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  • 1.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Knudsen, Katinka
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Experiences of Working after Retirement: A Qualitative Study in the Swedish Health Care Sector2018In: Book of Proceedings 13the Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard & L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 267-268, article id O83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people represent an increasing share of the population in many countries. While higher life expectancy is a remarkable social achievement, accelerated demographic ageing poses several challenges, particularly to health care, labour market and pensions systems. A greater awareness of the importance to increase the participation of older workers in the labour market and to delay the transition to full retirement has turned retirement into an issue of global significance and an important research topic.

    Notwithstanding the increasing flexibility and heterogeneity in the exit pathways from employment to retirement, most research have focused on the decision regarding when to retire; while fewer studies have investigated the dynamics of engagement in post-retirement work, or bridge employment. This form of employment is becoming more common in several countries, including Sweden, where between 2010 and 2015, the number of employed people aged 66–74 has increased by 36 percent. Furthermore, qualitative studies, allowing for an in-depth understanding of the complexity of the topic, remain scarce.

    This study aimed to explore the transition to retirement, the motivation to engage in bridge employment and experiences of working after retirement among assistant nurses. The study used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to analyze data from semi-structured interviews with seven retired assistant nurses working at a Swedish hospital. The interviews focused on retirement decision-making, experiences of working after retirement and ageing issues. The following super-ordinate themes were identified: the retirement process, meaning of retirement, functions and meaning of work, drivers to continue working after retirement, working as an assistant nurse after retirement and the experience of ageing.    

    In this group of assistant nurses, bridge employment seemed to allow for a gradual adjustment to retirement, which in turn contributed to their well-being. Interviewees did not plan for their retirement while some would have preferred to do so. Full-retirement was regarded as stagnation and “the end of the road”, while work was valued positively. Work defined one’s existence and identity, provided a sense of purpose and belonging to the society, was a source of social contact and nurturing, a physical and mental health booster and postponed ageing. Interviewees reflected much on their reasons to continue working: Feeling able to work and the absence of major health problems was, not surprisingly, a major driver, but other factors were of equal importance, such as being intrinsically motivated to work and feeling appreciated and needed at work. Interviewees regarded their job as challenging, varied and not particularly demanding. Their contacts with the patients and being able to help others was perceived as highly rewarding and a prominent reason for continuing to work. Having control over working time and opportunities for recovery were also much valued. Interviewees reported some improvements that came with ageing, but also felt some limitations, which they tried to compensate for at work. These results may contribute to a further understanding of issues motivating people to continue working as assistant nurses, an occupation that plays an important role within the health care sector.

  • 2.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Knudsen, Katinka
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    I work, therefore I am: The meaning of work and retirement for bridge employees in the Swedish healthcare sector2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 593-594Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated the transition to retirement, the motivation to work, and experiences of working in bridge employment in a group of retired nursing assistants.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach was used to analyze data from semi-structured interviews with seven retired nursing assistants working at a Swedish hospital.

    Results: This presentation focuses on “The meaning of work and retirement”, one of four superordinate themes identified in the participants’ accounts. Full retirement was regarded as “the end of the road”, leading to stagnation in life. In contrast, work was perceived as a booster of physical and mental health. By fulfilling important psychosocial needs (such as providing a sense of purpose and belonging, identity, social contact and nurturing, time structure, a source of activity), bridge employment allowed for a gradual adjustment to retirement, which in turn contributed to well-being.

    Limitations: The study is based on a small sample in a specific context, which limits the generalization of the results. However, this homogeneity of the sample allowed for a detailed account of the subjective experiences of a particular group of individuals. Yet, further studies in different occupational groups and organizations are needed.

    Research/Practical Implications: This study contributes to a further understanding of issues involved in the adjustment to retirement and what it is that motivates people to continue working as nursing assistants, an important occupation within the healthcare sector.

    Originality/Value: This research meets the call for more qualitative research on the meaning of working and retirement specifically for bridge employees.

  • 3.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Approaching retirement in the elderly care sector: A qualitative study of older workers’ perceptions of work and late career planning2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1531-1531Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed at investigating how older nursing assistants working in elderly care experienced aging at work and perceived their psychosocial work environment, as well as exploring the role of work- and organizational factors in their retirement preferences.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight nursing assistants (age 55–61 years), and working in residential care. Data were analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach.

    Results: The analysis identified four super-ordinate themes: 1) meaning of work; 2) psychosocial work environment; 3) experience of aging; 4) retirement decision-making. Work was experienced as demanding, characterized by high workload, time pressure, and low control. Furthermore, participants perceived few possibilities for job crafting and were concerned about being unable to manage their workload once they got older. A main driver for working after retirement was the possibility to work on one’s own terms and to reduce current job demands.

    Limitations: While the small and homogeneous sample limits generalization, it allows for a detailed investigation of the subjective experiences of this group of older workers. Yet, studies in different occupational groups and organizations are needed.

    Research/Practical Implications: Findings highlight the importance of healthy psychosocial work environments and organizational practices that promote sustainable work and successful aging in the workplace.

    Originality/Value: Due to an accelerated demographic aging, it is important to increase the knowledge of how nursing assistants approaching retirement in the elderly care perceive opportunities and constraints to them prolonging their working life. Furthermore, qualitative studies, particularly among blue-collar occupations, remain few.

  • 4.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Are trajectories of prefered- and expected retirement ages associated with health and effort-impalance at work? Findings from a six-year Swedish longitudinal study2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1450-1450, article id 1307Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: One key dimension in the study of retirement decision making is the preferred retirement age (PR-A). Another relevant although less investigated indicator is the age at which one realistically expects to retire (ER-A). This study aimed at identifying trajectories of preferred- and expected retirement age and exploring their associations with changes in self-rated health, depressive symptoms and effortreward imbalance (ERI).

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: The study used data from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sample consisted of 1440 workers aged 50–59 in 2010 who participated in all waves. Latent class growth modeling was used to estimate trajectories of PR-A and ER-A and their associations with self-rated health, depressive symptoms and ERI were investigated. Participants were divided in two groups according to age at T0 (50-54; 5559) and analyses were age stratified.

    Results: Preliminary results suggest both between-person and within-person variability in retirement age preferences and expectations over six years in the two groups. Trajectories characterised by lower PRA were associated with poorer health and higher levels of ERI. ER-A trajectories in turn seem to be less associated with health and ERI.

    Limitations: This study relies exclusively on self-report measures.

    Research/Practical Implications: The findings reinforce the importance of healthy work environments that facilitate a balance between efforts and rewards for promoting longer working lives.

    Originality/Value: Retirement longitudinal studies are scarce and this study is one of the first to investigate longitudinal relationships between PR-A and ER-A trajectories, and health and effort-reward imbalance at work.

  • 5.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Porto, Portugal.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luis
    Perceived quality of the psychosocial environment and well-being in employed and unemployed older adults: the importance of latent benefits and environmental vitamins2014In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 629-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study combines two recognized theoretical frameworks in the (un)employment literature – the latent deprivation model and the vitamin model – and aims to better understand the relations between the perceived quality of the psychosocial environment and psychological well-being in older adults. The sample comprised 300 Portuguese adults (aged between 40 and 65), grouped as employed, unemployed engaged in training and unemployed not in training. The employed reported better well-being than the other groups, and the unemployed in training showed lower distress than those who were not. Additionally, features from both frameworks were found to be related to well-being. These findings highlight the merit of taking both theories into account to better understand the well-being of older individuals, and may be useful for the design of interventions aiming to enhance well-being and overcome some of the negative aspects of unemployment.

  • 6.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Porto.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
    University of Porto.
    Coping with Job Loss: Antecedents of Job Search Behaviors Among Older Unemployed Adults2013In: 13th European Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden, 9-12 July, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     A considerable amount of studies have investigated the antecedents and correlates of job search but just a few have focused on older job seekers, who show particular difficulties in finding employment after job loss. This paper builds on the expectancy-value theory and the general literature on job search and investigates individual variables that associate with job search intensity, job search effort and the intention to continue looking for a job in a sample of 178 Portuguese older adults (aged 40-64;M age=51) unemployed on average for 20 months. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses show that gender (women) and unemployment duration were negatively associated with at least one job search indicator, whereas a positive association was found for psychological distress, proactivity, job search self-efficacy, reemployment expectations and employment commitment. Additionally, a significant interaction effect was found for financial strain and perceived control over reemployment in explaining job search effort. Unexpectedly, perceived age discrimination in the labour market and perceived health status were not associated with any of the job search indicators. These findings have implications for practitioners working with unemployed individuals and contribute to a better understanding of which factors are relevant for job search among older unemployed individuals, which apparently do not substantially differ from the ones found in the literature for younger individuals.

  • 7.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
    University of Porto.
    Individual predictors of the intention to enroll in education and training activities in a sample of senior unemployed adults2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] Guido Hertel, Carmen Binnewies, Stefan Krumm, Heinz Holling, Martin Kleinmann, 2013, p. 555-556Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many senior unemployed show special vulnerabilities in the current labor market, and often this is related to educational deficits and skills obsolescence requiring retraining. A better knowledge of psychological variables predicting their intention to (re)train appears to be relevant for the promotion of employability among senior unemployed individuals. Building on the expectancy-value theory and the literature on learning motivation, this study hypothesizes that age, education, length of unemployment, proactivity, learning orientation, employment commitment, learning self-efficacy, expected benefits from learning, perceived age discrimination and obsolescence, financial strain and perceived health associate with senior unemployed adults’ intentions to attend training in the near future.

    Design/Methodology: This cross-sectional study compared a sample comprising 178 Portuguese unemployed senior adults not enrolled in training to a sample of 116 senior unemployed engaged in training.

    Results: Data is analysed during fall 2012, but preliminary results show that age, learning orientation, expected benefits from training and learning self-efficacy explain variance in the intention to attend a training course.

    Limitations: The cross-sectional design restricts firm conclusions about the predictive value of the studied variables in relation to the actual attendance of a training course.

    Research/Practical Implications: These results may be useful for practitioners in the design of interventions aiming to promote senior unemployed individuals´ motivation to engage in (re)training.

    Originality/Value: To our knowledge, few studies have specifically investigated the motivation to attend a training course among senior unemployed individuals, who often are more reluctant to participate in education and training activities.

  • 8.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
    University of Porto.
    Latent benefits, environmental vitamins, and well being in a sample of older adults2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to better understand the relations between the perceived quality of the psychosocial environment and psychological well-being in older adults by combining two theoretical frameworks – the latent deprivation model and the vitamin model. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was applied. The sample comprised 300 Portuguese adults (between 40 and 65), grouped as employed (n=91), unemployed engaged in training (n=76), and unemployed not in training (n=133). The three groups of participants were first compared in their well-being and perceived access to features present in the latent deprivation and the vitamin models. The associations between these features and psychological well-being were then investigated in the combined sample. Results: In general, the employed reported better well-being than the other groups, and the unemployed in training showed lower distress than those not in training. As expected, the unemployed not in training perceived the lowest access to some of the latent benefits of employment and “vitamins.” Features from both the latent deprivation model (primarily social contact and collective purpose) and the vitamin model (primarily opportunity for skills use and environmental clarity) were found to be significantly related to well-being in the combined sample. Conclusion: The results highlight the merit of taking both the latent deprivation model and the vitamin model into account to better understand the well-being of older individuals and may be useful for the design of interventions aiming to enhance well-being and overcome some of the negative aspects of unemployment.

  • 9.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
    Too Old for Work? Mediated Associations Between Perceived Age Discrimination and Job Search Among Older Unemployed People2018In: Book of proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard & L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 75-75, article id S47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in several countries the need of longer working lives has been acknowledged, due to accelerated demographic ageing, many older workers face particular challenges both in keeping their employment and becoming reemployed after redundancy. Due to the high prevalence of negative age-related stereotypes, a central factor that may hinder the employment prospects of older adults is the discrimination on the grounds of age, which may occur as early as age 40. In the absence of job opportunities, a considerable number of older unemployed people eventually withdraw from the labour market earlier than they would like. Job search is currently an integral part of working life, including in mid- and late-career, and there is extensive research evidence for the positive impact job search has on the likelihood of reemployment. While it is plausible that perceived age discrimination plays a significant role in older unemployed people’s job search behaviour, to date this has rarely been investigated.

    In this line, building partially on propositions from the social cognitive model of career self-management (applied to job search behaviour) proposed by Lent and Brown, as well as prior research, the present study aims to contribute to a better comprehension of factors and processes that are associated with job search among older unemployed people. The study investigates a parallel mediational model which proposes a negative relationship between perceived age discrimination and three job search indicators (job search intensity, job search effort and job search intentions) that is mediated by job search self-efficacy, reemployment expectations and perceived control over reemployment.

    The study has a cross-sectional design and the sample comprises 176 Portuguese unemployed people (aged 40-64 years). A MANOVA examined differences in the model’s predictors and outcomes in terms of age (40-54; 55+), gender, educational level (4-10; 11+ years) and length of unemployment (0-11; 12+ months). To investigate the proposed model, ordinary least squares path analyses were calculated using the SPSS macro PROCESS.

    Results suggest that women, those with lower education levels and those aged 55+ are at higher risk of becoming discouraged in their job search. In times when demographic ageing has led to tightened conditions qualifying for early retirement and increased statutory retirement ages, special attention should be paid to these groups to prevent social exclusion. Job search self-efficacy and reemployment expectations were positively related to the three job search indicators and perceived age discrimination was negatively related to reemployment expectations and perceived control over reemployment. The study also found an indirect negative relationship between perceived age discrimination and job search via lower reemployment expectations.

    Whilst the cross-sectional design of the study restricts firm conclusions regarding causality, the mediational model is theoretically well sustained. The findings expose the pervasive effects of age discrimination, which besides limiting the employment opportunities for older workers, has also indirect implications by decreasing job search activity through lowered levels of reemployment expectations, what may lead to premature and involuntary labour market exits. These findings may be useful for policy-makers and practitioners working with unemployed people.

  • 10.
    Sousa-Ribeiro, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Coimbra, Joaquim Luís
    De Witte, Hans
    Intentions to Participate in Training Among Older Unemployed People: A Serial Mediator Model2018In: Journal of career development, ISSN 0894-8453, E-ISSN 1573-3548, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a considerable number of studies have focused on factors driving employees to voluntarily participate in training programs, much less is known on this topic with regard to the unemployed population, in particular the older unemployed, who often are in a vulnerable labor market position due to educational deficits and skills obsolescence. This study proposes and investigates a serial mediator model of older unemployed individuals’ training intentions grounded in propositions from social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior as well as prior models of employee involvement in training. The results, based on cross-sectional questionnaire data from 176 unemployed Portuguese individuals aged 40þ, suggest that age, education, and proactivity have an indirect effect on training intentions via learning self-efficacy and training-related outcome expectations. Age was also directly related to stronger training intentions. These results may be useful for interventions aiming to encourage older unemployed individuals’ participation in training.

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