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  • 1.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att få vad man förtjänar: Rättviseupplevelser i samband med individuell lönesättning.2005In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 11, no 2, 93-107 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har individuell lön haft ett påtagligt genombrott inom den offentliga sektorn sedan början av 1990-talet. Den grundläggande tanken är att individuell lön ska leda till ökad arbetsprestation, men för att detta lönesystem ska fungera som styrmedel måste de anställda acceptera kriterierna för fördelningen av lönemedel och uppleva att lönesättningen sker på ett rättvist sätt. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka faktorer som kan bidra till individers upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen. Sammanfattningsvis tyder resultatet på att det är arbetsklimat (t ex återkoppling på arbetsresultat) och lönefaktorer (t ex kännedom om lönekriterier och jämställdhet i lönefrågor) som har störst betydelse. Däremot tycks bakgrundsfaktorer och personlighet vara av marginell betydelse för individers upplevelser av lönerättvisa.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceptions of justice in connection with individualized pay setting2007In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, Vol. 28, no 3, 431-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individualized pay is typically assumed to enhance employee work motivation, but a precondition for such beneficial effects is that employees perceive the pay-setting process to be fair. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the nature, determinants and consequences of pay justice. Questionnaire data, obtained from a Swedish nationally representative sample of nurses, provided support for distinguishing between distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice. The results also showed that perceptions of pay justice were predicted by both work climate variables and factors related to the pay-setting procedure, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Although pay justice had only marginal effects on employee work attitudes and behaviour when demographics, work climate and pay-related factors had been taken into account, justice was found to be an important goal in itself, given that a prerequisite for the success of any pay system is that it is perceived as fair.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector2005In: Change and quality in human service work: dedicated to the work of André Büssing / [ed] Christian Korunka & Peter Hoffmann, Munich: Rainer Hampp Verlag, 2005, 1, 67-82 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work climate has gone through immense changes during the recent decades, due to industrial reformation, economic recessions, technical advancements, and an increased global competition (Howard, 1995). The so-called New Public Management movement has inspired many European countries and has among other things led to changes in the way that wages are distributed (Pfeffer, 1997; Wikman, 2001). Wage distribution systems partly based on individual performance are increasingly taking over traditional wage distribution systems in many organizations in Europe (OECD, 1995). Employers appear to have great expectations that individualized performance-based wages will bring about higher employee motivation and performance etc (Lawler, 1991). The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector and try to identify some of the factors behind their attitudes. Questionnaire data show that employees with the most positive attitudes towards individualized pay already had part of their salary based on performance. A person’s attitude towards individualized pay also seems to be positively related to perceived workload and mental health complaints. Older employees and employees with longer tenure reported the most negative attitudes towards individualized performance based wages. This study contributes to a better understanding of some of the factors underlying attitudes towards individually based wages among human service employees.

  • 4.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The impact of pay-related justice perceptions on employee work attitudes, psychological well-being, and work-related behavior.2006In: 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology.: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of individualized pay has increased during the last decades. Employers expect individualized pay systems to bring about more efficient and motivated employees, who are willing to heighten their work efforts in order to achieve organizational goals. A certain amount of cooperation and communication between supervisor and employee throughout the different parts in the individualized pay-setting process is required. Although research on leadership and its impact on employees perceptions are extensive (Pfeffer, 1997), there is need to study whether interpersonal competency of leaders in the pay-setting process affects outcomes such as employee satisfaction, performance and well-being. It would be reasonable to assume that employees who have a positive view of the supervisor-employee relationship and regards the supervisor’s conduct in the pay-setting process as fair, also would experience a greater satisfaction, commitment, and are less inclined to quit than individuals with more negative perceptions of the relationship with their supervisor and his/her conduct in the pay-setting process. Questionnaire data was collected among 721 health care workers. The response rate was 81 percent (N=582). The proportion of women was 88 percent, and the mean age 48 (SD=10) years. The results indicate that a clear communication concerning expectations and goals is probably the most important supervisor quality for all five outcomes, followed by supervisor legitimacy and competency, respectful treatment and gender equality.

  • 5.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Rekryteringsmyndigheten, Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Means of Sustainable Recruitment: The Importance of Selection Factors and Psychosocial Working Conditions in Predicting Work and Health OutcomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on selection factors often focuses on how to identify suitable candidates, while fewer studies have investigated the long-term effects of such selection factors once the suitable candidates have started working and faced the work situation. The overall aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of selection factors (general intelligence, personality, and physical fitness), measured during recruitment, and psychosocial working conditions (e.g., workload, job control, and job challenge)for four different outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, occupational retention, and health). Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including information from both the recruitment process and a three-and-a-half year follow-up. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that psychosocial working conditions were far more important than the selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The strong effects of psychosocial working conditions for new officers’ work-related attitudes and health suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities facilitating the organizational and professional entrance of newcomers by providing a sound work climate.

  • 6.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Police selection – implications during training and early career2015In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 38, no 2, 221-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The cost of selecting and training new police officers is high. However, previous researchhas provided limited guidance on how to select the best applicants. The purpose of this paper is toenhance the understanding of the possibilities to select suitable applicants by using combinations offour common categories of selection methods, namely cognitive tests, personality inventories, physicaltests, and rater-based methods (i.e. interviews).

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of Swedish police recruits (n¼750) the authorsperformed hierarchical multiple regression analyses, predicting four criteria – performance, satisfaction,retention, and health – at three consecutive time points (after two years of academy training, after sixmonths of field training, and after the first work year).

    Findings – No group of selection methods consistently predicted all four criteria at the three timepoints. In most analyses more than one class of selection methods were statistically significant, but thefindings did not support the use of rater-based methods.

    Practical implications – Instead of the common praxis of using interviews, the findings suggest analternative praxis. This involves using the remaining information from cognitive tests, personalityinventories, and general fitness tests that had been used in earlier hurdles to screen out unsuitable applicants.

    Originality/value – The study extends previous research by including several follow-ups, showingthe value of combining different selection methods, and using alternative criteria of successful policerecruitment (i.e. satisfaction, retention, and health).

  • 7.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Use and interpretation of test scores from limited cognitive test batteries: How g plus Gc can equal g2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, 399-408 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single scores from limited and unbalanced test batteries of cognitive ability can be ambiguous to interpret theoretically. In this study, a limited verbally and knowledge-loaded cognitive test battery, from applicants to the Swedish police academies (N=1,344), was examined to provide foundations for the use and interpretation of test scores. Three measurement models were compared: one single factor model and two bifactor models, which decomposed the variance of the battery into orthogonal components. The models were evaluated by fit indices and omega coefficients, and then applied to the prediction of academic performance. The overall prediction of all models was similar, although specific abilities also were found to provide substantial predictive validity over and above general intelligence (g). The findings provide support for the use of single scores in applied settings (selection), but suggest that it may be more appropriate to interpret such scores as composites of substantive components, and not just as measures of g.

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torbiörn, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbets- och organisationspsykologi: Individ och organisation i samspel2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken anlägger ett brett perspektiv på individen i arbetslivet som spänner över både arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Författarna tar upp de ramar som modernt arbetsliv skapar och hur individen rör sig innanför dessa. De beskriver arbetets roll i livet, samspelet på arbetsplatsen och vilken betydelse det kan ha för individen. Likaså behandlas fenomen som organisationsförändringar, ledarskap och motivation. Författarna har en gedigen erfarenhet av undervisning och forskning inom ämnet vilket gör boken både pedagogiskt upplagd och uppdaterad inom de senaste rönen. Boken är skriven för studerande i psykologi och beteendevetenskapliga utbildningar samt i företagsekonomi med organisationsinriktning. Boken är även lämplig för HR-specialister, chefer och andra med intresse av hur samspelet mellan individ och organisation bidrar till att skapa hållbara arbetsvillkor och effektiva organisationer.

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. (numera verksam vid Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsuppdrag och återhämtning i välfärdstjänstearbete2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 2, 7-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver ett uppdragsperspektiv på arbete, det vill säga en fokusering på hur ett arbetsuppdrag formas och är sammansatt med avseende på resurser och krav med betydelse för att kunna genomföra uppdraget på ett bra sätt. I studien undersöks hur förutsättningarna för att utföra arbetet, i termer av arbetskrav och resurser i arbetet, hänger samman med återhämtning inom välfärdstjänstearbete i två kommuner. Uppdragsförutsättningarna har ett relativt högt förklaringsvärde gentemot återhämtning men de ingående variablerna bidrar i olika grad.

  • 10.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jawaid Kalyal, H.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Importance of Commitment to Change in Public Reform: an Example from Pakistan2010In: Journal of Change Management, ISSN 1469-7017, E-ISSN 1479-1811, Vol. 10, no 4, 347-368 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sectors in many developing countries have undergone major restructuring over the past decades. Earlier research suggests that such restructuring is inherently linked to feelings of ambiguity and insecurity among employees, undermining behavioral support for change, and thus, chances of change success. Using survey data from a restructured public sector organization in Pakistan, this study investigated the mediating role of commitment to change on the relationship between role ambiguity/job insecurity and behavioral support for change. The results show that role ambiguity and job insecurity were negatively related to both commitment to change and behavioral support for change. More importantly, however, the results support the notion that the negative effects of role ambiguity and job insecurity on behavioral support for change are fully mediated by individuals’ commitment to change. The study emphasizes the importance of mobilizing commitment to change in restructuring processes.

  • 11.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Facket och det moderna arbetslivet: TriOs uppgång och fall.2005In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 11, no 1, 5-21 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionally, the union has held an important place in Swedish working life. The dynamic nature of today's working life, however, has brought about changes in the needs of union members, compelling unions to adapt accordingly. A common approach to dealing with this issue has been union mergers, which can lead to advantages of scale, broader membership representation, and greater negotiating leverage. A common problem with union mergers, however, is that the majority of them are not carried through to completion. A limited amount of research has been dedicated to trying to explain why it is so difficult to carry out union mergers. This study investigates a failed merger (TriO) amongst four unions within the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO). The aim of this study is to investigate those factors that can be considered important when facing a merger, such as information and support, and the general attitude of union members. The results show that there are clear differences between the unions, as well as within the unions, regarding, for example, knowledge of the planned merger, and attitudes toward union mergers.

  • 12.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chaison, G.
    Absorptions in times of restructuring: The importance of attitude toward merger in predicting post-merger attachment levels2010In: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 41, no 1, 52-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unions frequently restructure through merger, most often in the form of absorptions involving one bigger union absorbing a smaller one. However, the individual-level effects of merger resulting in big amorphous organisations remain unclear. In this article, we highlight the role of the individual member in union absorptions, and investigate the relative importance of being a member of a large absorbing union or a small absorbed union, as well as the attitude of members towards merger in predicting post-merger member attachment. The results from longitudinal data before and after absorption showed that members’ attitude towards merger significantly predicted the members’ attachment levels after absorption—this was, however, not the case for union commitment. We also uncovered a significant interaction indicating that the effect of members’ attitude towards merger was more strongly related to perceptions of union support and instrumentality among members of the absorbed union.

  • 13.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chaison, Gary
    Getting members on board: Democratic issues in union merger negotiations2008In: Employee Relations, ISSN 0142-5455, Vol. 30, no 3, 221-236 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine a failed union merger attempt from a democratic perspective. Although it is estimated that a majority of planned union mergers are never completed, the existing literature is unsuccessful in explaining why it is so. Stressing the importance for merging unions to keep their members informed and participative in the merger process, we highlight two democratic aspects of merger implementation: information anchoring (i.e. the spreading of merger relevant information throughout the membership), and participatory union climate (i.e. the extent to which union leaders provide members with opportunities to participate in union activities and decision making). The act of voting for or against a merger proposal can be regarded as a manifestation of democratic aspects in the internal negotiation process. Thus, members' intention to vote for or against the merger proposal was also analyzed.

  • 14.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chaison, Gary
    It’s Been a Hard Day’s Work: Exploring the Hardships of Union Mergers.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach for unions to face changes in the industrial environment is through merger. Although mergers can lead to economies of scales, broader membership representation, and greater bargaining power, studies of merger attempts show they are exceedingly difficult to implement, with a majority not completed. The merger literature presently fails to give a unified explanation to this phenomenon. With the aim of adding to the existing knowledge of the hardships of union mergers, this study investigates a failed merger attempt of four Swedish unions. The results show significant differences between, as well as within, the unions regarding members’ merger attitudes and knowledge of the planned merger. The results suggest that the campaigning process is crucial and that union leaders planning mergers should aim at enhancing members’ merger attitudes in order to minimize internal opposition.

  • 15.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chaison, Gary
    The Difficulty of Implementing Union Mergers: Investigating the Role of Members’ Merger Orientation.2006In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, Vol. 27, no 3, 485-504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difficulty of implementing union mergers is reflected in the large proportion of unsuccessful planned mergers. In many cases, this is due to members opposing the merger proposal. Despite this problem, few studies have investigated the significance of members’ orientations in merger implementation. The ability to predict if members will support a merger proposition would be valuable to union leaders planning mergers. Using questionnaire data from members of four Swedish unions involved in an unsuccessful merger attempt, this study investigates predictors of members’ merger orientation - the members’ attitude towards union mergers in general, their expectations about specific merger outcomes, and their intention to vote in favour of a specific merger proposal. The analysis shows that union commitment, union tenure and being informed about a merger proposal significantly predicted merger orientation. Furthermore, the analysis revealed signs of officer opposition. This suggests that a committed and well-informed membership is a crucial precondition to successful merger implementation, and that a merger proposal stands little chance without the support of union leaders.

  • 16.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindevall, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individuella skillnader i attityd till belöning och prestation: betydelsen av målorientering och utbildningsnivå2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med dagens fokus på prestation och belöning i arbetslivet är det viktigt att framhäva betydelsen av individens egna upplevelser av dessa begrepp. De kan exempelvis operationaliseras i termer av attityd till resultatbaserad lön, självbestämd lön och lönetillfredsställelse, å ena sidan, samt arbetsrelaterad självtillit, kvalitet i det egna arbetet och personligt ansvarstagande för resultat, å andra sidan. Samtidigt behöver vi veta mer om bakomliggande faktorer som påverkar individens upplevelser av prestation och belöning. Sådana bakomliggande faktorer skulle kunna utgöras av individuella skillnader relevanta för just prestation och belöning – exempelvis målorientering och utbildningsnivå. I föreliggande studie klassades respondenter in i fyra typer av målorientering – ospecificerad (OMO), prestationsbaserad (PMO), inlärningsbaserad (IMO), och prestations- och inlärningsbaserad (PIMO) samt två utbildningsnivåer (hög, låg). Tvärsnittsdata (n=626) analyserades med tvåvägs (4x2) MANOVA. Sammanfattat visade resultaten att individer klassade som IMO och PIMO var mer positiva till resultatbaserad lön, hade högre självtillit i arbetet, skattade egna prestationer högre i kvalitet samt tog större ansvar för egna resultat (gällde inte grupperna lågutbildade/PIMO och högutbildade/IMO) jämfört med individer klassade som PMO eller OMO. Effekter av utbildningsnivå observerades endast för lönetillfredsställelse och självbestämd lön där lågutbildade var mer nöjda med sin lön (gällde endast individer klassade som IMO och PIMO) medan högutbildade skulle ta ut en högre lön om de själva fick bestämma. Praktiska konsekvenser av studiens resultat samt förslag på vidare forskning diskuteras.

  • 17.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, H
    Comparing three alternative types of employment contract with permanent full-time work: How do employment status and perceived job conditions relate to individual well-being?2006In: The South African Conference on Positive Psychology: Individual, Social and Work Wellness: Potchefstroom, 3-7 April, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim: Previous research has found alternative employment arrangements to be associated with both impaired and improved well-being. Such inconsistencies are likely to derive from the type of employment contract as well as characteristics of the job. This paper compares permanent full time work to alternative employment forms (permanent part time, fixed-term and on-call work) in order to investigate how different employment contracts relate to individual well-being. Moreover, the effects of perceived job conditions and possible interactive effects with type of employment form are tested.

    Methods: Questionnaire data from 954 Swedish healthcare workers was analysed and hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate how much variance in health complaints and job induced tension can be explained by type of contract and perceived job conditions and the suggested interaction between type of contract and perceptions of job characteristics. Individual background characteristics that might be intertwined with the employment contract were controlled for.

    Results and conclusions: The analyses of show that perceptions of the job (job insecurity, job control and demands), but not the type of employment contract, predicted well-being. While this suggests that job characteristics rather than employment contracts tend to be of importance for employee well-being, the results also underscore the importance of distinguishing between different types of alternative employment contracts. Type of employment contract interacted with perceptions of job insecurity, in that insecurity was associated with impaired well-being among permanent full-time workers, while no relationship was found for on-call or core part-time employees. Despite the absence of interactions between employment contract and job demands or job control, it can be concluded that knowledge about the relationship between alternative employment arrangements and the well-being of workers can be enhanced when the combined effects of employment contract and job conditions are studied.

  • 18.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    Comparing three alternative types of employment with permanent full-time work: How do employment contract and perceived job conditions relate to health complaints?2005In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, Vol. 19, no 4, 301-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found alternative employment arrangements to be associated with both impaired and improved well-being. Since such inconsistencies are likely to derive from the type of employment contract as well as the characteristics of the job, this paper compares permanent full time work to alternative employment forms (permanent part time, fixed-term and on-call work) in order to investigate how different employment contracts and perceptions of job conditions relate to individual well-being. This study contributes to the literature by addressing several open questions. Different forms of alternative employment are distinguished and individual background characteristics that might be intertwined with the employment contract are controlled for. Moreover, the scope of this study extends to the effects of perceived job conditions and possible interactive effects with type of employment are tested. Analyses of questionnaire data from 954 Swedish healthcare workers show that perceptions of the job (job insecurity, job control and demands), but not the type of employment contract, predicted health complaints. However, type of employment contract interacted with perceptions of job insecurity, in that insecurity was associated with impaired well-being among permanent full-time workers, while no relationship was found for on-call or core part-time employees. Despite the absence of interactions between employment contract and job demands or job control, it can be concluded that knowledge about the relationship between alternative employment arrangements and the well-being of workers can be enhanced when the combined effects of employment contract and job conditions are studied.

  • 19.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 20.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating the relationship between employability and self-efficacy: A cross-lagged analysis2008In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 7, no 4, 413-425 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construct of employability has been conceptually related to self-efficacy in different ways. Employability has sometimes been regarded as an equivalent to self-efficacy, or as a distinct but related phenomenon. Since the relationship between the two phenomena has not been subjected to empirical scrutiny, the aim of the present study is to analyze whether self-efficacy and employability are two distinct but related constructs, and if they are, to investigate the direction of their relationship. The data (N = 1730) were collected through a two-wave longitudinal survey with one year between each data collection (2005 and 2006). The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measures of employability and self-efficacy were distinct from one another, within and over measurement points, indicating that these are related but separate constructs. The results of latent variable cross-lagged analysis showed that employability predicted subsequent self-efficacy, even after controlling for age, gender, educational level, and regional differences. Thus, employability is not an expression of efficacy beliefs, but rather, the strengthening of employability perceptions may have beneficial effects on more general efficacy beliefs.

  • 21.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Should I Stay or Should I Go?: Does Employability Alter the Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect Reactions to Job Insecurity?2008In: Small Group Meeting, Leuven, Belgium, September 17-19, 2008., 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as employee responses to companies in decline have been investigated in several studies. When individuals work and act in an environment that is turbulent with organizational changes, volatile working conditions and job insecurity, they may respond to these environmental circumstances either by leaving the organization (exit), by staying and actively affect the situation (voice), by staying and be loyal to management’s decisions (loyalty) or by staying and being passive (neglect). With respect to the individualization of the labour market, it cannot be expected that people react in similar ways to organizational events. Rather, it has been suggested that employability may have a moderating effect on the responses of for example job insecurity. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate if employability moderates the effects of job insecurity on the outcomes of the framework of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Data (questionnaires) was gathered in four different companies (administrative staff of a manufacturing company, one accounting firm, administrative section of a community, teachers of a community), comprising 725 white-collar workers. The data of the present study was analysed by means of hierarchical regression analyses, one for each of the four outcome variables. The results indicate that individuals who are high in employability may have greater opportunities for gaining control over their working life. Job insecurity was found to be associated with increased exit as well as with decreased voice and loyalty, although these effects were stronger among individuals who perceived themselves to be employable. Thus, people that perceived high levels of employability, as opposed to those who perceived lower levels of employability, under the circumstance of high job insecurity also reported stronger exit intentions together with weaker tendencies to use their voice and be loyal to their company. No association was found between neglect and job insecurity or employability. In conclusion, instead of making employees more likely to use voice in times of uncertainty, employability appears to primarily induce vocational mobility.

  • 22.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating role of employability in the association between job insecurity and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect2010In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 31, no 2, 215-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exit, voice, loyalty, or neglect as employee responses to organizations in decline have been investigated in several studies. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether employability moderates the effects of job insecurity on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect. The results, based on questionnaire data from white-collar workers in Sweden (N = 725), indicate that individuals who are high in employability may have greater opportunities for gaining control over their working life. Job insecurity was found to be associated with increased exit as well as with decreased voice and loyalty, although these effects were stronger among individuals who perceived themselves to be employable. Thus, instead of making employees more likely to use voice in times of uncertainty, employability appears to primarily induce vocational mobility.

  • 23.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att vara anställningsbar i en turbulent omvärld2012In: Socialförsäkringsforskning: en vänbok till Staffan Marklund / [ed] Kristina Alexanderson, Karolinska Institutet , 2012, 36-49 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialförsäkringarna är centrala för oss som individer och för vårt samhälle, samtidigt som den vetenskapliga kunskapen om dem är mycket begränsad. Detta större seminarium, som vi arrangerade den 31 augusti 2012, hade till syfte att främja diskussioner om socialförsäkringsforskningens villkor. Ett ytterligare syfte var att uppmärksamma professor Staffan Marklunds 40-åriga forskargärning inom området.

  • 24.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S.
    Predicting perceived employability: Human capital or labour market opportunities?2006In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, Vol. 27, no 2, 223-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employability is believed to be a crucial concept concerning employees’ job security. This study investigates whether factors associated with human capital and the dual labour market predict perceived employability. Two national representative Swedish samples are used, representing economic recession (1993, N 1³4 4952) and prosperity (1999, N 1³4 6696). Employability was perceived as higher during prosperity, but human capital factors as well as dual labour market factors predicted perceived employability, irrespective of the time period. These findings indicate that the understanding of employability is enhanced by considering both structural and individual dimensions.

  • 25.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Department of Education.
    The relationship between self-efficacy and employability.2006In: The 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Several researchers have emphasized that the labour market is being restructured and characterized by more frequently occurring organizational changes. In this sense, it has also been maintained that employability is a gradually more important asset for individuals in contemporary working life. It has been argued that the modern way of job security should be seen in the light of employability, the so called employability security, where security comes from the feeling of being able to get a new job rather than from the feeling of maintaining the current employment position.

    Employability is defined as an individual’s perception of his or her possibilities of getting new employment. Feeling employable thus reflects the perception of having great possibilities to get a new job, if necessary. In earlier research employability has been described as a concept depending on individual assets as well as contextual prerequisites. For instance, Fugate, Kinicki and Ashforth (2004) argued that employability is comprised of three distinct dimensions, one motivational component, one component reflecting adaptability and a third component formed by the human and social capital. Berntson, Sverke and Marklund (in press), on the other hand, argued that employability also shall be seen in the light of the context of the individual. Thus, national economic situation as well as local labour markets are important predictors of an individual’s employability.

    Although the concept of employability has been argued to be dependent on individual assets, few or no studies have been made to investigate if employability is something else than a dispositional characteristic such as efficacy beliefs. It is important to know if employability shall be viewed as a dispositional factor or if it shall be seen as something apart from dispositional traits when it comes to reinforcing employability. The first aim of the present study is to investigate if employability is a concept distinct from self-efficacy. It is however also of importance to investigate if employability gives rise to efficacy beliefs or if it is feelings of efficacy that influence the levels of employability. A second aim, therefore, is to investigate if self-efficacy affects employability or the other way around.

    Questionnaire data is being used comprising white-collar workers in a Swedish organization. The results of the initial confirmatory factor analysis (on Wave 1 data) indicate that employability is distinct from self-efficacy. Longitudinal data are being collected with the specific aim of performing a cross-lagged analysis. However, the cross-sectional data imply that the two concepts are positively correlated, indicating that individuals experiencing high levels of self-efficacy also report higher levels of employability.

  • 26. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, 361-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account. Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses. Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men. Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 27. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, M.
    Bergström, G.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, P.
    Work–home interference and burnout in Swedish women and men: The importance of genetics and family environment2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic influences on perceived demands and burnout are shown in previous studies, suggesting genetic and shared environmental influences may underlie the associations between work–home interference and burnout. The present study sets out to increase the currently limited understanding of the biological and social correlates of work–home interference (WHI) by investigating whether WHI is related to burnout while taking sex, age, children, and genetic and shared environmental factors into account. A total of 13 730 individuals, including 2223 complete twin pairs, from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the study. The effects of work–home conflict (WHC) and home–work conflict (HWC) on burnout between- and within-pairs were analyzed with Linear Mixed Models with and without stratification by sex. The results showed significant main effects of WHC and HWC on burnout and co-twin control analyses suggested that shared environmental factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. As regards WHC and burnout, genetic or shared environmental factors did not seem to be involved. Adjustment for age and children did not change the results. The present study contributes with new knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work–home interference and burnout.

  • 28.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Satisfied if you don’t mind, engaged when you care: Positive emotions in relation to work centrality and turnover intention2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, 187-187 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The affective space of human emotions is considered to be structured by two dimensions: the pleasure vs. displeasure continuum and the degree of arousal. Highly energetic positive states, such as engagement, are distinguished from more passive ones, such as satisfaction. Both can be considered indicators of employees’ well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate whether employees characterized by contrast levels of work centrality and turnover intention, differ with respect to feelings of engagement and satisfaction. We hypothesized that divergent attributes of those two emotions are linked to contrasting causes.

    Design/Methodology: In order to test this assumption we conducted a study, in which 579 Swedish employees completed a questionnaire measuring positive feelings at work, intention to leave the company and work centrality.

    Results: Multivariate analyses revealed that the feeling of satisfaction was negatively associated with decision of leaving the job. However, among employees expressing an intention to remain in the organization, highly engaged were primarily those, who considered work as central in their lives.

    Limitations: Findings refer to a general, overall feelings. It is recommended to check whether differences between satisfaction and engagement hold also on a state level of emotions.

    Research/Practical Implications: Satisfaction is a sign of reaching an acceptable level of what is expected from a job. However, results suggest that this is not enough to be engaged. Individuals have to highly value their work to feel engaged.

    Originality/Value: This study explores the difference between two forms of employees’ well-being, which is often ignored in work psychology.

  • 29. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, FrancoSverke, MagnusStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An international perspective2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest edition of this classic text provides a comprehensive and internationally relevant introduction to work and organizational psychology, exploring the depth and diversity of the field in an accessible way without obscuring the complexities of the subject.

    • Third edition of a classic textbook offering a complete introduction to work and organizational psychology for undergraduate and graduate students with no prior knowledge of the field
    • An innovative new six part structure with two-colour presentation focuses the core material around issues that are either Job-Focused, Organization-Focused, or People-Focused
    • Each chapter title is a question designed to engage readers in understanding work and organizational psychology whilst simultaneously inviting discussion of key topics in the field
    • The third edition introduces two new co-editors in Franco Fraccaroli from Italy and Magnus Sverke, who join Nik Chmiel and will increase relevance and appeal for European students.
  • 30. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, Franco
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Introduction2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, xxi-xxiv p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31. De Cuyper, Nele
    et al.
    De Witte, Hans
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North West University, South Africa.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Felt Job Insecurity and Union Membership: the Case of Temporary Workers2014In: Drustvena istrazivanja: Journal for General Social Issues, ISSN 1330-0288, Vol. 23, no 4, 577-591 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relationship between felt jobinsecurity and union membership accounting for potential differencesbetween temporary and permanent workers. Consistentwith the idea that felt job insecurity leads workers to seek socialprotection from the unions, and with earlier studies, we hypothesizea positive relationship between felt job insecurity and unionmembership (Hypothesis 1). Furthermore, we argue that thisrelationship may be stronger among temporary compared withpermanent workers (Hypothesis 2): insecure temporary workersare in a situation of 'double vulnerability', hence they have strongmotives for unionization. Hypotheses are tested in a cross--sectional sample of 560 Flemish (Dutch-speaking part ofBelgium) workers. Our results were as follows: the relationshipbetween felt job insecurity and union membership was not significant.The interaction term between contract type and felt jobinsecurity was significantly related to union membership: the relationship between felt job insecurity and union membership waspositive among temporary workers, but not among permanentworkers. This pattern of results may inspire unions to target futurerecruitment strategies on temporary workers. A route for futureresearch could be to test our hypotheses also longitudinally.

  • 32. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Handaja, Yasmin
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being: A Test in Belgian banks2010In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, Vol. 40, no 1, 40-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on the relationship between job insecurity and well-being have focused on the effects of employees’ overall concerns about the continued existence of the job as such (quantitative job insecurity). Comparatively little research has examined perceived threats to valued job features (qualitative job insecurity). The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relative strength of associations of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity with job-related (job satisfaction and burnout) and general (psychological distress and psychosomatic complaints) well-being, and health-related behavior (absence and medical consultation). Controlling for socio-demographics, negative affectivity and job characteristics, these relationships were tested in a sample of 7,146 Belgian employees from the banking sector. The results suggest that both quantitative and qualitative job insecurity are important stressors.

  • 33. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    Goslinga, Sjoerd
    Chirumbolo, Antonio
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baanonzekerheid als schending van het psychologisch contract bij vakbondsleden: Gevolgen voor vakbondsattitudes en opzegintentie in België en Nederland. / Job insecurity as violation of the psychological contract among trade union members: consequences on attitudes towards unions and the intention to resign membership in Belgium and the Netherlands.2005In: Gedrag en Organisatie, ISSN 0921-5077, Vol. 18, no 1, 1-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the consequences of job insecurity among union members are explored. Having established that most employees have instrumental motives for joining a union, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that job insecurity among union members correlates with a lower level of perceived union support, lower satisfaction with the union, reduced (affective) commitment towards the union, and a higher intention to resign union membership. These hypotheses were tested in Belgium and the Netherlands. Evidence was found to support the assumed association between job insecurity and a reduction in perceived union support. In Belgium, job insecurity was also associated with reduced union satisfaction and intention to resign membership. In neither country job insecurity was associated with union commitment. These results partly support the hypothesis that union members experience job insecurity as a violation of their psychological contract with the union.

  • 34. De Witte, Hans
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Van Ruysseveldt, Joris
    Goslinga, Sjoerd
    Chirumbolo, Antonio
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job Insecurity, Union Support and Intentions to Resign Membership: A Psychological Contract Perspective2008In: European Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0959-6801, Vol. 14, no 1, 85-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses psychological contract theory to explore the consequences of job insecurity among union members. We hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union support and a higher intention to resign union membership. We also test whether the relationship between job insecurity and membership turnover is mediated by (a lack of) perceived union support. In Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands, an association is found between job insecurity and a reduction in perceived union support, and between job insecurity and the intention to resign membership; this association is also fully mediated by (a lack of) perceived union support. None of these hypotheses are corroborated in Sweden. We discuss implications of these findings for future research and for unions in Europe.

  • 35.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, 549-582 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and after a period of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every job characteristic studied (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 36.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who does and who does not show the negative effects of informational injustice?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injustice at the workplace is known to be a serious stressor for workplace-related attitudes, behaviours and health. Earlier research shows that higher age and trust is important in preventing increased turnover intention. Others found that employees who engage in withdrawal behaviour indicate less emotional exhaustion when perceiving injustice. However, traditional coping behaviours have not been studied as moderators before. Yet, this could elucidate preventive factors of how to deal with injustice experiences at work. Finding coping strategies that buffer the expected negative effects of injustice might disclose more beneficial ways of handling injustice than withdrawal behaviour for the organisation and employees.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of coping strategies as the moderators for the relation between supervisory informational injustice and its relation to job satisfaction, turnover intention and work-related health. We argue that employees with problem-focused coping (changing the situation) may have difficulties in applying this strategy within a hierarchical dependence relationship like the one to the supervisor. We predict that problem-focused coping does not attenuate the expected negative effects of perceived injustice. Employees with more emotion-focused coping strategies (avoidance and devaluation strategies) may perceive higher job satisfaction, lower turnover intention but impaired health. The analyses were also probed for the effect of gender.

    Method: Data from 373 Swedish accountants is used. The data collection was conducted in 2009.

    Results: We applied moderated hierarchical regression analyses. While change-oriented coping was found to moderate the relation between informational justice and turnover intention and work-related health, this coping strategy did not make a difference when informational justice was low. For women, the combination of high informational justice and high change-oriented coping was associated with lower levels of turnover intention and more positive work-related health.  Contrary to our predictions, avoidance and devaluation coping strategies had different effects from each other. Devaluation coping attenuated the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction as well as turnover intention. The opposite was true for avoidance coping which amplified the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Discussion: Based on these results two main conclusions can be made from this study. First, changing the situation seems to increase the positive effect of informational justice from the supervisor. Second, devaluing problems seems to work as a buffer factor for the negative effects of informational injustice whereas avoidance coping worsens these effects.

  • 37.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A 5-year Multilevel Investigation of the Relations Between Job Insecurity, Informational Justice and Work Attitudes2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of job insecurity on work attitudes are well-known. The uncertainty management theory (UMT) suggests that organisational justice may help to deal with the stressor job insecurity. This study presents the results of a multi-level investigation on the moderating influence of informational justice on the negative effects of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity on work attitudes. Full data of 183 Swedish accountants, five time points with one-year time lags, confirmed the predictions based on the UMT. The few studies that tested this proposition found generally confirming results. This study adds to the current knowledge with several accounts. One is that qualitative job insecurity, anticipation of losing valued job features, is included whereas previous research has only dealt with the general worry of job loss. Second the focus is on informational justice as a moderator which has been neglected so far although more likely to buffer the negative effects on work attitudes. Third, the data is analysed in a multi-level fashion such that the fluctuation of job insecurity and organisational justice over the time of five years and the common between-person differences are investigated simultaneously. Organisations that undergo changes that create job insecurity in their employees may offset the negative consequences by using informational justice.

  • 38.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaction effects of organisational justice and work characteristics: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations to work attitudes and employee’ well-being2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work characteristics have often been the focus in research intending to understand organisational behaviour and how employee health and well-being may be shaped by characteristics of the work environment. Both perceptions of organisational justice as well as perceptions of work characteristics pertain to the work environment domain; both have also been handled as psychosocial predictors for health outcomes and shown to be related to relevant work and health outcomes. Missing from the current picture is how these two different domains of the work environment interact, and together shape work and health outcomes. When employees make a judgment about the organisation as a whole – that the organisation is fair and can be trusted – and because of this are inclined to engage in their work, and may even feel healthy and happy at their workplace, does it matter what work characteristics they face? Previous studies show a mixed picture, with only few studies available at all, some studies with no significant interaction effects, most of the studies done on the control component, very few studies that investigated the interplay with the demand and support component. Also, the previous studies only studied relations with cross-sectional data, and there is not one study that predicted work and health outcomes. The current study first reviews the limited available evidence on the combined effect of justice and work characteristics, and then tests interaction effects between organisational justice and the Job-Demand-Control-Support model components as predictors of two work outcomes (organisational commitment, intention to stay) and two health outcomes (mental health, somatic health). Data from Swedish accountants are used, cross-sectionally and longitudinally after one year. While not all interactions are significant, there are significant interactions for each of the work characteristics, for each of the four outcome variables and for both time points. The results are presented and interpreted with the help of four different mechanisms: reduction, amplification, aggravation, and compensation.

  • 39. Eriksson, A.
    et al.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Faktisk lön har liten betydelse för arbetsmotivationen: om individuell lön ur ett arbets- och organisationspsykologiskt perspektiv2011In: Lönebildning för utvecklingskraft / [ed] Nils Karlsson och Anders Thorstensson, Stockholm: Norstedt , 2011, 1, 125-174 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska lönebildnings- och förhandlingssystemet är idag på väg att förändras - alldeles oavsett vad parterna och lagstiftarna än säger. Globaliseringen, EG-rättens ökade betydelse och de fallande fackliga medlemstalen sätter den svenska arbetsmarknadsmodellen under press. Men i vilken riktning utvecklingen går är inte lätt att säga. Hur och var ska lönerna sättas? Vilka är effekterna för företagens produktivitet och lönsamhet? Hur påverkas lönenivåer och sysselsättning av lönebildningens utformning? Ska lönebildningen vara lokal och individuell? Eller ska vi fortsätta med ett centraliserat system där lönenivåer bestäms i kollektiva förhandlingar mellan arbetsmarknadens parter? Och vilka är effekterna av olika lönebildnings- och förhandlingssystem för de anställdas motivation och prestationer? Detta är de övergripande frågeställningarna för denna antologi, där flera forskare och författare med olika bakgrund och specialistkunskaper bidragit. 

  • 40.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of Abstracts - FALF 2016, Mittuniversitetet , 2016, 23-23 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 41.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Similarities and Differences Between Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 4, 67-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the segregated labor market, gender differences in health are often confounded by factors such as sector or occupation.This study explored similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation. First, work climate and health complaints were compared between women and men. Second, relations between the work climate and health complaints were investigated in both genders. Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden.The results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. However, women physicians reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men physicians.Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men physicians.This explorative study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the large structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation.

  • 42.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

  • 43.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicans2016In: Posters from the 2016 workshop, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men. This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 44.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicians2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men.  This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 45.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga läkares arbetsmiljö efter bolagisering?2008In: The First National Conference of Working Life: 6-7 May 2008, at Växjö University, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    To transform public administration units into non-profit public stock companies has been one way to meet effectiveness and quality demands in Swedish health care. This kind of change, like other changes, is assumed to increase the feelings of uncertainty among the employees. Uncertainty is associated with a negative work climate, more negative work related attitudes and ill-health. Men have often a higher status than women, which could give men better resources to handle uncertainty, compared to women. The aim of this study is to investigate if there are any differences in work climate, work related attitudes and ill-health between female and male physicians after a change of an acute care hospital from being a public administration unit to be a non-profit public stock company. The first step is, however, to investigate if women and men mean the same thing by the concepts of work climate, work related attitudes and ill-health. This cross-sectional study investigates 191 physicians (92 women and 99 men) who worked at a hospital which had been transformed into a non-profit public stock company. Even tough there were some differences between the genders in the appraisal of the investigated concepts, the underlying structure seem to be similar for women and men. The results of two multivariate analyses of variance showed that female physicians reported worse work climate, less commitment and more ill-health than their male counterparts. This suggests that women (compared to men) could have less access to resources to reduce uncertainty in the case of an organizational change. This should be taken into account when changes are planned and implemented.

  • 46.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personalens arbetsattityder och hälsa vid privatisering: en jämförelse mellan två svenska akutsjukhus2008In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 14, no 1, 29-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Increased effectiveness and quality are often given as reasons for privatization, but the outcome of the change is likely dependent of how the employees react. In spite of this, it is still unclear what consequences a privatization process has for the employees. This study investigates how the privatization of an acute care hospital affects the employees’ work attitudes and self reported ill-health. Data is analyzed both at hospital level and at three different hierarchic levels (physicians, registered nurses, and assistant nurses).

  • 47.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How are employees at different levels affected by privatization?2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Privatizations have been carried out all across the world in recent decades, but there is still a lack of research about the psychological and health-related consequences of this kind of change on employees. As with other types of organizational change, privatization can be considered a stressful event that may result in impaired work attitudes and strain. However, such effects are likely to vary depending on the individual’s position in the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate how privatization may affect work-related attitudes and strain of employees, and to analyze whether the effects of privatization differ between employees at various hierarchic levels. Results based on questionnaire data collected at two Swedish hospitals both before and after one of the hospitals underwent privatization suggests only limited effects of privatization on a general level, but that employees at various hierarchic levels may be affected differently. While employees at a high level (physicians) and low level (assistant nurses) reported only marginal differences over time in work attitudes and strain, as compared with their colleagues at the comparison hospital, the work attitudes of employees at the intermediate level (registered nurses) declined after privatization. The knowledge that some occupational groups could be affected more negatively than others and that special attention should be paid to intermediate occupational groups can be useful information for different actors in a privatization process, such as the politicians who make decisions regarding privatizations and the management executives who may carry them out.

  • 48.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    How are employees at different levels affected by privatization?: A longitudinal study of two Swedish hospitals2009In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, Vol. 82, no 1, 45-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the amount of privatizations around the world in recent decades, only limited research attention has been paid to how privatization affects the employees. The effects are likely to vary depending on the individual’s position in the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate how employees’ work-related attitudes and strain changed after privatization of a Swedish acute care hospital, and to analyze whether the effects of privatization differed between employees at various hierarchic levels. Questionnaire data collected at a hospital 1 year before and 2 years after privatization, as well as at a hospital which remained a public administration unit, suggest only limited effects of privatization on a general level, but that employees at various hierarchic levels may be affected differently. While employees at a high level (physicians) and low level (assistant nurses) reported only marginal differences over time in work attitudes and strain, also in comparison with their colleagues at the comparison hospital, work attitudes of employees at the intermediate level (registered nurses) decreased after privatization. These results emphasize the importance of taking hierarchic level into account when a privatization is implemented and analyzed.

  • 49. Gallagher, Daniel G.
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Contingent Employment Contracts: Are Existing Employment Theories Still Relevant?2005In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, Vol. 26, no 2, 181-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within most nations there has been growing evidence of a shift from ‘traditional’ or ongoing employment contracts to arrangements which are more ‘fixed-term’ or ‘contingent’ in structure. The growth of contingent employment arrangements raises questions concerning the applicability of existing theories of individual behaviour (e.g. satisfaction, motivation, etc.). Utilizing ‘employment commitment’ as an illustrative example, this article examines potential limitations in the applicability of commitment theory to different forms of contingent employment contracts. It also addresses some implications for union representation in contingent work arrangements.

  • 50.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Work and sleep – a prospective study of psychosocial work factors, physical work factors and work scheduling2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no S1, 218-218 p., P706Article in journal (Refereed)
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