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  • 1.
    Hameedi, Alley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Quantum Random Access Codes & their Applications2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the principles of quantum mechanics, quantum information is a highly interesting and fast emerging field which refers to processing information encoded into the state of a quantum system and the subsequent use of such quantum systems for various information tasks. In this thesis, we have studied the role of single d-level quantum systems (qudits) as a quantum resource in the context of a communication task, commonly known as random access codes (RACs). We investigate the advantage of quantum random access codes (QRACs), employing quantum systems of arbitrary dimensions as means of communication between the parties, in terms of average performances over their classical counterparts. For this purpose, a class of QRACs with dimension d=4 is focused upon. Additionally, these higher dimensional QRACs have also been studied in terms of applications where we consider their potential in generation of true randomness. Furthermore, a parallel implementation of two parallel QRACs (employing qubits) is explored as a resource for test of non-classicality of a physical system.

    Our results obtained show that QRACs outperform their classical counterparts performance wise. Moreover, this advantage over classical resources can be extended further by use of higher dimensional QRACs. The high-level QRACs lead to higher average success probabilities and more generated randomness as compared to classical RACs or QRACs of lower dimensions. Finally, an experimental test of non-classicality is demonstrated which allows for arbitrarily low detection efficiencies and does not invoke extra assumptions as lack of shared randomness between devices.

  • 2.
    Hameedi, Alley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Marques, Breno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mironowicz, Piotr
    Saha, Debashis
    Pawlowski, Marcin
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental test of nonclassicality with arbitrary low detection efficiencyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate the realization of a nonclassicality test that allows for arbitrarily low detection efficiency without invoking any extra assumptions as independence of the devices. Our test and its implementation is set in a prepare-and-measure scenario with an upper limit on the communication capacity of the channel through which the systems are communicated. The essence for our novel test is the use of two preparation and two measurement devices, which are randomly paired in each round. Our work opens up the possibility of experimental realizations of device independent protocols with current off-the-shelf technology.

  • 3.
    Hameedi, Alley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Marques, Breno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
    Sadiq, Muhammad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Wiesniak, Marcin
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental quantum solution to the Dining Cryptographers ProblemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum resources such as superposition and entanglement have been used to provide unconditional key distribution, secret sharing and communication complexity reduction. In this letter we present a novel quantum information protocol for dining cryptographers problem and anonymous vote casting by a group of voters. We successfully demonstrate the experimental realization of the protocol using single photon transmission. Our implementation employs a flying particle scheme where a photon passes by the voters who perform a sequence of actions (unitary transformations) on the photonic state at their local stations.

  • 4.
    Hameedi, Alley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Saha, Debashis
    Mironowicz, Piotr
    Pawlowski, Marcin
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Complementarity between entanglement-assisted and quantum distributed random access code2017In: Physical Review A, ISSN 2469-9926, Vol. 95, no 5, article id 052345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative communication tasks such as random access codes (RACs) employing quantum resources have manifested great potential in enhancing information processing capabilities beyond the classical limitations. The two quantum variants of RACs, namely, quantum random access code (QRAC) and the entanglement-assisted random access code (EARAC), have demonstrated equal prowess for a number of tasks. However, there do exist specific cases where one outperforms the other. In this article, we study a family of 3 -> 1 distributed RACs [J. Bowles, N. Brunner, and M. Pawlowski, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022351 (2015)] and present its general construction of both the QRAC and the EARAC. We demonstrate that, depending on the function of inputs that is sought, if QRAC achieves the maximal success probability then EARAC fails to do so and vice versa. Moreover, a tripartite Bell-type inequality associated with the EARAC variants reveals the genuine multipartite nonlocality exhibited by our protocol. We conclude with an experimental realization of the 3 -> 1 distributed QRAC that achieves higher success probabilities than the maximum possible with EARACs for a number of tasks.

  • 5.
    Hameedi, Alley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Saha, Debashis
    Mironowicz, Piotr
    Pawlowski, Marcin
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Distributed random access code with quantum resourcesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative communication tasks as random access codes (RACs) employing quantum resources have manifested great potential in enhancing information processing capabilities beyond the classical limitations. The two quantum variants of RACs, namely quantum random access code (QRAC) and the entanglement assisted random access code (EARAC), have demonstrated equal prowess for a number of tasks. However, there do exist specific cases where one outperforms the other. In this letter, we study a family of 3 to 1 distributed RACs, which are the simplest communication network of that type. We present its construction of both the QRAC and the EARAC. We demonstrate that, depending on the task, if QRAC achieves the maximal success probability then the EARAC fails to do so and vice versa. Moreover, a tripartite Bell-type inequality associated with the EARAC variants reveals the genuine multipartite nonlocality exhibited by our protocol. We conclude with an experimental realization of the 3 to 1 distributed QRAC that achieves higher success probabilities than the maximum possible with EARACs for a number of tasks.

  • 6.
    Hameedi, Alley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Tavakoli, Armin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Université de Genève, Switzerland.
    Marques, Breno
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 22, article id 220402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  • 7.
    Hameedi, Muhammad Alley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Single Photon Sources and Single Quantum System enabled Communication2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum information is a highly interesting and fast emerging field that involves processing information encoded into quantum systems and their subsequent use in various information tasks. The use of quantum resources such as superposition and entanglement have shown to enhance information processing capabilities beyond classical means in a number of communication, information and computation tasks. In this thesis, we have used single photons to study the advantage of d-level quantum systems (qudits) for a communication task commonly known as random access codes (RACs). A successful experimental demonstration of quantum random access codes (QRACs) with four dimensions is realized to demonstrate that the higher dimensional QRACs not only outperform the classical RACs but also provide an advantage over their quantum bit (qubit) counterparts. QRACs are also studied in regards to two specific applications: certification of true randomness and for testing the non-classicality of quantum systems. A method for increased certification of generated randomness is realized for the former and a successful experimental demonstration of a test of non-classicality with arbitrarily low detection efficiency is provided for the latter. This is followed by an implementation of a QRAC in a one-path communication network consisting of preparation, transformation and measurement devices. We have shown that the distributed QRAC provides optimal success probabilities for a number of tasks. Moreover, a novel quantum protocol for the solution to the problem of dining cryptographers and anonymous veto voting is also presented. This single photon transmission based protocol provides an efficient solution, which is experimentally demonstrated for a 3-party description. Lastly, Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) center in diamond is studied as a potential resource for single photon emission and two methods to enhance the photon collection efficiency are successfully explored. Due to this enhancement, single photons from an NV center may also be used in similar single quantum system based communication experiments.

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  • 8. Mironowicz, Piotr
    et al.
    Tavakoli, Armin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. National Quantum Information Centre in Gdańsk, Poland.
    Hameedi, Alley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Marques, Breno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
    Pawlowski, Marcin
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Increased certification of semi-device independent random numbers using many inputs and more post-processing2016In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 18, article id 065004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum communication with systems of dimension larger than two provides advantages in information processing tasks. Examples include higher rates of key distribution and random number generation. The main disadvantage of using such multi-dimensional quantum systems is the increased complexity of the experimental setup. Here, we analyze a not-so-obvious problem: the relation between randomness certification and computational requirements of the post-processing of experimental data. In particular, we consider semi-device independent randomness certification from an experiment using a four dimensional quantum system to violate the classical bound of a random access code. Using state-of-the-art techniques, a smaller quantum violation requires more computational power to demonstrate randomness, which at some point becomes impossible with today's computers although the randomness is (probably) still there. We show that by dedicating more input settings of the experiment to randomness certification, then by more computational postprocessing of the experimental data which corresponds to a quantum violation, one may increase the amount of certified randomness. Furthermore, we introduce a method that significantly lowers the computational complexity of randomness certification. Our results show how more randomness can be generated without altering the hardware and indicate a path for future semi-device independent protocols to follow.

  • 9.
    Tavakoli, Armin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Anwer, Hammad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Hameedi, Alley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Quantum communication complexity using the quantum Zeno effect2015In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 92, no 1, article id 012303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantum Zeno effect (QZE) is the phenomenon in which the unitary evolution of a quantum state is suppressed, e.g., due to frequent measurements. Here, we investigate the use of the QZE in a class of communication complexity problems (CCPs). Quantum entanglement is known to solve certain CCPs beyond classical constraints. However, recent developments have yielded CCPs for which superclassical results can be obtained using only communication of a single d-level quantum state (qudit) as a resource. In the class of CCPs considered here, we show quantum reduction of complexity in three ways: using (i) entanglement and the QZE, (ii) a single qudit and the QZE, and (iii) a single qudit. We have performed a proof of concept experimental demonstrations of three party CCP protocol based on single-qubit communication with and without QZE.

  • 10.
    Tavakoli, Armin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Hameedi, Alley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Marques, Breno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Quantum Random Access Codes Using Single d-Level Systems2015In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 114, no 17, article id 170502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Random access codes (RACs) are used by a party to, with limited communication, access an arbitrary subset of information held by another party. Quantum resources are known to enable RACs that break classical limitations. Here, we study quantum and classical RACs with high-level communication. We derive average performances of classical RACs and present families of high-level quantum RACs. Our results show that high-level quantum systems can significantly increase the advantage of quantum RACs over their classical counterparts. We demonstrate our findings in an experimental realization of a quantum RAC with four-level communication.

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