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  • 1.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Assessing lidar-based classification schemes for polar stratospheric clouds based on 16 years of measurements at Esrange, Sweden2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1386-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are commonly analyzed in classification schemes that apply the backscatter ratio and the particle depolarization ratio. This similarity of input data suggests comparable results of different classification schemes—despite measurements being performed with a variety of mostly custom-made instruments. Based on a time series of 16 years of lidar measurements at Esrange (68°N, 21°E), Sweden, we show that PSC classification differs substantially depending on the applied scheme. The discrepancies result from varying threshold values of lidar-derived parameters used to define certain PSC types. The resulting inconsistencies could impact the understanding of long-term PSC observations documented in the literature. We identify two out of seven considered classification schemes that are most likely to give reliable results and should be used in future lidar-based studies. Using polarized backscatter ratios gives the advantage of increased contrast for observations of weakly backscattering and weakly depolarizing particles. Improved confidence in PSC classification can be achieved by a more comprehensive consideration of the effect of measurement uncertainties. The particle depolarization ratio is the key to a reliable identification of different PSC types. Hence, detailed information on the calibration of the polarization-sensitive measurement channels should be provided to assess the findings of a study. Presently, most PSC measurements with lidar are performed at 532 nm only. The information from additional polarization-sensitive measurements in the near infrared could lead to an improved PSC classification. Coincident lidar-based temperature measurements at PSC level might provide useful information for an assessment of PSC classification.

  • 2. Ansmann, A.
    et al.
    Seifert, P.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Wandinger, U.
    Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajokull/Grimsvotn volcanic plumes2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 20, p. 9399-9415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polarization lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method introduced to separate coarse-mode and fine-mode particle properties of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic aerosols in 2010 is extended to cover Saharan dust events as well. Furthermore, new volcanic dust observations performed after the Grimsvotn volcanic eruptions in 2011 are presented. The retrieval of particle mass concentrations requires mass-specific extinction coefficients. Therefore, a review of recently published mass-specific extinction coefficients for Saharan dust and volcanic dust is given. Case studies of four different scenarios corroborate the applicability of the profiling technique: (a) Saharan dust outbreak to central Europe, (b) Saharan dust plume mixed with biomass-burning smoke over Cape Verde, and volcanic aerosol layers originating from (c) the Eyjafjallajokull eruptions in 2010 and (d) the Grimsvotn eruptions in 2011. Strong differences in the vertical aerosol layering, aerosol mixing, and optical properties are observed for the different volcanic events.

  • 3.
    Glantz, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bourassa, Adam
    Herber, Andreas
    Iversen, Trond
    Karlsson, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Kirkevag, Alf
    Maturilli, Marion
    Seland, Oyvind
    Stebel, Kerstin
    Struthers, Hamish
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thomason, Larry
    Remote sensing of aerosols in the Arctic for an evaluation of global climate model simulations2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 119, no 13, p. 8169-8188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 555 nm are compared to Sun photometer measurements from Svalbard for a period of 9 years. For the 642 daily coincident measurements that were obtained, MODIS AOT generally varies within the predicted uncertainty of the retrieval over ocean (Delta AOT = +/- 0.03 +/- 0.05 . AOT). The results from the remote sensing have been used to examine the accuracy in estimates of aerosol optical properties in the Arctic, generated by global climate models and from in situ measurements at the Zeppelin station, Svalbard. AOT simulated with the Norwegian Earth System Model/Community Atmosphere Model version 4 Oslo global climate model does not reproduce the observed seasonal variability of the Arctic aerosol. The model overestimates clear-sky AOT by nearly a factor of 2 for the background summer season, while tending to underestimate the values in the spring season. Furthermore, large differences in all-sky AOT of up to 1 order of magnitude are found for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 model ensemble for the spring and summer seasons. Large differences between satellite/ground-based remote sensing of AOT and AOT estimated from dry and humidified scattering coefficients are found for the subarctic marine boundary layer in summer.

  • 4.
    Glantz, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Assessment of two aerosol optical thickness retrieval algorithms applied to modis aqua and terra measurements in Europe2012In: Atmospheric measurement techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 1727-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to validate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Angstrom exponent (alpha), obtained from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground) with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm and with MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km horizontal resolution), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer observations over land surfaces in Europe. An inter-comparison of AOT at 0.469 nm obtained with the two algorithms has also been performed. The time periods investigated were chosen to enable a validation of the findings of the two algorithms for a maximal possible variation in sun elevation. The satellite retrievals were also performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry, since Aqua and Terra passed the investigation area twice a day for several of the cases analyzed. The validation with AERONET shows that the AOT at 0.469 and 0.555 nm obtained with MODIS c005 is within the expected uncertainty of one standard deviation of the MODIS c005 retrievals (Delta AOT = +/- 0.05 +/- 0.15 center dot AOT). The AOT at 0.443 nm retrieved with SAER, but with a much finer spatial resolution, also agreed reasonably well with AERONET measurements. The majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS c005 expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger average absolute deviation occurs compared to the results obtained with the MODIS c005 algorithm. The discrepancy between AOT from SAER and AERONET is, however, substantially larger for the wavelength 488 nm. This means that the values are, to a larger extent, outside of the expected MODIS uncertainty range. In addition, both satellite retrieval algorithms are unable to estimate alpha accurately, although the MODIS c005 algorithm performs better. Based on the inter-comparison of the SAER and MODIS c005 algorithms, it was found that SAER on the whole is able to obtain results within the expected uncertainty range of MODIS Aqua and Terra observations.

  • 5. Pappalardo, G.
    et al.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung, Germany.
    Wilson, K. M.
    Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET2013In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 4429-4450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull in April-May 2010 represents a natural experiment to study the impact of volcanic emissions on a continental scale. For the first time, quantitative data about the presence, altitude, and layering of the volcanic cloud, in conjunction with optical information, are available for most parts of Europe derived from the observations by the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork (EARLINET). Based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, EARLINET is the only instrument worldwide that is able to provide dense time series of high-quality optical data to be used for aerosol typing and for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties as a function of altitude. In this work we show the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of the Eyjafjallajokull volcanic cloud in the troposphere over Europe as observed by EARLINET during the entire volcanic event (15 April-26 May 2010). All optical properties directly measured (backscatter, extinction, and particle linear depolarization ratio) are stored in the EARLINET database available at www.earlinet.org. A specific relational database providing the volcanic mask over Europe, realized ad hoc for this specific event, has been developed and is available on request at www.earlinet.org. During the first days after the eruption, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe within a wide range of altitudes, from the upper troposphere down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL). After 19 April 2010, volcanic particles were detected over southern and south-eastern Europe. During the first half of May (5-15 May), material emitted by the Eyjafjallajokull volcano was detected over Spain and Portugal and then over the Mediterranean and the Balkans. The last observations of the event were recorded until 25 May in Central Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area. The 4-D distribution of volcanic aerosol layering and optical properties on European scale reported here provides an unprecedented data set for evaluating satellite data and aerosol dispersion models for this kind of volcanic events.

  • 6.
    Rastak, Narges
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Silvergren, S.
    Zieger, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wideqvist, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Svenningsson, B.
    Maturilli, M.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Seasonal variation of aerosol water uptake and its impact on the direct radiative effect at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard2014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 14, p. 7445-7460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated the impact of water uptake by aerosol particles in ambient atmosphere on their optical properties and their direct radiative effect (ADRE, W m(-2)) in the Arctic at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, during 2008. To achieve this, we combined three models, a hygroscopic growth model, a Mie model and a radiative transfer model, with an extensive set of observational data. We found that the seasonal variation of dry aerosol scattering coefficients showed minimum values during the summer season and the beginning of fall (July-August-September), when small particles (< 100 nm in diameter) dominate the aerosol number size distribution. The maximum scattering by dry particles was observed during the Arctic haze period (March-April-May) when the average size of the particles was larger. Considering the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the ambient atmosphere had a significant impact on the aerosol scattering coefficients: the aerosol scattering coefficients were enhanced by on average a factor of 4.30 +/- 2.26 (mean +/- standard deviation), with lower values during the haze period (March-April-May) as compared to summer and fall. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles was found to cause 1.6 to 3.7 times more negative ADRE at the surface, with the smallest effect during the haze period (March-April-May) and the highest during late summer and beginning of fall (July-August-September).

  • 7.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glantz, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Norman, M.
    Hiebsch, A.
    Ansmann, A.
    Althausen, D.
    Engelmann, R.
    Seifert, P.
    Volcanic ash over Scandinavia originating from the Grimsvotn eruptions in May 20112012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, p. D09201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A volcanic ash plume that originated from the eruptions of Iceland's Grimsvotn volcano in May 2011 was observed over the Nordic countries using a combination of satellite observations and ground-based measurements. The dispersion of the plume was investigated using London VAAC ash forecasts and MODIS observations. Hourly PM10 concentrations at air quality monitoring stations in the southern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland exceeded 100 mu g/m(3) for several hours. The FLEXPART dispersion model has been used to confirm the Icelandic origin of the sampled air masses. Column-integrated quantities from a Sun photometer and vertical profiles from a Raman lidar were used to estimate the ash concentration within an elevated layer over Stockholm. A lofted layer with an optical thickness of 0.3 at 532 nm passed Stockholm in the morning hours of 25 May 2011. Considering a realistic range of coarse-mode fractions and specific ash extinctions from the literature, an estimated range of maximum ash mass concentration of 150-340 mu g/m(3) was derived from the lidar measurements at an altitude of 2.8 km. The lower estimate of the lidar-derived ash mass concentrations within the planetary boundary layer was found to be in good agreement with surface observations of PM10.

  • 8.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gross, Silke
    Ansmann, Albert
    Mueller, Detlef
    Althausen, Dietrich
    Freudenthaler, Volker
    Esselborn, Michael
    Profiling of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Cape Verde2011In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 649-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive lidar measurements of Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke were performed with one airborne and three ground-based instruments in the framework of the second part of the SAharan Mineral dUst experiMent (SAMUM-2a) during January and February of 2008 at Cape Verde. Further lidar observations with one system only were conducted during May and June of 2008 (SAMUM-2b). The active measurements were supported by Sun photometer observations. During winter, layers of mineral dust from the Sahara and biomass-burning smoke from southern West Africa pass Cape Verde on their way to South America while pure dust layers cross the Atlantic on their way to the Caribbean during summer. The mean 500-nm aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observed during SAMUM-2a was 0.35 +/- 0.18. SAMUM-2a observations showed transport of pure dust within the lowermost 1.5 km of the atmospheric column. In the height range from 1.5 to 5.0 km, mixed dust/smoke layers with mean lidar ratios of 67 +/- 14 sr at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, prevailed. Within these layers, wavelength-independent linear particle depolarization ratios of 0.12-0.18 at 355, 532, and 710 nm indicate a large contribution (30-70%) of mineral dust to the measured optical properties. Angstrom exponents for backscatter and extinction of around 0.7 support this finding. Mean extinction coefficients in the height range between 2 and 4 km were 66 +/- 6 Mm(-1) at 355 nm and 48 +/- 5 Mm(-1) at 532 nm. Comparisons with airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar observations show good agreement within the elevated layers. 3-5 km deep dust layers where observed during SAMUM-2b. These layers showed optical properties similar to the ones of SAMUM-1 in Morocco with a mean 500-nm AOT of 0.4 +/- 0.2. Dust extinction coefficients were about 80 +/- 6 Mm(-1) at 355 and 532 nm. Dust lidar ratios were 53 +/- 10 sr at 355 and 532 nm, respectively. Dust depolarization ratios showed an increase with wavelength from 0.31 +/- 0.10 at 532 nm to 0.37 +/- 0.07 at 710 nm.

  • 9.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mueller, Detlef
    Gross, Silke
    Ansmann, Albert
    Althausen, Dietrich
    Freudenthaler, Volker
    Weinzierl, Bernadett
    Veira, Andreas
    Petzold, Andreas
    Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements2011In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 677-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidar measurements of mixed dust/smoke plumes over the tropical Atlantic ocean were carried out during the winter campaign of SAMUM-2 at Cape Verde. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and Angstrom exponents related to pure biomass-burning aerosol from southern West Africa were extracted from these observations. Furthermore, these findings were used as input for an inversion algorithm to retrieve microphysical properties of pure smoke. Seven measurement days were found suitable for the procedure of aerosol-type separation and successive inversion of optical data that describe biomass-burning smoke. We inferred high smoke lidar ratios of 87 +/- 17 sr at 355 nm and 79 +/- 17 sr at 532 nm. Smoke lidar ratios and Angstrom exponents are higher compared to the ones for the dust/smoke mixture. These numbers indicate higher absorption and smaller sizes for pure smoke particles compared to the dust/smoke mixture. Inversion of the smoke data set results in mean effective radii of 0.22 +/- 0.08 mu m with individual results varying between 0.10 and 0.36 mu m. The single-scattering albedo for pure biomass-burning smoke was found to vary between 0.63 and 0.89 with a very low mean value of 0.75 +/- 0.07. This is in good agreement with findings of airborne in situ measurements which showed values of 0.77 +/- 0.03. Effective radii from the inversion were similar to the ones found for the fine mode of the in situ size distributions.

  • 10.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Omar, A. H.
    Ground-based validation of CALIPSO observations of dust and smoke in the Cape Verde region2013In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, ISSN 2169-897X, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 2889-2902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground-based Raman lidar measurements during the second Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-2) in 2008 were used for validation of measurements of the lidar aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite within the dusty environment of the Cape Verde region. SAMUM-2 featured two one-month campaigns in January/February and May/June 2008 to cover different modes of aerosol transport to the tropical Atlantic: dust from northern Africa and biomass-burning smoke from western Africa during winter, and pure Saharan dust during summer. During the investigated time period, 33 CALIPSO overflights occurred at a distance of less than 500 km from the location of the ground-based lidar. Fifteen out of these 33 cases were found suitable for comparing the findings of the two instruments. The parameters for this comparison are the particle backscatter coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm, the extinction coefficient, the lidar ratio (aerosol type), and the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm, as well as the backscatter-related angstrom ngstrom exponent for the wavelength pair 532/1064 nm. Best agreement was found for the 532 nm backscatter coefficient, while the 532 nm extinction coefficient is underestimated by up to 30%. The latter is due to the use of an effective dust lidar ratio that gives reliable backscatter coefficients but is not suitable to transform these to extinction coefficients. CALIPSO particle depolarization ratios provided in the current (version 3.01) aerosol profile product were found to be affected by a computing error and should be calculated from the perpendicular and total particle backscatter coefficients provided in the same data file. CALIPSO aerosol classification was found to be mostly correct but a demand for homogeneous aerosol layers could improve the retrieval. Suggestions for the improvement of the CALIPSO retrieval by introducing iterative procedures are provided.

  • 11.
    Tesche, Matthias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zieger, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rastak, Narges
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Charlson, R. J.
    Glantz, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reconciling aerosol light extinction measurements from spaceborne lidar observations and in situ measurements in the Arctic2014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 15, p. 7869-7882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate to what degree it is possible to reconcile continuously recorded particle light extinction coefficients derived from dry in situ measurements at Zeppelin station (78.92 degrees N, 11.85 degrees E; 475 m above sea level), Ny-lesund, Svalbard, that are recalculated to ambient relative humidity, as well as simultaneous ambient observations with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. To our knowledge, this represents the first study that compares spaceborne lidar measurements to optical aerosol properties from short-term in situ observations (averaged over 5 h) on a case-by-case basis. Finding suitable comparison cases requires an elaborate screening and matching of the CALIOP data with respect to the location of Zeppelin station as well as the selection of temporal and spatial averaging intervals for both the ground-based and spaceborne observations. Reliable reconciliation of these data cannot be achieved with the closest-approach method, which is often used in matching CALIOP observations to those taken at ground sites. This is due to the transport pathways of the air parcels that were sampled. The use of trajectories allowed us to establish a connection between spaceborne and ground-based observations for 57 individual overpasses out of a total of 2018 that occurred in our region of interest around Svalbard (0 to 25 degrees E, 75 to 82 degrees N) in the considered year of 2008. Matches could only be established during winter and spring, since the low aerosol load during summer in connection with the strong solar background and the high occurrence rate of clouds strongly influences the performance and reliability of CALIOP observations. Extinction coefficients in the range of 2 to 130 Mm(-1) at 532 nm were found for successful matches with a difference of a factor of 1.47 (median value for a range from 0.26 to 11.2) between the findings of in situ and spaceborne observations (the latter being generally larger than the former). The remaining difference is likely to be due to the natural variability in aerosol concentration and ambient relative humidity, an insufficient representation of aerosol particle growth, or a misclassification of aerosol type (i.e., choice of lidar ratio) in the CALIPSO retrieval.

  • 12. Wagner, J.
    et al.
    Ansmann, A.
    Wandinger, U.
    Seifert, P.
    Schwarz, A.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chaikovsky, A.
    Dubovik, O.
    Evaluation of the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) to determine microphysical properties of volcanic and desert dust2013In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1707-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) combines the multiwavelength lidar technique with sun/sky photometry and allows us to retrieve vertical profiles of particle optical and microphysical properties separately for fine-mode and coarse-mode particles. After a brief presentation of the theoretical background, we evaluate the potential of LIRIC to retrieve the optical and microphysical properties of irregularly shaped dust particles. The method is applied to two very different aerosol scenarios: a strong Saharan dust outbreak towards central Europe and an Eyjafjallajokull volcanic dust event. LIRIC profiles of particle mass concentrations for the coarse-mode as well as for the non-spherical particle fraction are compared with results for the non-spherical particle fraction as obtained with the polarization-lidar-based POLIPHON method. Similar comparisons for fine-mode and spherical particle fractions are presented also. Acceptable agreement between the different dust mass concentration profiles is obtained. LIRIC profiles of optical properties such as particle backscatter coefficient, lidar ratio, Angstrom exponent, and particle depolarization ratio are compared with direct Raman lidar observations. Systematic deviations between the LIRIC retrieval products and the Raman lidar measurements of the desert dust lidar ratio, depolarization ratio, and spectral dependencies of particle backscatter and lidar ratio point to the applied spheroidal-particle model as main source for these uncertainties in the LIRIC results.

  • 13.
    Zieger, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Aalto, P. P.
    Aaltonen, V.
    Aijala, M.
    Backman, J.
    Hong, J.
    Komppula, M.
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Laborde, M.
    Lampilahti, J.
    de Leeuw, G.
    Pfuller, A.
    Rosati, B.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vaananen, R.
    Petaja, T.
    Low hygroscopic scattering enhancement of boreal aerosol and the implications for a columnar optical closure study2015In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, no 13, p. 7247-7267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient aerosol particles can take up water and thus change their optical properties depending on the hygroscopicity and the relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air. Knowledge of the hygroscopicity effect is of crucial importance for radiative forcing calculations and is also needed for the comparison or validation of remote sensing or model results with in situ measurements. Specifically, particle light scattering depends on RH and can be described by the scattering enhancement factor f(RH), which is defined as the particle light scattering coefficient at defined RH divided by its dry value (RH < 30-40 %). Here, we present results of an intensive field campaign carried out in summer 2013 at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiala, Finland. Ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties were conducted. The f(RH) measured at ground level by a humidified nephelometer is found to be generally lower (e.g. 1.63 +/- 0.22 at RH = 85% and lambda = 525 nm) than observed at other European sites. One reason is the high organic mass fraction of the aerosol encountered at Hyytiala to which f(RH) is clearly anti-correlated (R-2 approximate to 0.8). A simplified parametrization of f(RH) based on the measured chemical mass fraction can therefore be derived for this aerosol type. A trajectory analysis revealed that elevated values of f(RH) and the corresponding elevated inorganic mass fraction are partially caused by transported hygroscopic sea spray particles. An optical closure study shows the consistency of the ground-based in situ measurements. Our measurements allow to determine the ambient particle light extinction coefficient using the measured f(RH). By combining the ground-based measurements with intensive aircraft measurements of the particle number size distribution and ambient RH, columnar values of the particle extinction coefficient are determined and compared to columnar measurements of a co-located AERONET sun photometer. The water uptake is found to be of minor importance for the column-averaged properties due to the low particle hygroscopicity and the low RH during the daytime of the summer months. The in situ derived aerosol optical depths (AOD) clearly correlate with directly measured values of the sun photometer but are substantially lower compared to the directly measured values (factor of similar to 2-3). The comparison degrades for longer wavelengths. The disagreement between in situ derived and directly measured AOD is hypothesized to originate from losses of coarse and fine mode particles through dry deposition within the canopy and losses in the in situ sampling lines. In addition, elevated aerosol layers (above 3 km) from long-range transport were observed using an aerosol lidar at Kuopio, Finland, about 200 km east-northeast of Hyytiala. These elevated layers further explain parts of the disagreement.

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