala and was played in Egypt as early as in the period between 1500 – 1150 B.C. The discussion on pedagogical aspects of gaming in general started at university level in the 1970s by pedagogues like Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. In the 1980s when computer became available for ordinary people Thomas Malone did an analysis of standard commercial of the shelf (COTS) computer games and investigated why people find them fun and motivating. Later it has been widely discussed how much you can learn from playing games, if the knowledge is transferable to daily life situations and if learning only is possible with tailor-made learning games or serious games. The so called digital natives is the first generation that has played digital games since kindergarten. What are their own opinions on digital games and informal learning by gaming? The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss what digital natives might have learned from their pre-university gaming and if the acquired skills and knowledge can be of use in other contexts. An analysis has been done based on an assignment in a course on GBL where students submitted and discussed essays in a virtual learning environment. Furthermore students’ experiences from learning games have been discussed in groups in the GBL course examination seminars. Findings show that most students claim that they have learned things from playing COTS as well as learning games and several students mention that skills and knowledge have been of use in non-gaming contexts. Some examples of areas where students mention learning are language speaking and reading skills, interpersonal collaboration, strategic thinking, stress management, and knowledge about history and other cultures.

  • 21.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Balasooriya, Isuru
    Hettiarachchi, Enosha
    eNOSHA and Moodle: the Integration of two E-learning Systems2011In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on eLearning - ECEL 2011 / [ed] Sue Greeener & Asher Rospigliosi, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing Limited , 2011, p. 509-516Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    eNOSHA is an open source Learning Object Repository (LOR) developed at the University of Colombo School of Computing (UCSC) in a collaboration between UCSC in Sri Lanka, and two universities from Sweden during 2009 and 2010. eNOSHA is a system where content developers and instructional designers can store and reuse learning objects on 4 different aggregation levels. The system was built based on a need analysis at UCSC in late 2008 and was taken into use at the eLearning Centre at UCSC in early 2010. The system has so far been successful and supported the organisation and reuse of e-learning content at the UCSC eLearning Centre (eLC). However, there still exist several reasons for further improvements when it comes to usability and user-friendliness. Moodle is one of the most popular open-source Course Management Systems (CMS) and has been used in the daily work at UCSC during the last 5 years. Moodle is an effective system for building courses and structure course material but features for storing, retrieving and version handling of learning objects is still under construction in the Moodle community. Persons working with course development need a LOR as well as a CMS in their daily work but to be forced to multiple logins and switching between systems is not good usability or user-friendly. This paper is about the integration between the eNOSHA system and the Moodle system and how it best should be done. Should the eNOSHA system be connected and integrated as a Moodle module in collaboration with the Moodle developing community or is it a better idea to build a module in eNOSHA that handles the communication with Moodle? From a developer’s perspective, the building of a Moodle module to handle the connection to the eNOSHA system would be a fast and convenient alternative since the Moodle module template provided by moodle.org could be used as a skeleton for an integration of the additional functionality. However, the Moodle community did not like the idea of integrating the eNOSHA LOR as an additional Moodle module and the main reason is that they have other plans for storage of learning objects in the version 2.0 of Moodle that is expected to be released in September 2010. After some more communication with the Moodle community we decided to choose the other alternative and construct the integration as a part of the eNOSHA system. The first testing of the system integration at the UCSC has so far given us positive feedback and this extension will be included in the coming version 1.6 of the eNOSHA Learning Object Repository.

  • 22.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Collin, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Olsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Visualisation and gamification of e-learning - attitudes among course participants2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Carlton Watson, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2015, p. 227-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Courses in virtual learning environments can leave recently enrolled participants in a state of loneliness (Brown, 1996), confusion (Hara & Kling, 2000) and boredom (Huang, 2002). What course content is essential in the course, where can more information be found and which assignments are mandatory? Research has stated that learner control (Chou & Liu, 2005) and motivation (Keller & Suzuki, 2004) are crucial issues for successful online education. This paper presents and discusses visualisation as a channel to improve learner control, and gamification as a way to increase study motivation in virtual learning environments. Data has been collected by evaluation questionnaires and group discussions in two courses partly given in the Moodle virtual learning environment. One course is on Game based learning for Bachelor’s programmes, the other is a course on e-learning for university teachers. Both the courses have used progress bars to visualise students study path and digital badges for gamification. Results have also been discussed with teachers and pedagogues at a department for computer and systems sciences. Findings indicate that visualisation by progress bars is a good way to improve course participants’ overview in online environments with rich and multifaceted content. To what degree the visualisation facilitates the course completion is hard to estimate, and like students have different learning styles, they also seem to have different visualisation needs. Gamification by digital badges seems to have various motivational impacts in different study groups and in traditional university programmes the traditional grades seem to be the main carrots.

  • 23.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Elggren, Otto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Clysén, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Exergames in Secondary School Physical Education: Attitudes Amongst Swedish Students2014In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Learning – ECEL 2014 / [ed] Örngreen, R.; Levinsen, K. T., Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2014, p. 347-353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital games have been introduced as educational tools in upper secondary education and studies show signs of improved language skills for students playing digital games, but there are few cases where digital games are used for physical education, or exergaming. To explore former secondary school students’ attitudes towards the use of digital games in physical education, a study was conducted. Survey findings were complemented through interviews aligned to the survey questionnaire. Results show that 59% of the respondents were positive to the concept of using computer games to aid physical education, while 40% claimed that it would not affect their attitude towards physical activities. The remaining 1% stated that it would reduce their motivation for physical education classes if exergames were introduced. Results showed no clear connection between individual interests and attitude towards exergames, except for those with a high interest in gaming showing a more positive attitude in general. Some variations in the attitudes towards different game genres were shown with stationary exergames being the most popular.

  • 24.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fagerström, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Söderquist, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Motivating factors and intrinsic integration of knowledge in educational games2016In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Game Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, p. 500-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicate that the educational potential of games has not been fully realised, and a lot of games used in education do not live up to the duality of entertainment and educational outcomes. While there is an endeavour to digitise and personalise education by using computer games there is a lack of knowledge about what makes an educational game effective. By examining popular entertainment games this study seeks to identify which factors are important for players' learning motivation. This study aims to explore and discuss if and how motivating factors and intrinsic integration of knowledge in educational games might be related to perceived acquisition of knowledge. Players of educational games were recruited from gaming forums and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The study used Lepper's and Malone's set of heuristics for intrinsic motivation in interactive learning environments and Habgood's and Ainsworth's theory of intrinsic integration to examine the relationship between these factors and the educational use of digital games. In addition to the direct acquisition of knowledge from gaming there was also an analysis of gamers' tangential learning. Results from a t-test showed that tangential learning was significantly more important for two of the tested games. Correlation analysis revealed several relationships between factors, where intrinsic integration was pointed out as particularly interesting for knowledge acquisition and tangential learning. Results showed weak or no relationships for Lepper and Malone factors, but with some tendencies for control, imagination and competition.

  • 25.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Innovative Use of Digital Audio in Research2009In: e-Asia Conference 2009: Book of Abstracts , 2009, p. 108-108Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kahigi, Evelyn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Important factors in ICT4D projects - towards a model for quality assessment2008In: Proceedings of the ICDE World Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) is an approach adopted to improve the socio-economic situation in poor countries. It includes e-learning, open and free software, e-democracy, digital media, e-government, capacity building and infrastructure development. Billions of dollars are invested in such programs financed by international aid organizations, state funded aid agencies and multinational private companies. Well known problems are poor infrastructure, crime and poor adaptations to the socio-cultural context. It is a complex multidisciplinary, multi stakeholder and multimedia field with an emerging theoretical framework.

    This paper identifies and examines important quality aspects of ICT4D projects and provides empirical ICT4D examples illustrating each aspect. The overall research question in this study is: What makes some ICT4D projects more successful than others?

    Based on the authors own experience of projects in Sri Lanka, Uganda and Vietnam as well as analysis of other projects, the following quality aspects are considered as crucial for successful implementation of ICT in development projects: 1) Authentic local needs, 2) Local ownership, 3) Realistic limitations, 4) Competence network, 5) Communication strategy, 6) Planning horizon, 7) Documentation/measurable results, 8) Resources and sustainability and 9) Fun/Motivation. The relevance of these aspects are discussed and exemplified in the article.

    The thematic areas identified provide a basis for an emerging model, intended to be useful in the design and planning phase as well as in monitoring and evaluation of ICT4D projects.

  • 27.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Kigozi Kahiigi, Evelyn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Important aspects in ICT4D projects: towards a model for quality assessment2009In: Revista de investigaciones UNAD, ISSN 0124-793X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) is an approach adopted to improve the socio-economic situation in poor countries. It includes e-learning, open and free software, e-democracy, digital media, e-government, capacity building and infrastructure development. Billions of dollars are invested in such programs financed by international aid organizations, state funded aid agencies and multinational private companies. Well known problems are poor infrastructure, crime and poor adaptations to the socio-cultural context. It is a complex multidisciplinary, multi stakeholder and multimedia field with an emerging theoretical framework. This paper identifies and examines important quality aspects of ICT4D projects and provides empirical ICT4D examples illustrating each aspect. The overall research question in this study is: What makes some ICT4D projects more successful than others? Based on the authors own experience of projects in Sri Lanka, Uganda and Vietnam as well as analysis of other projects, the following quality aspects are considered as crucial for successful implementation of ICT in development projects: 1) Authentic local needs, 2) Local ownership, 3) Realistic limitations, 4) Competence network, 5) Communication strategy, 6) Planning horizon, 7) Documentation/measurable results, 8) Resources and sustainability and 9) Fun/Motivation. The relevance of these aspects are discussed and exemplified in the article. The thematic areas identified provide a basis for an emerging model, intended to be useful in the design and planning phase as well as in monitoring and evaluation of ICT4D projects.

  • 28.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Conveyor Belt Production of Course Material – a Case Study in Sri Lanka2009In: Proceedings of the European Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Dan Remenyi, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2009, p. 406-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the content development process for an external bachelor degree in information technology (eBIT) at University of Colombo School of Computing (UCSC) in Sri Lanka. The eBIT degree program was started in the year 2000 and has since 2004 been funded from both the European Union (EU) and from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). Since the start of the project one of the main focuses has been on content development. Content development at UCSC is instrumental and hierarchal where different actors are responsible for different parts of the content development process. The different roles are Subject Matter Experts (SME) who decide what material that the course should be based on and what knowledge that should be transferred to the students; Instructional Designers (ID) are responsible for organizing the course and material, they decide the pedagogy to be used and how the instructions should be structured; Content Developers (CD) are the ones that create the actual content based on the instructions and material provided by the SMEs and IDs. This study is mainly based on observations that have been done since 2005 but also on interviews, both formal and informal, with UCSC staff. Since 2005 12 field trips have been done by the two authors - each lasting between two and three weeks - so an extensive understanding of the development process has been achieved over the years. The study is mainly descriptive as we explain the development process at UCSC which can be seen as a conveyor belt production of course material, but we also analyze the benefits and disadvantages this approach results in. Findings show that benefits of this approach are a high production of material and the model has also proved to be both time and cost effective. To further speed up the production the development process is highly dependent on templates, e.g. flash templates for learning activities and SCORM templates to design course and lesson structures. The use of templates to speed up the productions does, however, pose a disadvantage as there is a low degree of variety in activities in the produced material. Because of this the content does not fully support the pedagogy strived for in the eBIT program.

  • 29.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Hettiarachchi, Enosha
    eNOSHA - The Design and Development of a Learning Object Repository2010In: International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, ISSN 1800-4156, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hettiarachchi, Enosha
    eNOSHA, a Free, Open and Flexible Learning Object Repository: An Iterative Development Process for Global User-friendliness2012In: European Journal of Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, E-ISSN 1027-5207, no article 466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the iterative development process of a Learning Object Repository (LOR), named eNOSHA. Discussions on a project for a LOR started at the e-Learning Centre (eLC) at The University of Colombo, School of Computing (UCSC) in 2007. The eLC has during the last decade been developing learning content for a nationwide e-learning bachelor of information technology degree (eBIT) and a preparatory programme for the eBIT program (The Foundation in Information Technology, FIT). After analysing the specific needs at UCSC a decision was taken to develop a new repository since none of the analysed existing LOR systems could fulfil the UCSC requirements. There was an urgent need for a system that makes it easier for the eLC staff to sore and share course material. The system was designed with the main objectives to enhance the reusability of content and to support the content development process in a user-friendly way to assure user acceptance. We also identified the importance of a flexible LOR design to handle different type of content as well as various user contexts. The development process started with focus groups consisting of staff from UCSC and external project members from Sweden. A requirement analysis was carried out in December 2008, and based on the analysis a plan was drafted for the development and implementation of the system. As an overall system development method we used participatory design, where users have been involved in the design, evaluation and implementation of the system. Iterative testing and code revision for amendments and redesign and have been conducted at universities in Sri Lanka, Finland and Sweden according to the principles of Design science. Our aim with the chosen approach has been to develop a system that will meet the needs and requirements of the users at other universities countries than just only UCSC in Sri Lanka. Based on the testing of the system we had a positive response regarding the searchability and reuse of content but complaints on the uploading of content. Testing conducted in Finland and Sweden has revealed earlier unknown security issues as well lack of user-friendliness in the installation process. The integration of eNOSHA 1.6 with the Moodle virtual learning environment has been successful for the Moodle version 1.9 but with needs for redesign to work properly with the later Moodle 2.x versions.

  • 31.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Hewagamage, K. P.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards e-learning for all in Sri Lanka - progress and problems in some selected Sri Lankan 21st century initiatives2011In: Proceedings of Cambridge International Conference on Open, Distance and e-Learning, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 21st century Sri Lanka and many other regions in Asia have shown a rapid but heterogeneous development in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).The difference in impact on urban regions and rural areas has sometimes been described as the internal digital divide. At the same time as the gap has diminished between cities in developing countries and the developed world the internal development gap has increased in many Asian countries. How can this gap be bridged? In this paper some Sri Lankan initiatives for islandwide dissemination are analyzed and discussed. The study is built on observations, recorded interviews and a literature study. In formal tertiary education we have chosen a nationwide online learning programme for a Bachelor of Information Technology (eBIT) and how the content and curriculum was developed and revised by the National e-Learning Centre (NeLC), at the University of Colombo (UCSC). Regarding primary school and informal learning we have selected the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative and the Nenasala Telecentre network. We find that these initiatives together have improved life for people in rural areas but that there still exists an internal digital and social gap that needs further bridging.

  • 32.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Lesley, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Olsson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    IP-Please, design and development of an educational game on IT-security2016In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Game Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning is a research field with rich discussions on the use of games in educational contexts. Many of the educational games that exist today focus on subjects such as Language learning, Mathematics and History, and fewer on subjects in Computer Science and IT-security. Dissemination of information about IT-security is important in today's digital society not at least in the industry. As an example many firewalls today are misconfigured leading to decreased security at the same time as it is hard to motivate students or employees to read long detailed and tedious PDF-files with security information. Might things like firewall configuration instead be learnt by an educational game and how to design a learning game that could be used in university courses on IT-security? This study was conducted as a Development and evaluation focused design science, a branch of Design science where the emphasis mainly is on the development of an artefact and the evaluation of the artefact is done by a chosen research strategy. For this game prototype the evaluation of the prototype was done through a survey filled in by a test group of students following a programme on Digital game construction. None of the students have taken any university courses on IT-security. Evaluation results show that the developed artefact IP Please, was not complete but works fairly well in its educational purpose, and that it has good potential for use in education at university level. Respondents were in general positive to the learning content and that their perception was that they had learnt useful facts about firewalls, ports, IP-addresses and how to configure firewalls. On the other hand they had quite a negative attitude towards the absence of narration and the lack of an engaging backstory. Furthermore there were complaints about the graphical user interface and poor usability without any considerations about accessibility. The homogenous test group with students from a game construction programme only might be a bit biased with a generally positive attitude to gaming and learning games combined with high demands for gameplay and graphic design.

  • 33.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Megammaana, Niranjan
    Cross-ethnic collaboration at a Sri Lankan Telecentre – barriers for effective E-learning in rural regions2012In: Herald Journal of Education and General Studies, ISSN 2350-2177, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 022-027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sri Lanka has a tradition of being a multi-ethnic nation and in the post war Sri Lanka there is still a big social and economical gap between different population groups. English has been suggested as the official common language for Singalese, Tamils, Muslims and other Sri Lankan citizens. But at telecentres in rural areas the challenge today is more about how to provide content in local languages. The main research question in this article is to analyse and discuss which factors are important in the management of a telecentre in a poor non urban region with a multicultural and multilingual population. This article is based on observations, group discussions and interviews with different stakeholders at the Haldemulla telecentre and some other neighbour telecentres between 2008 and 2011. Findings show that the cross-ethnical collaboration between the Sinhalese owner, the Tamil manager and the telecentre visitors works well and is not the crucial problem. At the Haldemmulla Nenasala telecentre the prime problems are more about the current lack of Internet access and how to keep the best employees when the salaries are far below the standard income for staff in the urban ICT industry. However the Nenasala telecentre in Haldemmulla has found a model that seems to be sustainable and with or without Internet access they have their regular visitors and provide appreciated services to the local community. This telecentre has since its inauguration been one of the best performing in the island-wide Sri Lankan Nenasala network. But the rate off regular visitors has decreased when we compare with the situation at our first visit in 2008. Since teachers as well as teaching sessions have improved we find the lack of Internet access to be the factor that has had an impact on the number of monthly visitors. Internet is today an important source for information in poor rural areas as well as in richer metropolitan regions. Another challenge for a multicultural telecentre is how to provide high quality digital content in the various local languages.

  • 34.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Megammaana, Niranjan
    Differently-Abled Persons with ICT Ability - Inclusion and Empowerment in Sri Lankan Rural Areas via Telecentres2011In: Proceedings of Cambridge International Conference on Open, Distance and e-Learning, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT facilities are unevenly spread in many countries and Sri Lanka definitely has its internal digital divide. The fast growth of ICT services in urban areas are not matched on the countryside. Telecentres in the Sri Lankan Nenasala network have frequently been used to support poor and isolated regions in a try to bridge the digital divide. This article is based on observations and interviews with the staff at the Koslanda Nenasala during two visits to the telecentre. The aim of this case study is to examine and discuss if a telecentre managed and operated by disabled persons could serve as a hub for inclusion and empowerment of other disabled people in a rural region. Findings shows that disabled persons can organize and run a telecentre in an innovative way with results above average. The Koslanda Nenasala has contributed to empowerment and career opportunities for disabled people in the region. The Koslanda organization and service model has also been replicated at five other telecentres in the Sri Lankan Hill Country. Other problems identified for a telecentre run and used by disabled persons are the costs for qualified staff and transportations. Telecentres in general are depending on Internet access and this dependency is even stronger for a telecentre managed and used by disabled people.

  • 35.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Olsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Putting the Programming Hut Online: Self Learning for the Net-Generation2015In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on e-Learning ECEL 2015 / [ed] Amanda Jefferies, Marija Cubric, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2015, p. 417-421Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming is a core subject in most Computer science programmes at university level but research studies indicates that students face difficulties with the understanding of theoretical concepts as well as practical code construction. The Digital natives or the Net-generation are now enrolling university programmes and they are the first generation that has used computers and online tools since childhood. Programming education has a tradition of programming huts, where students in introductory programming courses get exercises to explore fundamental programming concepts with instant feedback. To provide quality feedback in the traditional form requires experienced facilitators and costly venues for today’s large course batches. At the department where this study has been conducted there exists a tradition of a weekly lab hut for general Computer science but an online environment with 24/7 access would be an enhancement. This study has explored the potential of an online environment for programming exercises in the Python programming language named MyProgrammingLab. The aim of the study is to describe and discuss how an online programming laboratory might support the learning of programming concepts in introductory university courses. The research strategy has been a case study where data has been collected by an evaluation questionnaire, informal discussions and an analysis of students’ study patterns in the virtual learning environment. Findings indicate that students have different learning styles and that some students have worked thoroughly with most of the material in MyProgrammingLab, but that the majority only have used the environment for the initial exercises on fundamental programming concepts. Some learners also mention that they got stuck in the online environment and that they lack the feedback that they can get in tradition face-to-face sessions. Conclusions are that the evaluated online environment can be a valuable extra tool for self-learning, but to reach a larger part of the course participants with their various learning styles there is a need for a closer alignment to the course content which would need a different course outline.

  • 36.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahuman, Kalelur
    Wikramanayake, Gihan N.
    A Sri Lankan one-to-one computing initiative and its impact on formal learning in primary School2012In: Herald Journal of Education and General Studies, ISSN 2350-2177, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 016-021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-to-one computing has lately become a frequently used buzzword in the discussions on e-learning in primary education. The main idea in one-to-one computing is to provide every student with a personal computer. This has often been combined with Internet access and the idea to share content but not to share the computers This study has been focused on the Sri Lankan OLPC initiative and data has been gathered from three selected primary schools in the project. In the Sri Lankan OLPC model there is no focus on Internet connectivity and the emphasis is on content development in local languages. Schools chosen in this first one year pilot project are to be classified as to be “the poorest of the poor” and located in rural areas. The research question in this paper is, if and why the introduction of one-to-one computing has had an impact on the formal learning outcomes. All the visited schools have had technical as well as pedagogical problems during the first year, but findings show that there has been an impact on formal learning in subjects like Mathematics and English. We believe that the Sri Lankan emphasis on content development is part of the explanation but also that the strong commitment amongst teachers and parents has contributed. Our recommendation is that this pilot project should be extended but that the focus should be kept on poor schools in non urban areas. We also give some suggestions on how to improve the content development and how to extend the support.

  • 37.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rahuman, Kalelur
    Wikramanayake, Gihan N.
    Two Years of One-to-one Computing in Sri Lanka – The Impact on Formal and Informal Learning in Primary School Education2012In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2012 / [ed] T. Bastiaens & G. Marks, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) , 2012, p. 1192-1201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-to-one computing is a concept that has been implemented in different ways in different countries during the last years with more than two million laptops distributed in 40 countries. In the frequently discussed One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project the standard concept is to combine internet access with the idea of primary school students sharing digital content with individual non-shared computers. The Sri Lankan setup is a bit different since content development has been prioritized and internet facilities have been left out in a pilot project involving 13 schools and around 1000 computers. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the impact on formal and informal learning during the first two years of the Sri Lankan OLPC initiative and its positive and negative side effects. Research data was collected during 2010-2012 when 6 of the 13 schools in the Sri Lankan OLPC initiative were visited. Recorded semi-structured interviews are combined with group discussions and observations. The outcome of the Sri Lankan OLPC pilot must be seen as successful despite the problems with hardware support and the lack of internet or intranet access. Computer based training with content in local languages has been implemented and used in a way that has been beneficial for students, teachers as well as parents. Findings show that there is a positive impact on formal as well as informal learning and that the positive side effects are greater than the negative side effects. The XO computers used in the pilot project are relatively fragile and difficult to maintain and without a more organized hardware support some schools have more than one child per laptop. Our recommendation for a future extension of this pilot project is to replace the XO computers with some kind of more robust PC tablets. We find the Sri Lankan OLPC initiative promising and worth extending to more primary schools. However, there is for the moment not easy to find out what the future decision will be and the answers from the Ministry of Education have been vague.

  • 38.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Roy, Amit
    Education on Wheels – Mobile Dissemination of E-services and Computer Based Learning in Rural Gujarat, India2012In: The Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Hans Beldhuis, Academic Publishing International , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Vision 2020 there is a belief that India will be the world’s leading country in less than a decade. When many countries in the developed world will have a high average age among its citizens in 2020, India is expected to have the youngest population in the world. If India will succeed in their strive for education for all this vision can come through, but if the strategies for mass education fails the vision will probably fail as well. In the five foundational pillars of the Vision 2020 education and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are important factors. Out of the about one million public schools in India, less than 0.2% has access to internet or any implementation of computer based learning. In the age group of 6-14 years not more than 80 million children out of approximately 200 million go to school on a regularly basis. Gujarat is a state in western India well-known as the land of Mahatma Gandhi and a part of India with a fast economical growth in the 21th century. Gujarat is also known for a relatively good infrastructure management and educational reorganization. The aim of this paper is to describe some selected bus based initiatives for technology enhanced learning in Gujarat and discuss how they can contribute to the current education and future development in rural areas. This article is based on a combination of a literature study and digitally recorded semi-structured interviews conducted by the authors during a visit to Gujarat in 2011. We find that the bus based initiatives described in this article will improve the dissemination of e-learning in Gujarat but exactly to what extent is hard to say since they all are recently started projects. Old traditional transportation technology has been combined with ICT in a creative way that might contribute to bridge the educational gap between urban and rural areas in the region. If India can get the bottom of the pyramid on board as well and provide quality education for rural regions, the country might reach some of the objectives described in the optimistic Vision 2020.

  • 39.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Serey Becker, Tomás José
    Escobar Rojas, Daniel
    ePortfolios for Entrepreneurs: Design and Development of an Online Distance Course2016In: 15th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL 2016): Proceedings / [ed] Jarmila Novotna, Antonin Jancarik, Academic Conferences Limited, 2016, p. 506-512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting entrepreneurship is a frequently used strategy to fight unemployment in Europe as well as in Latin America. New established entrepreneurs in the diaspora often have difficulties to present themselves, their ideas and Curriculum vitae to reach an international audience. One idea for global and affordable presentations is to provide entrepreneurs with tools for ePortfolio construction online on the World Wide Web. English has always been the main language on the web but several studies indicate that problematic learning involving technical activities better is carried out in learners’ mother tongue. This study is based on a secondment in the DiasporaLink project where an online course for ePortfolio construction has been designed and implemented in a collaboration between the Stockholm University in Sweden and the University of Development/Universidad Del Desarollo in Santiago de Chile. Two fundamental design concepts for the course are multimodality and bilingualism with Spanish as a complement for more technical sections of the course. The research question that the study aims to answer is: What are important factors in the design of an online course aiming to facilitate for entrepreneurs that want to construct and publish their own ePortfolios? The overall framework for the study has been a Design science setup with three phases where the aim has been to design, implement and evaluate an online course on ePortfolio construction with the use of HTML5 and jQuery. In the first phase design ideas have been gathered from a literature study before the second phase where the actual implementation was carried out. The final evaluation has been conducted in two iterations with the first evaluation done by a small focus group and the second by a NGO supporting unemployed female entrepreneurs. Findings show that both multimodality and bilingualism are promising design concepts for online courses. The first concept is rather easy to implement with new affordable recording options and an abundance of multimedia resources available on the net. The second concept of bilingualism is harder to implement and optimise since different target groups have different levels of English skills. Ideal would be to have everything doubled in all languages but with the problem of a more time consuming and expensive course development. Finally, the handshake procedure is, as always, crucial for an online course where user’s first impressions of slow response times and complicated login procedures seem to scare off presumptive course participants without earlier experience of distance education.

  • 40.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Shabalina, Olga
    Malliarakis, Christos
    Tomos, Florica
    Miller, Chris
    Turner, David
    Let the students contruct their own fun and knowledge - learning to program by building computer games2013In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Vol. 1 and 2 / [ed] Paula Escudeiro, Carlos Vaz de Carvalho, Academic Conferences and Publishing International , 2013, p. 418-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer programming is a core subject in most Computer science programmes at university level but many students have difficulties with both the understanding of theoretical concepts and with the learning of practical programming skills. Several studies have pointed out that there exist pedagogical and motivational problems resulting in high drop-out rates and low learning outcomes. On the other hand today’s students have grown up in a digital and internet connected world where playing computer games is a common and appreciated spare time activity. It has been discussed during many years amongst teachers and researchers which important features a programming language should have to support learning and which the appropriate programming paradigms are for introductory programming courses. Less has been discussed and written about modifying the actual course content and use the recognised attraction and catalytic effect of computer games. The aim of this case study is to describe, analyze and discuss the concept of learning to program by game construction. In this case study two course analyses have been combined with a literature review on pedagogy for Game Based Learning (GBL Findings from the literature review show that the idea of students constructing knowledge in their interactions with their environment is not a new one and that games have been used in educational contexts long before the introduction of computers. The idea of Game based learning has support in the constructivist learning theory concept that was introduced theoretically at university level in the 1970s by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Results from the study also indicate that the practical application of the game construction concept has been successful in the two investigated programming courses both when it comes to student motivation and learning outcomes. Furthermore, this game based pedagogy can motivate students not only to develop themselves as future programmers but also to become more innovative and entrepreneurial by improving the quality and performance of the games in order to deploy, promote and sell them.

  • 41.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Tomos, Florica
    Shabalina, Olga
    Miller, Chris
    Malliarakis, Christos
    Balan, Oana Cristina
    Chickerur, Satyadhyan
    Game-Based Technologies in Teaching Programming in Higher Education: Theory and Practices2015In: Recent Patents on Computer Science, ISSN 1874-4796, Vol. 8, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The trend of new emerging technologies has impact upon teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions. Consequently, emphasis is placed on digital pedagogy and its support to knowledge creation. Further, it seems to be essential to understand the learning theories and their contribution to learning in HEIs within this digital age. METHODS: One of the most powerful technologies is the digital game –based technology. Knowing its rapid development, this research emphasizes the importance of programming and game construction as well as the principles of digital pedagogy, required to be embedded when designing such technologies. Today’s students have grown up in a digital and internet connected world where playing computer games is a common spare time activity. Could the energy, enthusiasm and practice generated by computer games be used in programming education? RESULTS: This article describes and discusses the design and learning outcomes of some programming courses using the concept of learning to program by game construction. In a case study the course analyses have been combined with two literature reviews on Game Based Learning and Digital Pedagogy. CONCLUSION: Findings show that the idea of students constructing knowledge from their interactions with the environment has support in the modern pedagogy that draws on the theories by Piaget and Vygotsky. Practical applications of these concepts have had successful outcomes and increased student motivation in the two described and analyzed programming courses.

  • 42.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Torberg, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Calderon Castillo, Christobal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An Educational Game for Mobile Learning – Some Essential Design Factors2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Carlton Watson, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming is an important core subject in most Computer science programmes at university level but several studies show that students are facing difficulties both with theoretical understanding and practical code construction. At the department where this study was conducted around 50% of the students fail to complete their introductory programming courses. Some researchers claim that this is a pedagogical problem involving psychological and motivational aspects. The use of mobile phones and ubiquitous gaming has increased in the 21st century. Might it be possible to get students to play educational games on their smart phones as an extra-curricular activity and what design aspects are important to get the students to play the game? The overall approach for this study is Design science in a setup with three phases where a mobile learning game prototype has been designed, developed and evaluated. A main learning objective in the game is to practice basic programming techniques in the Python programming language. To get ideas for important programming concepts a survey was sent to teachers that are subject matter experts for various introductory programming courses at university level. For game design and appropriate game mechanics a literature study was conducted. The research question that the study aims to answer is: Which are the key factors in the design and construction of a game for mobile platforms aiming to teach introductory programming? Findings show that design, implementation and testing of an educational game are time consuming processes for the development of quality artefacts useful as extra resources on university courses. Interviewed students had in general a positive attitude towards the game but today’s Digital natives or Generation Y also have high demands when it comes to usability and gameplay. Essential key factors for a mobile educational game found in this study are: simplicity, mobility, usability, playability and entertainment, gradually increasing game levels, practical and conceptual understanding, collaboration, competition, feedback and built-in documentation.

  • 43.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Gaming habits, study habits and compulsive gaming among digital gaming natives2016In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Game Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, p. 486-491Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so called "N-generation" or the "Digital natives" extensive use of computers and Internet resources have been widely discussed in research, but there are different opinions on how good their general computer skills are seen from a Computer science perspective. Considering digital gaming there seem to be stronger indications supporting the concept of a new generation with new habits. Most students in the group from where data has been collected for this study have gaming experiences from early pre-school childhood and will therefore in this paper be called "Digital gaming natives". Gaming has also been a considerable part of their later childhood and they are all enrolled for studies on computer game construction. The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss digital native gamers’ gaming habits and how excessive gaming might have disturbed school studies or other social activities. Data has been collected from a course batch of 30 students following a university programme for Game construction at a department of Computer science. Out of the 28 students that wrote essays about their gaming habits 6 are female and 22 are male. A content analysis was conducted based on the student essays that were submitted and discussed online in a course on Games-based learning. Students’ experiences from gaming habits and study habits were also discussed at course seminars and have later been discussed with other teachers. Findings show that the Digital gaming natives’ gaming habits definitely are strong and that they in many situations have clashed with the informants’ study habits. In several cases parents have created gaming restrictions and there are examples of students’ self-restrictions, but there exist also examples of when excessive nightly gaming have interfered with the daily school work. Almost all students’ defend their gaming and claim that it has given them a richer life with nice experiences even if there are risks of addiction and displacement. One student wrote in his essay that: "Generally, gaming is a fantastic possibility to escape daily routines for a while to be immersed, to discover and to learn. At the same time this can lead to less pleasant states like compulsive gaming or addiction."

  • 44.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Norberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Transfer of knowledge and skills from computer gaming to non-digital real world contexts2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Carlton Watson, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "N-generation" or the "digital natives" have now entered university programmes and their extensive use of computers and digital games is a fact (Spires 2008). Digital games and gamification are also proliferating in private, professional as well as in educational domains (Reinhardt & Sykes 2014). Phenomena as play, narration and gamification are classified as transmedial, i.e. they exist in digital as well as non-digital contexts (Dymek, 2010), but there is no consensus on learning transfer from digital gaming to real world contexts. While some researchers claim a strong learning potential (Gee, 2003; Reinhardt & Sykes, 2014), others have more sceptical standpoints (Hays 2005; Linderoth 2012). Would the opinions on learning transfer be different if the question is asked to the digital natives themselves? The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss what students in the digital natives’ generation might have learnt in gaming and if acquired skills and knowledge can be transferred to other contexts. A content analysis has been carried out on student essays submitted and discussed in a course on Games-based learning. Students’ experiences from gaming and learning transfer have also been discussed in course examination seminars. Findings show that the digital natives definitely have strong gaming habits, and a majority of the students perceived that they had learnt meaningful things from gaming. Regarding knowledge and skill transfer, variations were noted among the various types of games. Furthermore, there are several examples from both educational games and commercial-off-the-shelf games where acquired skills and knowledge can be seen as transmedial and of use in non-digital contexts.

  • 45.
    Männikkö-Barbutiu, Sirkku
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Peiris, Ranil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Telecenters for the Future in Tea Estates of Sri Lanka2016In: ICT for Promoting Human Development and Protecting the Environment: 6th IFIP World Information Technology Forum, WITFOR 2016 San José, Costa Rica, September 12–14, 2016 Proceedings / [ed] Francisco J. Mata, Ana Pont, 2016, p. 121-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study conducted at one of the Sri Lankan tea estate districts, exploring the present day status of telecenters to examine how they have succeeded in meeting the initial high expectations attached to them. During a field study, two major types of telecenters have been examined through observations, interviews and document analysis. Our findings suggest that the challenges of the initiation phase still prevail. The hopes are placed on the younger generation, as they are regarded as those who can benefit from the ICTs and thus contribute to the development of the remote communities of tea estates. In the concluding discussion, we advocate for the possibilities of co-designing new services that might help to transform the telecenters to meet the needs and requirements of the tea estate communities of today and tomorrow.

  • 46.
    Norberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Web Accessibility by Morse Code Modulated Haptics for Deaf-blind2015In: Technology, Rehabilitation and Empowerment of People with special Needs / [ed] Lena Pareto, Paul M Sharkey and Joav Merrick, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015, no 0, p. 123-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing information using a modality that is both non-visual and non-auditory such as haptic feedback may be a viable approach regarding web accessibility for deaf-blind. Haptic navigation systems have been shown easy to learn and modulating navigation related information as patterns of vibrations is viewed as natural and non-intrusive. To minimise the bandwidth needed, a varying length encoding scheme such as Morse code may be considered. A prototype Morse code vibration modulated system for web page navigation was developed, using a standard game controller as a means of output. Results show that simulated deaf-blind test subjects using the system were able to navigate a web site successfully in three cases out of four. In some situations a version of the system with a higher degree of manual interaction performed better.

  • 47.
    Norberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Web Accessibility by Morse Code Modulated Haptics for Deaf-Blind2014In: The 10th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, Göteborg: ICDVRAT , 2014, p. 257-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing information using a modality that is both non-visual and non-auditory such as haptic feedback, may be a viable approach regarding web accessibility for deaf-blind. Haptic navigation systems have been shown to be easy to learn (Venesvirta 2008), and modulating navigation related information as patterns of vibrations has been shown to be perceived as natural and non-intrusive (Szymzcak, Magnusson and Rassmus-Gröhn 2012). To minimise the bandwidth needed, a varying length encoding scheme such as Morse code may be considered. A prototype Morse code vibration modulated system for web page navigation was developed, using a standard game controller as a means of output. Results show that simulated deaf-blind test subjects using the system were able to navigate a web site successfully in three cases out of four, and that in some situations a version of the system with a higher degree of manual interaction performed better.

  • 48.
    Norberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Westin, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Web accessibility by Morse code modulated haptics for deaf-blind2016In: International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, ISSN 1939-5965, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing information using a modality that is both non-visual and nonauditory such as haptic feedback may be a viable approach regarding web accessibility for deaf-blind. Haptic navigation systems have been shown easy to learn and modulating navigation related information as patterns of vibrations is viewed as natural and non-intrusive. To minimise the bandwidth needed, a varying length encoding scheme such as Morse code may be considered. A prototype Morse code vibration modulated system for web page navigation was developed, using a standard game controller as a means of output. Results show that simulated deaf-blind test subjects using the system were able to navigate a web site successfully in three cases out of four. In some situations a version of the system with a higher degree of manual interaction performed better.

  • 49.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    A framework for evaluating and orchestrating game-based learning that fosters computional thinking2018In: EDULEARN18: Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 1305-1310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some years now many teachers around the world have explored programming with their pupils in K-9 education. Research has shown that educational games of different kinds are often utilized by teachers as a mean for teaching programming and developing computational thinking among pupils. However, teaching and learning programming and computational thinking trough educational games is associated with a number of challenges. One of those challenges are related to that teachers are presented with an ever increasing amount of educational games and not supported with tools that, one the one hand, can help them evaluate the didactical affordances and potentials of specific games so they can select curriculum appropriate games, and on the other hand, that can help them design and orchestrate game-based learning activities. It is against such a background this paper presents a framework for the evaluation and orchestration of game-based learning activities that fosters computational thinking. The framework consists of two dimensions, namely game mechanics and learning mechanics. These two dimensions consists of a number of aspects that teachers and researchers can take into account in order to evaluate and design activities, and to reap the benefits of the didactical affordances of the games and the available scaffolding resources built inside games and available outside of them.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    GAME-BASED LEARNING AND GAME CONSTRUCTION AS AN E-LEARNING STRATEGY IN PROGRAMMING EDUCATION2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong trend in the 21st century has been the transformation of traditional face-to-face rostrum teaching to blended learning in online learning environments. There are several research studies describing that these new virtual learning environments can leave learners in a state of loneliness and boredom resulting in low motivation and high drop-out rates. In studies of programming education there have been frequent reports about high drop-out rates and poor outcomes. This study analyses and discusses a distance course on multimedia programming where the authors have been subject matter experts and content developers as well as teachers and facilitators. Practically everything in the course activities is built around game analysis and game construction including a final project where students design and implement their own educational games. Main didactic approaches in the course are constructionism, game-based learning and multimodality. With a case study approach data was collected from course documents, evaluation questionnaires, students' games and online discussion fora. Findings indicate that game-based learning (GBL) can be a catalyst creating energy and motivation especially for students in the digital natives’ generation. The idea of game construction with multimedia in open assignments might also be a way to increase pass rates in programming courses at university level. Furthermore, multimodality in course content and course activities seems to be a promising concept and not only for programming courses. However, the described combination of GBL and multimodality is no silver bullet, and rather just one e-learning strategy worth combining with others.

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