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  • 1.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Charité Medical School Berlin, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in alcohol consumption in Denmark after a tax decrease on spirits2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wicki, Matthias
    Addiction Suisse, Suisse.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    THL, Finland.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in alcohol-related problems after alcohol policy changes Denmark, Finland and Sweden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Copenhagen Division, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wicki, Matthias
    the Swiss Institute for the prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems (SIPA), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden2010In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found.

  • 4.
    Boman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Engdahl, Barbro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Hradilova-Selin, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkoholkonsumtionen i Sverige fram till år 2005.2006Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    et al.
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometrics & Epidemiology.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, University of Aarhus .
    Changes in Alcohol Consumption in Denmark after the Tax Reduction on Spirits2009In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 216-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This paper examines changes in alcohol consumption in Denmark between 2003 and 2006 after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travelers' allowances for the import of alcohol were increased on January 1, 2004. Methods: Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark from 2003 to 2006 were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews using random digit dialing. Results: Panel data for Denmark revealed that alcohol consumption remained relatively stable. Similar results were found in the Danish cross-sectional data. It appears that 'substitution' rather than increased importation occurred. Conclusion: We found no evidence to support earlier research stating that decreased prices and increased availability is related to higher alcohol consumption. This could be partly because (1) Denmark has reached a 'saturation' level of consumption over the past 30 years and (2) the survey mode of data collection did not capture specific subpopulations who might have increased their consumption. It may be necessary to examine other indicators of alcohol use or alcohol-related harm in order to fully assess the consequences of such changes in alcohol availability.

  • 6. Grittner, Ulrike
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Huhtanen, Petri
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems (STAD), Centre for Dependency Disorders, Stockholm County Council.
    Nordlund, Sturla
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Who are the private alcohol importers in the Nordic countries?2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims – The high price of alcohol in the Nordic countries has been a long-standing policy to curb consumption, which has led consumers to importing alcohol from countries with lower prices. This paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers in four Nordic countries. Methods – Cross-sectional data from general population surveys in Denmark (2003–2006), Norway (2004), Sweden (2003–2006) and Finland (2005–2006) were analysed by multiple logistic and linear regression. Independent variables included region, socio-demographics, drinking indicators and alcohol-related problems. Outcome variables were importer status and amount of imported alcohol.  Results – People living in regions close to countries with lower alcohol prices were more often importers and imported higher amounts than people living in other regions. Higher educated persons were more likely to be importers, but the amounts imported were smaller than those by people with lower education. Persons with higher incomes were also more likely to be importers and they also imported larger amounts than people with lower incomes. In Sweden and Denmark regional differences of importer rates were more pronounced for persons of lower incomes. Age, risky single-occasion drinking, risky drinking and alcohol problems were positively related to the amounts of imported alcohol. Conclusions – Private importers in the Nordic countries are an integrated yet heavy drinking segment of society and do not appear to be located on the fringes of society.

  • 7.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    et al.
    Charité Medical School Berlin, Germany.
    Huhtanen, Petri
    THL, Finland.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Nordlund, Sturla
    SIRUS, Oslo, Norway.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Characteristics of alcohol importers in the Nordic countries2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol consumption in southern Sweden after major decreases in Danish spirits tax and increases in Swedish traveller's quotas2010In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In 2003, Denmark lowered its tax on spirits, and in 2004, Sweden increased its traveller import quotas. Aim. The aim was to determine whether these two changes increased self-reported alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, which is located near to Denmark. Method. Data were collected through telephone interviews with the general population between 2003 and 2006. People aged 16-80 years were interviewed. Some lived in southern Sweden, others in the northern region, which was assumed to be unaffected by the policy changes and thus used as a control site. Analyses were performed for the total population as well as by sex, age, socio-economic group and by consumption pattern. Results. The expected results were not found; alcohol consumption in southern Sweden had not changed. The few statistically significant changes found in southern Sweden indicated decreases. In the north, however, consumption seemed to have increased. Conclusion. In addition to the two policy changes mentioned above, other changes seem to have affected alcohol consumption in Sweden. It is possible, however, that the policy changes have affected population groups not reached by surveys, and thus other types of data need to be analysed before drawing any far-reaching conclusions.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Cambridge, UK.
    Alcohol use explained by rules of conduct and exposure rather than population group: Disparaties by gender, ethnicity and religion2016In: Program & Abstracts, 2016, p. 66-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses have shown that SAT can be a useful theoretical framework for explaining substance use. The aim of this paper is to study the key concepts of the theory - substance use propensity and substancegenic exposure - in relation to gender, ethnic background and religious beliefs. Using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+) (n=716) this paper will demonstrate that differences in alcohol use by gender, ethnicity and religion can be explained by differences in substance use propensity and substancegenic exposure. Regardless of personal characteristics, the highest share of people who had felt drunk was observed among those with a medium or high propensity who had also been exposed to a substancegenic setting. Furthermore, alcohol use was found to be more common in situations with substancegenic characteristics (particularly rules of conduct) independent of the person’s gender, ethnicity or religion, in line with SAT.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol-related problems in southern Sweden before and after major changes in availability of cheap alcohol2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bridging the world: Alcohol Policy in Transition and Diverging Alcohol Patterns in Sweden2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation aims at analysing the effects of recent alcohol policy changes. The traditional strict policy in Sweden had focused on high pricing and limited availability to control levels of alcohol consumed and thus alcohol-related harms. However, increased travellers’ allowances meant larger availability of cheaper alcohol when importing from Denmark and Germany, which are the countries from which Swedes obtain most of their private imports; the tax decrease in Denmark further decreased the price. As the economic literature links demand to price of a commodity and the early (smaller) quota changes had resulted in higher consumption in southern Sweden, it was expected that these latest changes would mean higher consumption and more alcohol-related problems in this area in particular. Some groups were additionally expected to be more affected than others.

    The present compilation thesis comprises four related articles and an introductory chapter that ties them together. Article I focuses on private imports in relation to quota changes 2002 – 2004 and relate this to purchase at the alcohol monopoly stores. Self-reported consumption and alcohol-related problems are studied in Article II and IV. In Article III, register data on alcohol-related harms, i.e. hospitalizations and police-recorded crimes, are analysed.

    The results of the dissertation were puzzling, since there was no large increase in consumption or alcohol-related problems in the south, but increases in the north during the period. However, private imports and cases of hospitalization due to alcohol poisoning were found to have increased in the south. Thus, the results imply that these policy changes had an effect on private imports, but that this effect was not large enough to increase total consumption as well. Additionally, increased alcohol poisoning cases implied that there had been an impact among high consumers. The increases found in consumption and problems in the north may instead have other explanations.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in alcohol availability, price and alcohol-related problems and the collectivity of drinking cultures: What happened in southern and northern Sweden?2010In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 456-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. There were two aims with this paper; first to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems behaved in the same way as alcohol consumption in southern Sweden -- assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and increased Swedish travellers’ import quotas. The second aim was to study whether the results in southern and northern Sweden followed the predictions of Skog’s theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Methods. Analysis was carried out on a sample from the general Swedish population for southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indexes for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed by sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level. Results. Although there were no large changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various sub-populations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. The increase among men noted in alcohol consumption in the northern site was found among alcohol-related problems as well. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution. Conclusions. Analyses conformed that alcohol-related problems according to the two indexes used were behaving similarly to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. Skog’s theory could not be confirmed, alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Effects on Alcohol-related Problems in South of Sweden due to increased availability of cheap spirits from Denmark2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14. Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Increased alcohol availability's effect on alcohol-related problems2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Increased availability of cheap alcohol and its effect on the alcohol consumption2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mäns och kvinnors alkoholvanor i en tid av förändring: förväntade resultat och utvecklingen decennierna efter det svenska EU-medlemsskapet2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several large changes which were assumed to have a large impact on Swedes drinking have been implemented since 1995. The first studies showed increases in consumption levels. This article discusses the later changes and focuses in particular on men’s and women’s drinking after 2004 and how these were affected by the changes. It was expected that population groups known to drink large amounts, i.e. men, young and high consumers, would be the ones who would increase their drinking the most. Looking back, those were rather the groups which decreased their drinking. Instead an increase could be noted among those traditionally known as low consumers, e.g. older women. The article ends with a discussion on what could explain the unexpected results.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Cambridge University, United Kingdom.
    Places and differences in young people’s vulnerability: substancegenic exposure and substance use propensity2015In: Criminology as unitas multiplex: Theoretical, epistemological and methodological developments: Book of Abstracts, 2015, p. 447-447, article id 0632Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situational Action Theory (SAT) was developed by Prof. Wikström in order to explain crimes defined as breaches of moral conducts. It has been argued that the theory can also be used to understand other behaviours which are guided by rules of conduct such as substance use. The main assumptions of SAT, captured in the PEA hypothesis, propose that substance use can be explained by substance prone people interacting with environments encouraging substance use, i.e. through the perception-choice process. In this paper it will be tested whether young people differ in their vulnerability to substancegenic exposure given their substance use propensity (personal rules of conduct and self-control). The analysis use data from the ongoing longitudinal Peterborough Adolescents and Young People Development Study (PADS+) from Phase 1 when the people were 13-17 years old. The unique space-time budget methodology in PADS+ place particular people in particular settings during particular junctures, enabling a proper testing of the key assumptions proposed by SAT i.e. of the influence the interaction between people and environment has on substance use. These data were further combined with additional data on the environmental and individual characteristics. Analysing the situations, it was expected that substance use will be most common when substance use prone people enter into settings which are substancegenic, i.e. which encourage substance use.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Cambridge, UK.
    Problematic alcohol use seen through the lens of a situational action perspective: Patterns of change in substance use propensity and substancegenic exposure2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situational Action Theory (SAT) aims to explain rule guided behaviours, stating that rule breaking behaviours which do not follow rules of conduct are caused by high personal propensities and exposure and their interaction. Alcohol use in the adult population is generally, in most societies, perceived as a normalized behaviour, whereas very early use – before the legal drinking age – could be seen as norm breaking behaviour. Furthermore, problematic use is often considered to break rules of conduct among both adults and young people. Using data from the longitudinal Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), this paper aims to explore patterns of propensities and exposure among non-problematic and problematic users, distinguished by whether they have seen and/or received treatment from a doctor, psychiatrist, social worker, or a substance use worker for substance use (alcohol/drugs) problems or addiction. When propensity and/or exposure changes for problematic users is of particular interest, and whether their patterns look different than those among non-problematic users. Although early high propensity and exposure are hypothesized to influence later use, it is hypothesized that later situations are even more important for who has a problematic use.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Stability and change in young people's alcohol use: Interactions between people and places2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From earlier research on alcohol use it is known that use varies greatly with age, that initiation is most common during the teenage years and that use rapidly increases until young adulthood. It is also known that certain drinking contexts encourage alcohol use. Situational Action Theory (SAT) proposes that exposure to contexts which encourage substance use will cause alcohol use but only for people who are substance use prone, thus the crucial thing is the interaction between the prone people and the environments which encourage use. If there is a change in alcohol use, the theory proposes that it is likely to be explained by a change in exposure to certain settings and/or change in moral perceptions. The unique longitudinal data from the PADS+ study, linking behaviours directly to specific situations defined by where the act takes place and the people present in those situations, makes it possible to analyse situations rather than people. This paper will explore situations with alcohol use during people’s transition from early adolescence (age 13) to young adulthood (age 21) and the stability of the influence of people’s propensity, their exposure to settings encouraging substance use, and the interaction between these two.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Still no increase in alcohol consumption? A follow-up of the unexpected results of a tax change and increased availability2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background On October 1st 2003 Denmark dropped its spirits tax by 45%, and on January 1st 2004 Sweden increased the traveller’s allowances. These two major changes were expected to increase alcohol purchases from Denmark by Swedes in the southern parts of Sweden. Aims The aim of the paper was to examine to what extent the policy changes were associated with changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, for the total sample and in different population groups. Design, setting and participants Data were collected through telephone interviews from the southern parts of Sweden during the third quarter 2003-2006 (N’s 972-1425). The north of Sweden served as a control site, using the same method as in the experimental site (N’s 994-1343). Additional longitudinal samples were collected (NS=697, NN=670). Measurements Alcohol consumption was measured with beverage specific QF-scale questions. Separate analyses for monthly bingers and risk consumers were also performed. Findings Alcohol consumption did not increase more in the southern parts compared to the northern parts, but rather decreased while consumption increased in the north. Some population groups were however also found to have increased the consumption in the South, like women especially the older ones and those highly educated. Results indicated also that increase might have occurred among risk-consumers both among men and women and all age groups. Conclusions The study did not support earlier studies stating that decreased prices and increased availability leads to higher alcohol consumption, but neither could the possibility that the changes had an impact on some subgroups be eliminated.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Substance use framed as situational action2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article first aimed at identifying important theories and research which have been suggested to explain why people use substances. Over the years the research field has become immense and scattered, to some extent divided and specialized, which restrains the potential of knowing what matters most. A second aim was therefore to show how these various aspects could be incorporated into a common theoretical framework. Three central theoretical traits were identified in the literature, suggesting that substance use is affected by laws and policies in society, norms and behaviours of others and people’s individual characteristics. This fits well with the Situational Action Theory suggesting that individual and environmental factors matter, but that the interaction between them is most important, and further clarifies the patterns and links between different explanations. This is helpful when determining the real causes of substance use and might further assist in selecting between various policy approaches.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Substance use framed as situational action2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Over the years the research field of substance use has become immense and to some extent divided and specialized. The interdisciplinary characteristic of the field increases this distinction. Rooted in analytical sociology/criminology, the argument in this paper is to incorporate these various aspects into a common theoretical framework: the Situational Action Theory (SAT). A common framework helps determine what the causes are and which one is most important. Methods  A full systematic literature review of a whole research field as large as that of substance use is impossible. The aim was however to identify the most important theories of the field suggested to explain why people use substances, and to perform this search as systematic as possible.  Results  The research field of substance use came out as scattered. Three central theoretical traits were however identified, suggesting that people's substance use is affected by laws and policies in society, norms and behaviours of others and people's individual characteristics. It further demonstrated that the diversity restrain the potential of knowing what matters most. SAT give credit to all explanations, suggesting that individual and environmental factors matters, but argues that the interaction between them is most important. Conclusion SAT fits very well with many of the earlier theories used to explain substance use; furthermore it clearly states what is most important. Using SAT as the theoretical frame in relation to substance use can help us determine the real causes which might further assist in selecting between various substance use policy approaches.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Cambridge University, UK.
    Substance use framed as situational action2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Over the years the research field of substance use has become immense and to some extent divided and specialized. The interdisciplinary characteristic of the field increases this distinction. The main aim of this paper will be to give a short overview of some central aspects in the earlier research, identify some of the shortcomings and argue that the Situational Action Theory (SAT) could solve some of them.

    Methods

    A full systematic literature review of a whole research field as large as that of substance use is impossible. The aim was however to identify the most important theories of the field suggested to explain why people use substances, and to perform this search as systematic as possible.

    Results

    The research field of substance use came out as scattered. Three central theoretical traits were however identified, suggesting that people’s substance use is affected by laws and policies in society, norms and behaviours of others and people’s individual characteristics including personal traits, experiences, and biological vulnerability. It was further demonstrated that the diversity of the field interfere with the potential of knowing what matters most. Many of the explanations that are given have been shown to have an impact on substance use, suggesting that individual and environmental factors matters. SAT acknowledge their importance but argues that the interaction between them is most important.

    Conclusion

    SAT fits very well with many of the theories proposed to explain substance use and is able to incorporate the various aspects into a common theoretical framework. A common framework helps determine what the causes are and which one is most important. Using SAT as the theoretical frame in relation to substance use can thus help us determine the real causes which might further assist in selecting between various substance use policy approaches. 

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Uteblivna förändringar i svenskarnas alkoholvanor - andra förklaringar än pris och tillgänglighet2012In: Samhället, alkoholen och drogerna: Politik, konstruktioner och dilemman / [ed] Jessica Storbjörk, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2012, p. 90-103Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Baserat på tidigare forskning förväntas alkoholkonsumtion och alkoholrelaterade problem att stiga när priset på alkohol minskar och tillgängligheten ökar. Detta var också farhågan när Sverige i samband med EU-medlemskapet genomförde flera förändringar som i praktiken innebar fri införsel av alkohol. När Danmark senare sänkte spritskatten innebar detta ytterligare prissänkningar på den alkohol som köptes utomlands. Forskare, politiker och andra samhällsaktörer befarade att alkoholkonsumtionen, och därmed även problemen kopplade till denna, skulle öka, men bilden blev inte så entydig som många trott. Resultaten som presenteras i detta kapitel reser snarare frågan om det är pris och tillgänglighet som starkast styr hur mycket alkohol svenskarna dricker. Resultaten pekar på att andra faktorer, bortom politiska styrinstrument, förmodligen har större inverkan på alkoholkonsumtionen och problemen än vad tidigare forskning gjort gällande och således behöver gamla synsätt nyanseras.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Who buys smuggled alcohol in Sweden?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in alcohol-related harm in Sweden after increasing alcohol import quotas and a Danish tax decrease-an interrupted time-series analysis for 2000-20072011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 432-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Denmark decreased its tax on spirits by 45% on 1 October 2003. Shortly thereafter, on 1 January 2004, Sweden increased its import quotas of privately imported alcohol, allowing travellers to bring in much larger amounts of alcohol from other European Union countries. Although these changes were assumed to increase alcohol-related harm in Sweden, particularly among people living close to Denmark, analyses based on survey data collected before and after these changes have not supported this assumption. The present article tests whether alcohol-related harm in southern Sweden was affected by these changes by analysing other indicators of alcohol-related harm, e. g. harm recorded in different kinds of registers. Methods Interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of hospitalization due to acute alcohol poisoning, number of reported violent assaults and drunk driving for the years 2000-07 in southern Sweden using the northern parts of Sweden as a control and additionally controlling for two earlier major changes in quotas. Results The findings were not consistent with respect to whether alcohol-related harm increased in southern Sweden after the decrease in Danish spirits tax and the increase in Swedish alcohol import quotas. On the one hand, an increase in acute alcohol poisonings was found, particularly in the 50-69 years age group, on the other hand, no increase was found in violent assaults and drunk driving. Conclusions The present results raise important questions about the association between changes in availability and alcohol-related harms. More research using other methodological approaches and data is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture of what actually happened in southern Sweden.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in alcohol-related harm in Sweden after increasing import quotas and a Danish tax decrease2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Increasing traveller's allowances in Sweden - how did it affect private imports ad recorded sales2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Increasing traveller's allowances in Sweden - how did it affect private imports and recorded sales?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Developmental alcohol trajectories when price and availability changed2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify developmental trajectories for alcohol consumption in southern Sweden in relation to increased availability of cheaper alcohol, and to study the likelihood of belonging to one of the identified trajectory groups. An increase of total consumption was expected to be related to an increase in consumption of spirits due to the nature of the changes. Developmental patterns were assumed to be different in northern Sweden given the distance to the changes.

    Design: 16-80 year olds from general population samples from southern (n=610) and northern (n=575) Sweden were interviewed by telephone before and after changes. Alcohol use trajectories for the years 2003-2006 were identified through longitudinal cluster analysis. Characteristics of clusters – sex, age, income, price expectations, alcohol attitude, alcohol consumption, binge drinking and beverage preferences – were compared.

    Findings: Three developmental trajectories for consumption were identified for each region. Alcohol habits influenced the likelihood of trajectory membership as decreasers on average had a higher initial consumption. An increase in spirits consumption was also observed among overall increasers. Other potential explanations were not linked to trajectories.

    Research implications: Earlier research of the changes was unable to find an overall increase in consumption but these results suggests that some groups changed as expected.

    Originality: Few studies have identified trajectories of alcohol use in relation to policy changes. Studying patterns of change puts the focus on consumption rather than population groups.

  • 31. Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Lindeman, Mikaela
    Österberg, Esa
    Ahtola, Raija
    Moskalewicz, Jacek
    Welbel, Marta
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Olsson, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Report of previously studied European changes in the economic and physical availability of alcohol on alcohol-related harm2011Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Leifman, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drickandets temporala struktur2004In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM To study gender- and agespecific variation in, and co-variation between, alcohol consumption and the frequency of binge drinking. METHOD The analyses were mainly based on self-reported data of alcohol consumption and binge drinking collected monthly from general adult population surveys conducted between July 2001 and May 2003. A total of 1500 interviews were completed in the age group 16-80 years each month. RESULTS The Swedish alcohol consumption varies by month with the highest level found during the summer months, particularly July, and in December. This was the same across both genders and for most age groups. A similar pattern was seen for the frequency of binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS The highest frequency of binge drinking by Swedes was found to be during the same months as when they drink the most amount of alcohol. The peak in July is probably due to the fact that this is the typical holiday month in Sweden. The paper discusses the possibility that the temporal drinking patterns in Sweden (and in other Nordic countries) will gradually change in the future, and will keep pace with an increase in both alcohol consumption and the number of drinking occasions.

  • 33.
    Mäkelä, Pia
    et al.
    THL, Finland.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Huhtanen, Petri
    THL, Finland.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers' allowances: Results from a panel study2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Mäkelä, Pia
    et al.
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Dep. of Health Promotion Research.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Huhtanen, Petri
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group.
    Room, Robin
    School of Population Health.
    Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers’ allowances:: results from a panel study2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aim of this paper is to study short-term changes in alcohol consumption by subgroups of the population in Denmark, Finland and southern Sweden following large-scale decreases in alcohol taxation in Denmark and Finland and large increases in travellers' allowances in Finland and Sweden. Design General population random samples surveyed before and after the changes, using northern Sweden as a control site. Setting Denmark, Finland, southern Sweden and northern Sweden. Participants Respondents aged 16-69 years. Measurements Volume of drinking is the main measure reported. Changes are examined by gender, age, income and year 2003 consumption level. Results Consumption decreased or remained the same among women and men in all three study sites. Relative changes were similar across subgroups of age, gender and income in all countries. In absolute terms, there was a consistent differential change by age in Denmark, Finland and Southern Sweden, with the higher level of the young and lower level of the old converging. Women's and men's consumption converged in Finland and southern Sweden. The changes did not differ systematically by income. Changes were not larger among heavier drinkers. Conclusions The results did not confirm expectations: an increase in consumption larger than that in the control site could not be shown in any of the countries or subgroups of the population. If there has been an effect - as shown in aggregate data in Finland - it seems to have been stronger among the old than the young and, in Finland and southern Sweden, among women rather than men.

  • 35.
    Mäkelä, Pia
    et al.
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Dep. of Health Promotion Research.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Huhtanen, Petri
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group.
    Room, Robin
    School of Population Health.
    Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers' allowances: results from a panel study2008In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The Aim of this paper is to study short-term changes in alcohol consumption by subgroups of the population in Denmark. Finland and southern Sweden following large-scale decreases in alcohol taxation in Denmark and Finland and large increases in travellers' allowances in Finland and Sweden. Design General population random samples surveyed before and after the changes, using northern Sweden as a control site. Setting Denmark, Finland, southern Sweden and northern Sweden. Participants Respondents aged 16-69 years. Measurements Volume of drinking is the main measure reported. Changes are examined by gender, age, income and year 2003 consumption level. Results Consumption decreased or remained the same among women and men in all three study sites. Relative changes were similar across subgroups of age, gender and income in all countries. In absolute terms, there was a consistent differential change by age in Denmark, Finland and southern Sweden, with the higher level of the young and lower level of the old converging. Women's and men's consumption converged in Finland and southern Sweden. The changes did not differ systematically by income. Changes were not larger among heavier drinkers. Conclusions The results did not confirm expectations: an increase in consumption larger than that in the control site could not be shown in any of the countries or subgroups of the population. If there has been an effect - as shown in aggregate data in Finland - it seems to have been stronger among the old than the young and, in Finland and southern Sweden, among women rather than men.

  • 36.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Increasing traveller’s allowances in Sweden – how did it affect private imports and recorded sales?2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Background:

    A recent important change in Sweden concerns the quotas for private import of alcoholic beverages. The quotas have been adjusted upwards gradually so that after January 1 2004, there is in practise no upper limit for what a traveller can import, granted that the goods are for private use. It is generally believed that these changes have been followed by a significant rise in traveller’s imports and as a consequence also in per capita consumption. However, no study has made a detailed analysis of what impact the changes in traveller’s allowances actually had on private imports but rather looked at annual trends. For instance, it is not known whether the impact has been immediate or more gradual during the year following the change or whether the size of the quota increases has affected the size of the increases in private imports. Also, there is no analysis of possible different effects by region, i.e., whether the impact was stronger in southern Sweden than in northern Sweden.

    Aim: The main aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences of the recent changes in traveller’s allowances in Sweden with focus the impact on private imports, but also considering the effects on recorded sales. The following questions will be addressed: 1. Were any effects found directly after the changes or was there any tendency of delayed effects? 2. Are there differential effects depending on how much the quotas increased and whether the increases concerned sprits, wine or beer? 3. Are there any signs of different effects by region?

    Data and method:

    Data on private imports were obtained from a monthly telephone surveys that have been conducted between 2001 and 2007, consisting of a sample of 1500 individuals aged 16-80 years each month. The monthly data were aggregated into quarterly observations separately for southern Sweden, mid-Sweden and northern Sweden. Three changes in traveller’s quotas that took place January 1 in 2002, 2003 and 2004 will be studied by comparing subsequent quarters after each change with the same quarters the previous year.

  • 37.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Increasing traveller's allowances in Sweden - how did it affect travellers' imports and Systembolaget sales?2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (English Edition), ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 165-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to illuminate: 1. If the increases in travellers´ allowances in 2002, 2003 and 2004 have been associated with increasing travellers’ imports in Sweden? 2. How the (conceivable) effect was distributed during the following year? 3. If there were regional and beverage-specific variations in these effects? 4. How the patterns of change correspond to changes in sales at Systembolaget?

    Data and Method

    Data were obtained from a monthly survey and aggregated into annual and quarterly estimates of beverage-specific amounts of imported alcohol per adult for southern, mid- and northern Sweden as well as for the whole of Sweden. In the analysis subsequent quarters are compared after each quota change with the same quarters the previous year as well as with corresponding changes in sales at Systembolaget.

    Results

    The increase of spirits allowances in 2002 was not followed by a significant increase in any travellers’ imports. The more substantial increases for all beverages in 2003 and particularly 2004 were followed by significant increases in the whole of Sweden and particularly in the Southern of Sweden. The quarterly changes, however, showed signs of a declining “charm of novelty” effect. Systembolaget sales only partly developed in the opposite direction of imports, suggesting that substitution did not always occur.

    Conclusions

    Travellers’ imports increase with more liberal allowances but the magnitude of the effect depended on several factors, e.g., the proportion of the change and region in terms of distance to the Danish and German borders. Other factors seem to be changes of alcohol taxes in neighbouring countries, domestic availability and travelling habits. The declining “charm of novelty” effect suggest that the longer term implications of repealing these quotas may be less significant than was expected in the earlier public discussions.

  • 38.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mäkälä, Pia
    Österberg, Esa
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Rehm, Jürgen
    Wicki, Matthias
    Gmel, Gerhard
    What happened to alcohol consumption and problems in the Nordic countries when alcohol taxes were decreased and borders opened?2013In: The international journal of alcohol and drug research, ISSN 1925-7066, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The study tests the effects of reduction in alcohol taxation and increased travellers’ allowances on alcohol consumption and related harm in Denmark, Finland and southern Sweden. In late 2003 and early 2004, taxes on alcoholic beverages were reduced in Denmark and Finland, and the abolition of quantitative quotas on alcohol import for personal use from other European Union countries made cheaper alcohol more available in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. 

    Methods: Analyses of routine statistical register data, and summarizing results from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional population surveys and other previous analyses, with northern Sweden as a control site for secular trends.

    Results: Contrary to expectations, alcohol consumption – as based on register data – increased only in Finland and not in Denmark and southern Sweden, and self-reported survey data did not show an increase in any site. In Finland, alcohol-attributable harms in register data increased, especially in people with low socio-economic status. Few such effects were found in Denmark and southern Sweden. Neither did results for self-reported alcohol-attributable problems show any general increases in the three sites. These results remained after controlling for regression to the mean and modelling of drop-outs.

    Conclusions: Harms measured in register data did tend to increase in the short term with the policy change, particularly in Finland, where the tax changes were broader. But reducing price and increasing availability does not always increase alcohol consumption and harm. Effects are dampened in affluent societies, and other factors may intervene. The results for Finland also suggest some limits for general population surveys in testing for relatively small policy effects.

  • 39.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Contexts of drinking in different Nordic areas and the effects on them of changes in availability2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Room, Robin
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The frequency of drinking in different sites in different Nordic areas, and the effects on it of changes in alcohol availability2008In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The site of drinking, as reported in population surveys in 2003 and 2004, was studied in Denmark, Finland and two areas of Sweden, in the north and the south. The aim of the study is to see whether there were differences in main sites of drinking between the four sites; to examine the effect of changes in price and availability due to major reductions in alcohol taxes in Finland and Denmark as well as increased traveler’s quotas on frequency of drinking in different sites; to see whether this effect varied for heavier drinkers; and to measure the stability of frequency of drinking in particular sites. The changes in availability affected Finland, Denmark and the southern area of Sweden. The north of Sweden is used as a control, as it was relatively unaffected by these changes. Probability samples aged 16-69 years were collected from all four sites through telephone interviews and postal questionnaires. The context questions concerned the frequency of drinking in restaurants or taverns, in the respondent’s own home, and in another person’s home. The most frequent location of drinking was usually one’s own home, particularly for those aged 30 and over. For younger Danes and Swedes, drinking in restaurants and other’s homes were also relatively frequent contexts for drinking. There were thus some differences between different Nordic areas in frequencies of drinking in different sites. However, there were few signs of substantial change between 2003 and 2004 in rates of drinking regularly in any of the contexts. Despite the changes in price and availability, the pre-existing differences in contexts of drinking thus stayed largely intact. This was true also among heavier drinkers. While there was substantial stability in all geographic areas between 2003 and 2004 in each respondent’s reported frequency of drinking in his or her own home, there was considerable variability from one year to the other in the frequencies of drinking in restaurants and on another’s house.

  • 41.
    Wicki, Matthias
    et al.
    Research Department, Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
    Gmel, Gerhard
    Research Department, Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Dimensionality of drinking consequences: Cross-cultural comparability and stability over time2009In: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the long tradition for asking about the negative social and health consequences of alcohol consumption in surveys, little is known about the dimensionality of these consequences. Analysing cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Nordic Taxation Study collected for Sweden, Finland, and Denmark in two waves in 2003 and 2004 by means of an explorative principal component analysis for categorical data (CATPCA), it is tested whether consequences have a single underlying dimension across cultures. It further tests the reliability, replicability, concurrent and predictive validity of the consequence scales. A one-dimensional solution was commonly preferable. Whereas the two-dimensional solution was unable to distinguish clearly between different concepts of consequences, the one-dimensional solution resulted in interpretable, generally very stable scales within countries across different samples and time.

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