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  • 1.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0146053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 2. Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Twidwell, Dirac
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Discontinuity Analysis Reveals Alternative Community Regimes During Phytoplankton Succession2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-recognized in plankton ecology that phytoplankton development can lead to distinct peaks (i.e., blooms) during spring and summer. We used a 5-year (2007-2011) phytoplankton data set and utilized discontinuity analysis to assess resilience attributes of spring and summer blooms based on the cross-scale resilience model. Using the size structure (i.e., cross-scale structure as an indicator of resilience) in the sampled plankton data, we assessed whether spring and summer blooms differ substantially between but not within blooms; that is, whether they comprise alternative community regimes. Our exploratory study supported this expectation and more broadly resilience theory, which posits that ecological systems can manifest in and change between alternative regimes. The dynamics of regimes receives increased attention because rapid environmental change potentially irreversibly alters ecosystems. Model organisms are needed that allow revealing patterns and processes of various aspects of regime dynamics at tractable time scales. Our preliminary findings suggest that phytoplankton can be suitable models for assessing the intricacies of regimes and regime changes.

  • 3. Bermudez, J. Rafael
    et al.
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Larsen, Aud
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany.
    Ocean acidification reduces transfer of essential biomolecules in a natural plankton community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 27749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification (OA), a process of increasing seawater acidity caused by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, is expected to change surface ocean pH to levels unprecedented for millions of years, affecting marine food web structures and trophic interactions. Using an in situ mesocosm approach we investigated effects of OA on community composition and trophic transfer of essential fatty acids (FA) in a natural plankton assemblage. Elevated pCO(2) favored the smallest phytoplankton size class in terms of biomass, primarily picoeukaryotes, at the expense of chlorophyta and haptophyta in the nano-plankton size range. This shift in community composition and size structure was accompanied by a decline in the proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to total FA content in the nano- and picophytoplankton size fractions. This decline was mirrored in a continuing reduction in the relative PUFA content of the dominant copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which primarily fed on the nano-size class. Our results demonstrate that a shift in phytoplankton community composition and biochemical composition in response to rising CO2 can affect the transfer of essential compounds to higher trophic levels, which rely on their prey as a source for essential macromolecules.

  • 4. Bermudez, Rafael
    et al.
    Feng, Yuanyuan
    Roleda, Michael Y.
    Tatters, Avery O.
    Hutchins, David A.
    Larsen, Thomas
    Boyd, Philip W.
    Hurd, Catriona L.
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO(2) and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0123945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4 degrees C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO2 can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19 degrees C) and 3 partial pressures of CO2 (180, 380, 750 mu atm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of similar to 3% and similar to 6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO(2) of 750 mu atm (high) compared to the 380 mu atm (intermediate) CO2 treatments at 14 degrees C. Cultures kept at 19 degrees C displayed a similar to 3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO(2), while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO(2) of 180 mu atm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO2 levels at 14 degrees C, but there were no differences in EA at 19 degrees C for any CO2 treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only similar to 20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.

  • 5. Bermudez, Rafael
    et al.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stuhr, Annegret
    Almen, Anna-Karin
    Engström-Öst, Jonna
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Effect of ocean acidification on the structure and fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Baltic Sea2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 24, p. 6625-6635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is changing seawater chemistry towards reduced pH, which affects various properties of marine organisms. Coastal and brackish water communities are expected to be less affected by ocean acidification (OA) as these communities are typically adapted to high fluctuations in CO2 and pH. Here we investigate the response of a coastal brackish water plankton community to increasing CO2 levels as projected for the coming decades and the end of this century in terms of community and biochemical fatty acid (FA) composition. A Baltic Sea plankton community was enclosed in a set of offshore mesocosms and subjected to a CO2 gradient ranging from natural concentrations (similar to 347 mu atm fCO(2)) up to values projected for the year 2100 (similar to 1333 mu atm fCO(2)). We show that the phytoplankton community composition was resilient to CO2 and did not diverge between the treatments. Seston FA composition was influenced by community composition, which in turn was driven by silicate and phosphate limitation in the mesocosms and showed no difference between the CO2 treatments. These results suggest that CO2 effects are dampened in coastal communities that already experience high natural fluctuations in pCO(2). Although this coastal plankton community was tolerant of high pCO(2) levels, hypoxia and CO2 uptake by the sea can aggravate acidification and may lead to pH changes outside the currently experienced range for coastal organisms.

  • 6.
    Burian, Alfred
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Derby, UK.
    Grosse, Julia
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Boschker, Henricus T. S.
    Nutrient deficiencies and the restriction of compensatory mechanisms in copepods2018In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 636-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The flexible regulation of feeding behaviour and nutrient metabolism is a prerequisite for consumers to grow and survive under variable food conditions. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological trade-offs that restrict regulatory mechanisms in consumers to evaluate the consequences of nutrient limitations for trophic interactions.

    2. Here, we assessed behavioural and physiological adjustments to nutrient deficiencies in copepods and examined whether energy limitation, food digestibility or co-limitation with a second nutrient restricted compensatory mechanisms.

    3. A combination of C-13-labelling and compound-specific stable isotope measurements revealed that copepods compensated nitrogen deficiencies by raising retention efficiencies of amino acids (AA). The costs of higher retention efficiencies were reflected in the doubling of structural fatty acids (FA), probably required for morphological adaptations of the gut. A depletion of highly unsaturated FA in storage lipids and their selective retention suggested that these FA became co-limiting and restricted a further increase in AA retention efficiencies.

    4. Copepods feeding on phosphorus-limited algae showed a marked increase in ingestion rates but were not fully able to compensate dietary deficiencies. The increase in ingestion rates was thereby not restricted by higher foraging costs because energy storage in copepods increased. Instead, thicker cell walls of nutrient-limited algae indicated that algal digestion resistance restricted the extent of surplus feeding.

    5. The strongly nutrient-specific response of copepods had large implications for recycling rates, growth efficiencies and the potential top-down control at the plant-animal interface. Compensatory mechanisms to mitigate nutrient deficiencies are therefore an essential aspect of trophic interactions and have the potential to alter the structure of food web.

  • 7.
    Burian, Alfred
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nielsen, Jens M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Trade-offs in governing consumers’ responses to food quality and quantity variationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Burian, Alfred
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Schagerl, Michael
    Yasindi, Andrew
    Singer, Gabriel
    Kaggwa, Mary Nakabungo
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Benthic-pelagic coupling drives non-seasonal zooplankton blooms and restructures energy flows in shallow tropical lakes2016In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 795-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zooplankton blooms are a frequent phenomenon in tropical systems. However, drivers of bloom formation and the contribution of emerging resting eggs are largely unexplored. We investigated the dynamics and the triggers of rotifer blooms in African soda-lakes and assessed their impact on other trophic levels. A meta-analysis of rotifer peak densities including abundances of up to 6 × 105 individuals L−1 demonstrated that rotifer bloom formation was uncoupled from the food environment and the seasonality of climatic conditions. A time series with weekly sampling intervals from Lake Nakuru (Kenya) revealed that intrinsic growth factors (food quality and the physicochemical environment) significantly affected rotifer population fluctuations, but were of minor importance for bloom formation. Instead, rotifer bloom formation was linked to sediment resuspension, a prerequisite for hatching of resting-eggs. Population growth rates exceed pelagic birth rates and simulations of rotifer dynamics confirmed the quantitative importance of rotifer emergence from the sediment egg-bank and signifying a decoupling of bloom formation from pelagic reproduction. Rotifer blooms led to a top-down control of small-sized algae and facilitated a switch to more grazing-resistant, filamentous cyanobacteria. This shift in phytoplankton composition cascaded up the food chain and triggered the return of filter-feeding flamingos. Calculations of consequent changes in the lake's energy budget and export of aquatic primary production to terrestrial ecosystems demonstrated the large potential impact of nonseasonal disturbances on the functioning of shallow tropical lakes.

  • 9.
    Costalago, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Lundström, Karl
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The necessity of a holistic approach when managing marine mammal–fisheries interactions: Environment and fisheries impact are stronger than seal predation2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 552-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seal populations are recovering in many regions around the world and, consequently, they are increasingly interacting with fisheries. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model for the offshore Central Baltic Sea to investigate the interactions between the changes in fish stocks and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population under different fishing and environmental scenarios for the twenty-first century. The assumed climate, eutrophication and cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries scenarios modified seal predation impacts on fish. Fish biomass and catches are more affected by fishing mortality and the environment than by seal predation. Our results highlight that the impacts of the increasing seal population on lower trophic levels are complex; thus, we emphasize the need to consider a range of possible ecosystem contexts when evaluating potential impacts of top predators. Finally, we suggest that an increasing seal population is not likely to hinder the preservation of the main Baltic fish stocks.

  • 10. Domis, Lisette N. De Senerpont
    et al.
    Elser, James J.
    Gsell, Alena S.
    Huszar, Vera L. M.
    Ibelings, Bas W.
    Jeppesen, Erik
    Kosten, Sarian
    Mooij, Wolf M.
    Roland, Fabio
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Van Donk, Ellen
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lurling, Miquel
    Plankton dynamics under different climatic conditions in space and time2013In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 463-482Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.Different components of the climate system have been shown to affect temporal dynamics in natural plankton communities on scales varying from days to years. The seasonal dynamics in temperate lake plankton communities, with emphasis on both physical and biological forcing factors, were captured in the 1980s in a conceptual framework, the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model. 2.Taking the PEG model as our starting point, we discuss anticipated changes in seasonal and long-term plankton dynamics and extend this model to other climate regions, particularly polar and tropical latitudes. Based on our improved post-PEG understanding of plankton dynamics, we also evaluate the role of microbial plankton, parasites and fish in governing plankton dynamics and distribution. 3.In polar lakes, there is usually just a single peak in plankton biomass in summer. Lengthening of the growing season under warmer conditions may lead to higher and more prolonged phytoplankton productivity. Climate-induced increases in nutrient loading in these oligotrophic waters may contribute to higher phytoplankton biomass and subsequent higher zooplankton and fish productivity. 4.In temperate lakes, a seasonal pattern with two plankton biomass peaks in spring and summer can shift to one with a single but longer and larger biomass peak as nutrient loading increases, with associated higher populations of zooplanktivorous fish. Climate change will exacerbate these trends by increasing nutrient loading through increased internal nutrient inputs (due to warming) and increased catchment inputs (in the case of more precipitation). 5.In tropical systems, temporal variability in precipitation can be an important driver of the seasonal development of plankton. Increases in precipitation intensity may reset the seasonal dynamics of plankton communities and favour species adapted to highly variable environments. The existing intense predation by fish on larger zooplankters may increase further, resulting in a perennially low zooplankton biomass. 6.Bacteria were not included in the original PEG model. Seasonally, bacteria vary less than the phytoplankton but often follow its patterns, particularly in colder lakes. In warmer lakes, and with future warming, a greater influx of allochthonous carbon may obscure this pattern. 7.Our analyses indicate that the consequences of climate change for plankton dynamics are, to a large extent, system specific, depending on characteristics such as food-web structure and nutrient loading. Indirect effects through nutrient loading may be more important than direct effects of temperature increase, especially for phytoplankton. However, with warming a general picture emerges of increases in bacterivory, greater cyanobacterial dominance and smaller-bodied zooplankton that are more heavily impacted by fish predation.

  • 11.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Otto, Saskia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zooming in on size distribution patterns underlying species coexistence in Baltic Sea phytoplankton2014In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1219-1227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scale is a key to determining which processes drive community structure. We analyse size distributions of phytoplankton to determine time scales at which we can observe either fixed environmental characteristics underlying communities structure or competition-driven size distributions. Using multiple statistical tests, we characterise size distributions of phytoplankton from 20-year time series in two sites of the Baltic Sea. At large temporal scales (5-20 years), size distributions are unimodal, indicating that fundamental barriers to existence are here subtler than in other systems. Frequency distributions of the average size of the species weighted by biovolume are multimodal over large time scales, although this is the product of often unimodal short-term (<1 year) patterns. Our study represents a much-needed structured, high-resolution analysis of phytoplankton size distributions, revealing that short-term analyses are necessary to determine if, and how, competition shapes them. Our results provide a stepping-stone on which to further investigate the intricacies of competition and coexistence.

  • 12. Galloway, Aaron W. E.
    et al.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of California Davis, USA.
    Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0130053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental- scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; >= C-20-omega 3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and omega-3 omega-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates as key sources of LCEFA. Moreover, the analyses indicate that future shifts towards cyanobacteria-dominated communities will result in lower LCEFA content in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 13. Gilbert, Benjamin
    et al.
    Tunney, Tyler D.
    McCann, Kevin S.
    DeLong, John P.
    Vasseur, David A.
    Savage, Van
    Shurin, Jonathan B.
    Dell, Anthony I.
    Barton, Brandon T.
    Harley, Christopher D. G.
    Kharouba, Heather M.
    Kratina, Pavel
    Blanchard, Julia L.
    Clements, Christopher
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greig, Hamish S.
    O'Connor, Mary I.
    A bioenergetic framework for the temperature dependence of trophic interactions2014In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 902-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing temperature can substantially shift ecological communities by altering the strength and stability of trophic interactions. Because many ecological rates are constrained by temperature, new approaches are required to understand how simultaneous changes in multiple rates alter the relative performance of species and their trophic interactions. We develop an energetic approach to identify the relationship between biomass fluxes and standing biomass across trophic levels. Our approach links ecological rates and trophic dynamics to measure temperature-dependent changes to the strength of trophic interactions and determine how these changes alter food web stability. It accomplishes this by using biomass as a common energetic currency and isolating three temperature-dependent processes that are common to all consumer-resource interactions: biomass accumulation of the resource, resource consumption and consumer mortality. Using this framework, we clarify when and how temperature alters consumer to resource biomass ratios, equilibrium resilience, consumer variability, extinction risk and transient vs. equilibrium dynamics. Finally, we characterise key asymmetries in species responses to temperature that produce these distinct dynamic behaviours and identify when they are likely to emerge. Overall, our framework provides a mechanistic and more unified understanding of the temperature dependence of trophic dynamics in terms of ecological rates, biomass ratios and stability.

  • 14.
    Golz, Anna-Lea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Burian, Alfred
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Stoichiometric regulation in micro- and mesozooplankton2015In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 293-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecosystems experience large natural variation in elemental composition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), which is further enhanced by human activities. Primary producers typically reflect the nutrient ratios of their resource, whose stoichiometric composition can vary widely in conformity to environmental conditions. In contrast, C to nutrient ratios in consumers are largely constrained within a narrow range, termed homeostasis. In comparison to crustacean zooplankton, less is known about the ability of protozoan grazers and rotifer species to maintain stoichiometric balance. In this study, we used laboratory experiments with a primary producer (Nannochloropsis sp.), three different species of protozoan grazers and one mesozooplankton species: two heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina), a ciliate (Euplotes sp.) and a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) to test the stoichiometric response to five nutrient treatments. We showed that the dependency of zooplankton C: N: P ratios on C: nutrient ratios of their food source varies among species. Similar to the photoautotroph, the two heterotrophic dinoflagellates weakly regulated their internal stoichiometry. In contrast, the strength of stoichiometric regulation increased to strict homeostasis in both the ciliate and the rotifer, similar to crustacean zooplankton. Our study further shows that ciliate and rotifer growth can be constrained by imbalanced resource supply. It also indicates that these key primary consumers have the potential to trophically upgrade poor stoichiometric autotrophic food quality for higher trophic levels.

  • 15.
    Griffiths, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phytoplankton community interactions and environmental sensitivity in coastal and offshore habitats2016In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 125, no 8, p. 1134-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the relative importance of environmental conditions and community interactions is necessary for evaluating the sensitivity of biological communities to anthropogenic change. Phytoplankton communities have a central role in aquatic food webs and biogeochemical cycles, therefore, consequences of differing community sensitivities may have broad ecosystem effects. Using two long-term time series (28 and 20 years) from the Baltic Sea, we evaluated coastal and offshore major phytoplankton taxonomic group biovolume patterns over annual and monthly time-scales and assessed their response to environmental drivers and biotic interactions. Overall, coastal phytoplankton responded more strongly to environmental anomalies than offshore phytoplankton, although the specific environmental driver changed with time scale. A trend indicating a state shift in annual biovolume anomalies occurred at both sites and the shift's timing at the coastal site closely tracked other long-term Baltic Sea ecosystem shifts. Cyanobacteria and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum were more strongly related than other groups to this trend with opposing relationships that were consistent across sites. On a monthly scale, biotic interactions within communities were rare and did not overlap between the coastal and offshore sites. Annual scales may be better able to assess general patterns across habitat types in the Baltic Sea, but monthly community dynamics may differ at relatively small spatial scales and consequently respond differently to future change.

  • 16.
    Griffiths, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kadin, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tamelander, Tobias
    Törnroos, Anna
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Järnström, Marie
    Kotta, Jonne
    Lindegren, Martin
    Nordström, Marie C.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Olsson, Jens
    Weigel, Benjamin
    Zydelis, Ramunas
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 2179-2196Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world.

  • 17. Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    et al.
    Filipsson, Helena L.
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Jagers, Sverker
    Langlet, David
    Matti, Simon
    Turner, David
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    de Wit, Pierre
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Ecological and functional consequences of coastal ocean acidification: Perspectives from the Baltic-Skagerrak System2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 831-854Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean temperatures are rising; species are shifting poleward, and pH is falling (ocean acidification, OA). We summarise current understanding of OA in the brackish Baltic-Skagerrak System, focussing on the direct, indirect and interactive effects of OA with other anthropogenic drivers on marine biogeochemistry, organisms and ecosystems. Substantial recent advances reveal a pattern of stronger responses (positive or negative) of species than ecosystems, more positive responses at lower trophic levels and strong indirect interactions in food-webs. Common emergent themes were as follows: OA drives planktonic systems toward the microbial loop, reducing energy transfer to zooplankton and fish; and nutrient/food availability ameliorates negative impacts of OA. We identify several key areas for further research, notably the need for OA-relevant biogeochemical and ecosystem models, and understanding the ecological and evolutionary capacity of Baltic-Skagerrak ecosystems to respond to OA and other anthropogenic drivers.

  • 18.
    Hedberg, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rybak, Fanny F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fish larvae distribution among different habitats in coastal East Africa2019In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish larvae abundances, diversity and trophic position across shallow seagrass, coral reef and open water habitats were examined to characterize their distribution in coastal East Africa. Larvae were identified to family and analysed for abundance differences between sites and habitats, trophic level using stable-isotope analysis and parental spawning mode. Abundances differed greatly between sites with the highest numbers of larvae occurring in the open-water and seagrass habitats. Larval fish diversity was high across habitats with 51 families identified with small differences between sites and among habitats. Notably, larvae of abundant large herbivorous fishes present in reef and seagrass habitats were almost completely absent at all sampling locations. In the seagrass, demersal spawned larvae were more abundant compared with the reef and open-water habitats. Stable-isotope analysis revealed that fish larvae have a varied diet, occupying trophic level two to three and utilizing planktonic prey. This study offers new insights into distributional aspects of fish larvae along the East African coast where such information is sparse.

  • 19.
    Hjerne, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Climate Driven Changes in Timing, Composition and Magnitude of the Baltic Sea Phytoplankton Spring Bloom2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spring phytoplankton blooms contribute a substantial part to annual production, support pelagic and benthic secondary production and influence biogeochemical cycles in many temperate aquatic systems. Understanding environmental effects on spring bloom dynamics is important for predicting future climate responses and for managing aquatic systems. We analyzed long-term phytoplankton data from one coastal and one offshore station in the Baltic Sea to uncover trends in timing, composition and size of the spring bloom and its correlations to environmental variables. There was a general trend of earlier phytoplankton blooms by 1-2 weeks over the last 20 years, associated with more sunshine and less windy conditions. High water temperatures were associated with earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates that dominate the spring bloom, and decreased diatom bloom magnitude. Overall bloom timing, however, was buffered by a temperature and ice related shift in composition from early blooming diatoms to later blooming dinoflagellates and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Such counteracting responses to climate change highlight the importance of both general and taxon-specific investigations. We hypothesize that the predicted earlier blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates as a response to the expected temperature increase in the Baltic Sea might also be counteracted by more clouds and stronger winds. A shift from early blooming and fast sedimenting diatoms to later blooming groups of dinoflagellates and M. rubrum at higher temperatures during the spring period is expected to increase energy transfers to pelagic secondary production and decrease spring bloom inputs to the benthic system, resulting in lower benthic production and reduced oxygen consumption.

  • 20. Huss, M.
    et al.
    Bookhagen, B.
    Huggel, C.
    Jacobsen, D.
    Bradley, R. S.
    Clague, J. J.
    Vuille, M.
    Buytaert, W.
    Cayan, D. R.
    Greenwood, G.
    Mark, B. G.
    Milner, A. M.
    Weingartner, R.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice2017In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 418-435Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier-and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations.Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Konrad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Puiac, Simona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis2018In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 165, no 2, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58 degrees 48.19', 17 degrees 37.52'; 65 degrees 10.14', 23 degrees 14.41'; 58 degrees 21.67', 24 degrees 30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Konrad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ecosystem Effects of Morphological and Life History Traits in Two Divergent Zooplankton Populations2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the ecosystem effects of locally adapted populations. The filter feeding copepod Eurytemora affinis is an abundant and important zooplankton in coastal waters that consist of a cryptic species complex with locally adapted populations. We used a mesocosm setup to investigate population and ecosystem interactions of two populations from the Baltic Sea with different morphology and life history traits. One population is laterally wider, larger-sized, more fecund, and have higher growth rate than the other. The experimental ecosystems varied in algae community (pelagic algae, and pelagic algae + benthic diatoms) with two resource supply scenarios. Results showed that the large-sized population is a more effective grazer. In low resource supply the small-sized population starved, whereas the large-sized population was unaffected, resulting in a larger population increase of both nauplii and copepodites than for the small-sized population. Addition of benthic diatoms to the pelagic algae community had much more negative effects on the reproduction of the large-sized population. This suggests that the large-sized population feeds near benthic to a greater extent than the small-sized population, and that filamentous benthic diatoms interfere with the grazing process. Despite the negative effects of benthic diatoms, the large-sized population could maintain similar or higher reproduction than the small-sized population. In addition, the high grazing efficiency of the large-sized population resulted in a different community composition of algae. Specifically, flagellated species and small sized benthic diatoms were more grazed upon by the large-sized population. Our results show that morphologically divergent, yet phylogenetically closely related zooplankton populations can have different ecosystem functions, and in turn have different population increase in response to resource supply and algae community.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Konrad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24. Kratina, Pavel
    et al.
    Mac Nally, Ralph
    Kimmerer, Wim J.
    Thomson, James R.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of California Davis, USA.
    Human-induced biotic invasions and changes in plankton interaction networks2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 1066-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Pervasive and accelerating changes to ecosystems due to human activities remain major sources of uncertainty in predicting the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. Understanding which biotic interactions within natural multitrophic communities are weakened or augmented by invasions of non-native species in the context of other environmental pressures is needed for effective management. 2. We used multivariate autoregressive models with detailed time-series data from largely freshwater and brackish regions of the upper San Francisco Estuary to assess the topology, direction and strength of trophic interactions following major invasions and establishment of non-native zooplankton in the early 1990s. We simultaneously compared the effects of fish and clam predation, environmental temperature and salinity intrusion using time-series data from > 60 monitoring locations spanning more than three decades. 3. We found changes in the networks of biotic interactions in both regions after the major zooplankton invasions. Our results imply an increased pressure on native herbivores; intensified negative interactions between herbivores and omnivores; and stronger bottom-up influence of juvenile copepods but weaker influence of phytoplankton as a resource for higher trophic levels following the invasions. We identified salinity intrusion as a primary pressure but showed relatively stronger importance of biotic interactions for understanding the dynamics of entire communities. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of biotic interactions and provide evidence of how simultaneous invasions of exotic species may alter interaction networks in diverse natural ecosystems over large spatial and temporal scales. Efforts to restore declining fish stocks may be in vain without fully considering the trophic dynamics that limit the flow of energy to target populations. Focusing on multitrophic interactions that may be threatened by invasions rather than a limited focus on responses of individual species or diversity is likely to yield more effective management strategies.

  • 25. Kratina, Pavel
    et al.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of California, USA.
    Biotic invasions can alter nutritional composition of zooplankton communities2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 10, p. 1337-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecologists and ecosystem managers often base their understanding of trophic dynamics on consumer and resource biomass. However, the factors that alter the relative nutritional value of resources are often poorly understood, despite their potential to decouple trophic interactions. Recent population declines in pelagic fishes of the upper San Francisco Estuary were not accompanied by an equivalent decrease in zooplankton biomass, which are the main resource for the fish and their larvae. It was hypothesized that changes in zooplankton nutritional conditions following the establishment of invasive species caused food-quality related limitations for these higher-order consumers. Using stable isotopes, elemental stoichiometry and fatty acid analyses for all dominant invasive and native zooplankton taxa and seston, we characterized the plankton community structure in the estuary and demonstrated taxon-specific differences in their nutritional value. We then quantified the temporal dynamics in meso-zooplankton proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and ratio of n3: n6 fatty acids. We found temporal increase in the community-level DHA, n3 to n6 fatty acid ratio, decrease in the community-level EPA and PUFA in the brackish water region, but no change in the bulk PUFA proportions in the freshwater region of the estuary. These changes were caused mainly by declines of native cladocerans that are rich in EPA and by an increase in the dominance of invasive taxa with high DHA concentrations, similar to that of native taxa. Although we showed temporal shifts in individual fatty acid classes, the proportion of the essential fatty acids remained relatively high, suggesting that nutritional prey availability for fish remained unchanged with the shift in species composition. We argue that the nutritional content of resource communities should be considered when analyzing the long-term trophic dynamics and designing effective management and restoration strategies.

  • 26.
    Nielsen, Jens M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fussilli, Matteo
    Esparza-Salas, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Dahlén, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Marine zooplankton diet preferences across species, life stages and seasons using DNA barcodingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nielsen, Jens M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Popp, Brian N.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Meta-analysis of amino acid stable nitrogen isotope ratios for estimating trophic position in marine organisms2015In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 178, no 3, p. 631-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating trophic structures is a common approach used to retrieve information regarding energy pathways, predation, and competition in complex ecosystems. The application of amino acid (AA) compound-specific nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (CSIA) is a relatively new method used to estimate trophic position (TP) and feeding relationships in diverse organisms. Here, we conducted the first meta-analysis of delta N-15 AA values from measurements of 359 marine species covering four trophic levels, and compared TP estimates from AA-CSIA to literature values derived from food items, gut or stomach content analysis. We tested whether the AA trophic enrichment factor (TEF), or the N-15 enrichment among different individual AAs is constant across trophic levels and whether inclusion of delta N-15 values from multiple AAs improves TP estimation. For the TEF of glutamic acid relative to phenylalanine (Phe) we found an average value of 6.6 aEuro degrees across all taxa, which is significantly lower than the commonly applied 7.6 aEuro degrees. We found that organism feeding ecology influences TEF values of several trophic AAs relative to Phe, with significantly higher TEF values for herbivores compared to omnivores and carnivores, while TEF values were also significantly lower for animals excreting urea compared to ammonium. Based on the comparison of multiple model structures using the metadata of delta N-15 AA values we show that increasing the number of AAs in principle improves precision in TP estimation. This meta-analysis clarifies the advantages and limitations of using individual delta N-15 AA values as tools in trophic ecology and provides a guideline for the future application of AA-CSIA to food web studies.

  • 28.
    Nielsen, Jens M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Reutervik, Katja L.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Amino acid stable isotope discrimination in diverse aquatic food chains2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nielsen, Jens M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Seasonal dynamics of zooplankton resource use revealed by carbon amino acid stable isotope values2015In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 531, p. 143-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable tracer techniques are fundamental to retrieving accurate information on consumer dietary resource use in dynamic ecosystems. Analysis of delta C-13 values in essential amino acids has shown great promise in effectively capturing consumer food sources, since essential amino acids are not synthesized by heterotrophic organisms but instead routed directly from dietary sources to consumers, resulting in negligible C-13 trophic discrimination. We assessed seasonal feeding patterns of a widespread key copepod species (Acartia spp.) in the northern Baltic proper using complementary approaches: bulk delta C-13 and delta N-15 values, delta C-13 values of essential amino acids, and quantitative phytoplankton taxonomic data. Our results showed distinct differences between Acartia and seston delta C-13 essential amino acid values measured at weekly to monthly sampling intervals, which indicated that Acartia preferentially utilized specific dietary resources that comprised only parts of the total phytoplankton composition (varying from 19.7% to 81.4% during the season). Results also indicated that care should be taken when inferring trophic position from bulk stable isotopes when consumers are highly selective, since isotope values of seston may not accurately reflect consumer specific diet resource uptake. Analysis of delta C-13 values in essential amino acids was shown to be a promising tool to accurately trace consumer resource use in complex natural systems.

  • 30. Reusch, Thorsten B. H.
    et al.
    Dierking, Jan
    Andersson, Helen C.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Casini, Michele
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Hasler, Berit
    Hinsby, Klaus
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Jomaa, Seifeddine
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Kuosa, Harri
    Kurland, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Margonski, Piotr
    Melzner, Frank
    Oesterwind, Daniel
    Ojaveer, Henn
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Sandström, Annica
    Schwarz, Gerald
    Tonderski, Karin
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 5, article id eaar8195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.

  • 31. Rossoll, D.
    et al.
    Sommer, U.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel.
    Community interactions dampen acidification effects in a coastal plankton system2013In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 486, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing seawater chemistry towards reduced pH as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is affecting oceanic organisms, particularly calcifying species. Responses of non-calcifying consumers are highly variable and mainly mediated through indirect ocean acidification effects induced by changing the biochemical content of their prey, as shown within single species and simple 2-trophic level systems. However, it can be expected that indirect CO2 impacts observed at the single species level are compensated at the ecosystem level by species richness and complex trophic interactions. A dampening of CO2-effects can be further expected for coastal communities adapted to strong natural fluctuations in pCO(2), typical for productive coastal habitats. Here we show that a plankton community of the Kiel Fjord was tolerant to CO2 partial pressure (pCO(2)) levels projected for the end of this century (<1400 mu atm), and only subtle differences were observed at the extremely high value of 4000 mu atm. We found similar phyto- and microzooplankton biomass and copepod abundance and egg production across all CO2 treatment levels. Stoichiometric phytoplankton food quality was minimally different at the highest pCO(2) treatment, but was far from being potentially limiting for copepods. These results are in contrast to studies that include only a single species, which observe strong indirect CO2 effects for herbivores and suggest limitations of biological responses at the level of organism to community. Although this coastal plankton community was highly tolerant to high fluctuations in pCO(2), increase in hypoxia and CO2 uptake by the ocean can aggravate acidification and may lead to pH changes outside the range presently experienced by coastal organisms.

  • 32. Rossoll, Dennis
    et al.
    Bermudez, Rafael
    Hauss, Helena
    Schulz, Kai G.
    Riebesell, Ulf
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ocean acidification induced food quality deterioration constrains trophic transfer2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e34737-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our present understanding of ocean acidification (OA) impacts on marine organisms caused by rapidly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is almost entirely limited to single species responses. OA consequences for food web interactions are, however, still unknown. Indirect OA effects can be expected for consumers by changing the nutritional quality of their prey. We used a laboratory experiment to test potential OA effects on algal fatty acid (FA) composition and resulting copepod growth. We show that elevated CO2 significantly changed the FA concentration and composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which constrained growth and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa. A significant decline in both total FAs (28.1 to 17.4 fg cell(-1)) and the ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (PUFA:SFA) of food algae cultured under elevated (750 mu atm) compared to present day (380 mu atm) pCO(2) was directly translated to copepods. The proportion of total essential FAs declined almost tenfold in copepods and the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) tripled at high CO2. This rapid and reversible CO2-dependent shift in FA concentration and composition caused a decrease in both copepod somatic growth and egg production from 34 to 5 eggs female(-1) day(-1). Because the diatom-copepod link supports some of the most productive ecosystems in the world, our study demonstrates that OA can have far-reaching consequences for ocean food webs by changing the nutritional quality of essential macromolecules in primary producers that cascade up the food web.

  • 33. Sommer, Ulrich
    et al.
    Adrian, Rita
    Bauer, Barbara
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The response of temperate aquatic ecosystems to global warming: novel insights from a multidisciplinary project2012In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 159, no 11, p. 2367-2377Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article serves as an introduction to this special issue of Marine Biology, but also as a review of the key findings of the AQUASHIFT research program which is the source of the articles published in this issue. AQUASHIFT is an interdisciplinary research program targeted to analyze the response of temperate zone aquatic ecosystems (both marine and freshwater) to global warming. The main conclusions of AQUASHIFT relate to (a) shifts in geographic distribution, (b) shifts in seasonality, (c) temporal mismatch in food chains, (d) biomass responses to warming, (e) responses of body size, (f) harmful bloom intensity, (f), changes of biodiversity, and (g) the dependence of shifts to temperature changes during critical seasonal windows.

  • 34. Sommer, Ulrich
    et al.
    Adrian, Rita
    De Senerpont Domis, Lisette
    Elser, James J.
    Gaedke, Ursula
    Ibelings, Bas
    Jeppesen, Erik
    Lürling, Miquel
    Molinero, Juan Carlos
    Mooij, Wolf M.
    van Donk, Ellen
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Beyond the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) Model: Mechanisms Driving Plankton Succession2012In: Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, ISSN 1543-592X, E-ISSN 1545-2069, Vol. 43, p. 429-448Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal succession of plankton is an annually repeated process of community assembly during which all major external factors and internal interactions shaping communities can be studied. A quarter of a century ago, the state of this understanding was described by the verbal plankton ecology group (PEG) model. It emphasized the role of physical factors, grazing and nutrient limitation for phytoplankton, and the role of food limitation and fish predation for zooplankton. Although originally targeted at lake ecosystems, it was also adopted by marine plankton ecologists. Since then, a suite of ecological interactions previously underestimated in importance have become research foci: overwintering of key organisms, the microbial food web, parasitism, and food quality as a limiting factor and an extended role of higher order predators. A review of the impact of these novel interactions on plankton seasonal succession reveals limited effects on gross seasonal biomass patterns, but strong effects on species replacements.

  • 35. Tamelander, Tobias
    et al.
    Spilling, Kristian
    Winder, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Organic matter export to the seafloor in the Baltic Sea: Drivers of change and future projections2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 842-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of environmental change and anthropogenic stressors on coastal marine systems will strongly depend on changes in the magnitude and composition of organic matter exported from the water column to the seafloor. Knowledge of vertical export in the Baltic Sea is synthesised to illustrate how organic matter deposition will respond to climate warming, climate-related changes in freshwater runoff, and ocean acidification. Pelagic heterotrophic processes are suggested to become more important in a future warmer climate, with negative feedbacks to organic matter deposition to the seafloor. This is an important step towards improved oxygen conditions in the near-bottom layer that will reduce the release of inorganic nutrients from the sediment and hence counteract further eutrophication. The evaluation of these processes in ecosystem models, validated by field observations, will significantly advance the understanding of the system's response to environmental change and will improve the use of such models in management of coastal areas.

  • 36.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lake warming mimics fertilization2012In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 2, p. 771-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful nutrient management has helped many lakes recover from the effects of phosphorus pollution. Now research suggests that climate warming can cause some of the same problems to return.

  • 37.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Berger, Stella A.
    Lewandowska, Aleksandra
    Aberle, Nicole
    Lengfellner, Kathrin
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Spring phenological responses of marine and freshwater plankton to changing temperature and light conditions2012In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 159, no 11, p. 2491-2501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts in the timing and magnitude of the spring plankton bloom in response to climate change have been observed across a wide range of aquatic systems. We used meta-analysis to investigate phenological responses of marine and freshwater plankton communities in mesocosms subjected to experimental manipulations of temperature and light intensity. Systems differed with respect to the dominant mesozooplankton (copepods in seawater and daphnids in freshwater). Higher water temperatures advanced the bloom timing of most functional plankton groups in both marine and freshwater systems. In contrast to timing, responses of bloom magnitudes were more variable among taxa and systems and were influenced by light intensity and trophic interactions. Increased light levels increased the magnitude of the spring peaks of most phytoplankton taxa and of total phytoplankton biomass. Intensified size-selective grazing of copepods in warming scenarios affected phytoplankton size structure and lowered intermediate (20-200 mu m)-sized phytoplankton in marine systems. In contrast, plankton peak magnitudes in freshwater systems were unaffected by temperature, but decreased at lower light intensities, suggesting that filter feeding daphnids are sensitive to changes in algal carrying capacity as mediated by light supply. Our analysis confirms the general shift toward earlier blooms at increased temperature in both marine and freshwater systems and supports predictions that effects of climate change on plankton production will vary among sites, depending on resource limitation and species composition.

  • 38.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bouquet, Jean-Marie
    Bermudez, J. Rafael
    Berger, Stella A.
    Hansen, Thomas
    Brandes, Jay
    Sazhin, Andrey F.
    Nejstgaard, Jens C.
    Bamstedt, Ulf
    Jakobsen, Hans H.
    Dutz, Joerg
    Frischer, Marc E.
    Troedsson, Christofer
    Thompson, Eric M.
    Increased appendicularian zooplankton alter carbon cycling under warmer more acidified ocean conditions2017In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 1541-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic atmospheric loading of CO2 raises concerns about combined effects of increasing ocean temperature and acidification, on biological processes. In particular, the response of appendicularian zooplankton to climate change may have significant ecosystem implications as they can alter biogeochemical cycling compared to classical copepod dominated food webs. However, the response of appendicularians to multiple climate drivers and effect on carbon cycling are still not well understood. Here, we investigated how gelatinous zooplankton (appendicularians) affect carbon cycling of marine food webs under conditions predicted by future climate scenarios. Appendicularians performed well in warmer conditions and benefited from low pH levels, which in turn altered the direction of carbon flow. Increased appendicularians removed particles from the water column that might otherwise nourish copepods by increasing carbon transport to depth from continuous discarding of filtration houses and fecal pellets. This helps to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, and may also have fisheries implications.

  • 39.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Galloway, Aaron W. E.
    Jakobsen, Hans H.
    Cloern, James E.
    The land-sea interface: A source of high-quality phytoplankton to support secondary production2017In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, p. S258-S271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal-estuarine systems are among the most productive marine ecosystems and their special role in producing harvestable fish and shellfish has been attributed to high primary production fueled by nutrient runoff from land and efficient trophic transfer. Here we ask if phytoplankton species composition and their food quality based on the percentage of long-chain essential fatty acids (LCEFA) is another factor contributing to high secondary production in these ecosystems. We used long-term measurements of major phytoplankton taxonomic groups and estimated their content of LCEFA along the salinity gradient in coastal-estuarine ecosystems, with emphasis on Chesapeake Bay and the Baltic Sea, and an oceanic transect. Our data show that cyanobacteria with low nutritional quality often dominate at low-salinity regions, while intermediate to higher salinity regions produce diatoms and dinoflagellates that have a higher content of LCEFA and are thus a higher-quality food resource for consumers. Higher salinity regions have less pronounced seasonal changes in the percentage of phytoplankton LCEFA compared to low salinity regions, providing a stable supply of nutritious phytoplankton to consumers. The phytoplankton LCEFA content is similarly high in coastal upwelling systems and it decreases further offshore in oligotrophic oceanic regions dominated by picophytoplankton. Our results from a broad range of coastal-ecosystem types show that ecosystems at the land-sea interface provide a valuable service by producing phytoplankton enriched in the biochemicals essential for consumers. High primary production, coupled with high quality of that production, explain why the production of fish and shellfish is high where land and sea meet.

  • 40.
    Winder, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Phytoplankton response to a changing climate2012In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 698, no 1, p. 5-16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton are at the base of aquatic food webs and of global importance for ecosystem functioning and services. The dynamics of these photosynthetic cells are linked to annual fluctuations of temperature, water column mixing, resource availability, and consumption. Climate can modify these environmental factors and alter phytoplankton structure, seasonal dynamics, and taxonomic composition. Here, we review mechanistic links between climate alterations and factors limiting primary production, and highlight studies where climate change has had a clear impact on phytoplankton processes. Climate affects phytoplankton both directly through physiology and indirectly by changing water column stratification and resource availability, mainly nutrients and light, or intensified grazing by heterotrophs. These modifications affect various phytoplankton processes, and a widespread advance in phytoplankton spring bloom timing and changing bloom magnitudes have both been observed. Climate warming also affects phytoplankton species composition and size structure, and favors species traits best adapted to changing conditions associated with climate change. Shifts in phytoplankton can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. An improved understanding of the mechanistic links between climate and phytoplankton dynamics is important for predicting climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

1 - 40 of 40
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